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  1. Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive par...

    Authors: Olivier Duron, Didier Bouchon, Sébastien Boutin, Lawrence Bellamy, Liqin Zhou, Jan Engelstädter and Gregory D Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:27

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As...

    Authors: Gerd P Bienert, Michael Thorsen, Manuela D Schüssler, Henrik R Nilsson, Annemarie Wagner, Markus J Tamás and Thomas P Jahn

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:26

    Content type: Research article

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  3. New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister)...

    Authors: Jacob G Bundy, Jasmin K Sidhu, Faisal Rana, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Jodie F Wren, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan and Peter Kille

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whet...

    Authors: Alexei A Sharov, Geppino Falco, Yulan Piao, Suresh Poosala, Kevin G Becker, Alan B Zonderman, Dan L Longo, David Schlessinger and Minoru SH Ko

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:24

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geogra...

    Authors: Bridget J Piculell, Jason D Hoeksema and John N Thompson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes diff...

    Authors: Karen L Carleton, Tyrone C Spady, J Todd Streelman, Michael R Kidd, William N McFarland and Ellis R Loew

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:22

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera) represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, L...

    Authors: Wenhui Nie, Beiyuan Fu, Patricia CM O'Brien, Jinhuan Wang, Weiting Su, Alongkoad Tanomtong, Vitaly Volobouev, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith and Fengtang Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:18

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redun...

    Authors: Lex Flagel, Joshua Udall, Dan Nettleton and Jonathan Wendel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The proneural proteins Mash1 and Ngn2 are key cell autonomous regulators of neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system, yet little is known about the molecular pathways regulated by these transcripti...

    Authors: Julia M Gohlke, Olivier Armant, Frederick M Parham, Marjolein V Smith, Celine Zimmer, Diogo S Castro, Laurent Nguyen, Joel S Parker, Gerard Gradwohl, Christopher J Portier and François Guillemot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:15

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyrax...

    Authors: Robert J Asher and Thomas Lehmann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP), the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP) variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit ...

    Authors: Hui-wang Ai, Scott G Olenych, Peter Wong, Michael W Davidson and Robert E Campbell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Double-stranded (ds) RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general ...

    Authors: Stefan Rothenburg, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Madhusudan Dey, Thomas E Dever and Loubna Tazi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim ...

    Authors: Line V Ugelvig, Falko P Drijfhout, Daniel JC Kronauer, Jacobus J Boomsma, Jes S Pedersen and Sylvia Cremer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2018 16:128

  14. Adaptive radiation, the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity from a common ancestor, is a central concept in evolutionary biology and characterizes the evolutionary histories of many groups of orga...

    Authors: Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Kerry A Deere, Graham J Slater, Colleen Begg, Keith Begg, Lon Grassman, Mauro Lucherini, Geraldine Veron and Robert K Wayne

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, ...

    Authors: Iris Nesher, Sima Barhoom and Amir Sharon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), otherwise known as the prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded isoform (PrPSc). ...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi and Alun Williams

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave h...

    Authors: Carlos Villacorta, Damià Jaume, Pedro Oromí and Carlos Juan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Determining an absolute timescale for avian evolutionary history has proven contentious. The two sources of information available, paleontological data and inference from extant molecular genetic sequences (co...

    Authors: Joseph W Brown, Joshua S Rest, Jaime García-Moreno, Michael D Sorenson and David P Mindell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The heat shock protein Hsp70 promotes inducible thermotolerance in nearly every organism examined to date. Hsp70 interacts with a network of other stress-response proteins, and dissecting the relative roles of...

    Authors: Brian R Bettencourt, Catherine C Hogan, Mario Nimali and Brian W Drohan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  20. To study the organization and interaction with the fusion domain (or fusion peptide, FP) of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of influenza virus envelope glycoprotein for its role in membrane fusion which is also...

    Authors: Ding-Kwo Chang, Shu-Fang Cheng, Eric Aseen B Kantchev, Chi-Hui Lin and Yu-Tsan Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  21. O-fucosyltransferase1 (OFUT1) is a conserved ER protein essential for Notch signaling. OFUT1 glycosylates EGF domains, which can then be further modified by the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase Fringe. OFUT1 also...

    Authors: Tetsuya Okajima, BVVG Reddy, Tsukasa Matsuda and Kenneth D Irvine

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  22. A central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispe...

    Authors: David M Brown, Rick A Brenneman, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John P Pollinger, Borja Milá, Nicholas J Georgiadis, Edward E Louis Jr, Gregory F Grether, David K Jacobs and Robert K Wayne

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:57

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and ...

    Authors: Dalial Freitak, Christopher W Wheat, David G Heckel and Heiko Vogel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:56

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded l...

    Authors: Joel R McNeal, Kathiravetpilla Arumugunathan, Jennifer V Kuehl, Jeffrey L Boore and Claude W dePamphilis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:55

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The urine of freshwater fish species investigated so far acts as a vehicle for reproductive pheromones affecting the behaviour and physiology of the opposite sex. However, the role of urinary pheromones in int...

    Authors: Eduardo N Barata, Peter C Hubbard, Olinda G Almeida, António Miranda and Adelino VM Canário

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:54

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cell shape changes during cytokinesis and chemotaxis require regulation of the actin cytoskeletal network. Dynacortin, an actin cross-linking protein, localizes to the cell cortex and contributes to cortical r...

    Authors: Cathryn Kabacoff, Yuan Xiong, Runa Musib, Elizabeth M Reichl, John Kim, Pablo A Iglesias and Douglas N Robinson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:53

    Content type: Research article

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  27. In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the pre...

    Authors: Hidehiko Okamoto, Henning Stracke, Bernhard Ross, Ryusuke Kakigi and Christo Pantev

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:52

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species...

    Authors: Walter Salzburger, Ingo Braasch and Axel Meyer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function ...

    Authors: Heike Feldhaar, Josef Straka, Markus Krischke, Kristina Berthold, Sascha Stoll, Martin J Mueller and Roy Gross

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:48

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an atte...

    Authors: Peter WH Holland, H Anne F Booth and Elspeth A Bruford

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Direct visualization of data sets in the context of biochemical network drawings is one of the most appealing approaches in the field of data evaluation within systems biology. One important type of informatio...

    Authors: Stephan Noack, Aljoscha Wahl, Ermir Qeli and Wolfgang Wiechert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Molecular interaction Information is a key resource in modern biomedical research. Publicly available data have previously been provided in a broad array of diverse formats, making access to this very difficul...

    Authors: Samuel Kerrien, Sandra Orchard, Luisa Montecchi-Palazzi, Bruno Aranda, Antony F Quinn, Nisha Vinod, Gary D Bader, Ioannis Xenarios, Jérôme Wojcik, David Sherman, Mike Tyers, John J Salama, Susan Moore, Arnaud Ceol, Andrew Chatr-aryamontri, Matthias Oesterheld…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:44

    Content type: Software

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  33. Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels a...

    Authors: Christopher L Douglas, Vladyslav Vyazovskiy, Teresa Southard, Shing-Yan Chiu, Albee Messing, Giulio Tononi and Chiara Cirelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Dinoflagellates comprise an ecologically significant and diverse eukaryotic phylum that is sister to the phylum containing apicomplexan endoparasites. The mitochondrial genome of apicomplexans is uniquely redu...

    Authors: Christopher J Jackson, John E Norman, Murray N Schnare, Michael W Gray, Patrick J Keeling and Ross F Waller

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:41

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The contrasting dose of sex chromosomes in males and females potentially introduces a large-scale imbalance in levels of gene expression between sexes, and between sex chromosomes and autosomes. In many organi...

    Authors: Hans Ellegren, Lina Hultin-Rosenberg, Björn Brunström, Lennart Dencker, Kim Kultima and Birger Scholz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria maternally transmitted through the egg cytoplasm that are responsible for several reproductive disorders in their insect hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (...

    Authors: Thomas Walker, Lisa Klasson, Mohammed Sebaihia, Mandy J Sanders, Nicholas R Thomson, Julian Parkhill and Steven P Sinkins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:39

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Histone modifications have been implicated in the regulation of transcription and, more recently, in DNA replication and repair. In yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially ace...

    Authors: Bernhard Suter, Oxana Pogoutse, Xinghua Guo, Nevan Krogan, Peter Lewis, Jack F Greenblatt, Jasper Rine and Andrew Emili

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The parvulin-type peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Par14 is highly conserved in all metazoans. The recently identified parvulin Par17 contains an additional N-terminal domain whose occurrence and function was ...

    Authors: Daniel Kessler, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Tina Stratmann, Elke Andrea Dian, Cristina Hartmann-Fatu, Joachim Rassow, Peter Bayer and Jonathan Wolf Mueller

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7) is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 recep...

    Authors: Delicia L Munfus, Christopher L Haga, Peter D Burrows and Max D Cooper

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Various typing methods have been developed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but none provide the combination of discrimination, reproducibility, portability, and genetic inference that allows the analysis of all aspect...

    Authors: Julia S Bennett, Keith A Jolley, P Frederick Sparling, Nigel J Saunders, C Anthony Hart, Ian M Feavers and Martin CJ Maiden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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Announcement: COVID-19 and impact on peer review

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.