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  1. Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) can mediate translational control over the largest, or major ORF (mORF) in response to starvation, polyamine concentrations, and sucrose concentrations. One plant uORF with...

    Authors: Celine A Hayden and Richard A Jorgensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Ancient whole genome duplications have been implicated in the vertebrate and teleost radiations, and in the emergence of diverse angiosperm lineages, but the evolutionary response to such a perturbation is sti...

    Authors: Uffe Hellsten, Mustafa K Khokha, Timothy C Grammer, Richard M Harland, Paul Richardson and Daniel S Rokhsar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Understanding the role of seascape in shaping genetic and demographic population structure is highly challenging for marine pelagic species such as cetaceans for which there is generally little evidence of wha...

    Authors: Michaël C Fontaine, Stuart JE Baird, Sylvain Piry, Nicolas Ray, Krystal A Tolley, Sarah Duke, Alexei Birkun Jr, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Ángela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Marina Sequeira, Ursula Siebert…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  4. An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functio...

    Authors: Jesse D Bloom, Zhongyi Lu, David Chen, Alpan Raval, Ophelia S Venturelli and Frances H Arnold

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:29

    Content type: Research article

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  5. All previously reported eukaryotic nuclear genome sequences have been incomplete, especially in highly repeated units and chromosomal ends. Because repetitive DNA is important for many aspects of biology, comp...

    Authors: Hisayoshi Nozaki, Hiroyoshi Takano, Osami Misumi, Kimihiro Terasawa, Motomichi Matsuzaki, Shinichiro Maruyama, Keiji Nishida, Fumi Yagisawa, Yamato Yoshida, Takayuki Fujiwara, Susumu Takio, Katsunori Tamura, Sung Jin Chung, Soichi Nakamura, Haruko Kuroiwa, Kan Tanaka…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  6. This article has been published as a correction for an error in the manuscript of Pavlov et al BMC Biology 2004, 2:11.

    Authors: Youri I Pavlov, Satoko Maki, Hisaji Maki and Thomas A Kunkel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:27

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2004 2:11

  7. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an emerging focus for both computational analysis and experimental research, resulting in a growing number of novel, non-protein coding transcripts with often unknown functions. Wh...

    Authors: Stephan Steigele, Wolfgang Huber, Claudia Stocsits, Peter F Stadler and Kay Nieselt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Histone H1 is involved in the formation and maintenance of chromatin higher order structure. H1 has multiple isoforms; the subtypes differ in timing of expression, extent of phosphorylation and turnover rate. ...

    Authors: Mary Orrego, Imma Ponte, Alicia Roque, Natascha Buschati, Xavier Mora and Pedro Suau

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on ...

    Authors: Patrik Lindenfors, Charles L Nunn and Robert A Barton

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  10. A polymorphism in the activating component of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex, neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1), has previously been identified as a regulator of art...

    Authors: Peter Olofsson, Annika Nerstedt, Malin Hultqvist, Elisabeth C Nilsson, Sofia Andersson, Anna Bergelin and Rikard Holmdahl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understoo...

    Authors: Craig A Schiltz, Quentin Z Bremer, Charles F Landry and Ann E Kelley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The pygopus gene of Drosophila encodes an essential component of the Armadillo (β-catenin) transcription factor complex of canonical Wnt signaling. To better understand the functions of Pygopus-mediated canonical...

    Authors: Kristopher R Schwab, Larry T Patterson, Heather A Hartman, Ni Song, Richard A Lang, Xinhua Lin and S Steven Potter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Bacterial motility is a crucial factor in the colonization of natural environments. Escherichia coli has two flagella-driven motility types: swimming and swarming. Swimming motility consists of individual cell mo...

    Authors: José-María Gómez-Gómez, Candela Manfredi, Juan-Carlos Alonso and Jesús Blázquez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Balancing selection operating for long evolutionary periods at a locus is characterized by the maintenance of distinct alleles because of a heterozygote or rare-allele advantage. The loci under balancing selec...

    Authors: Bora E Baysal, Elizabeth C Lawrence and Robert E Ferrell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is ...

    Authors: Hoang Kim Phuc, Morten H Andreasen, Rosemary S Burton, Céline Vass, Matthew J Epton, Gavin Pape, Guoliang Fu, Kirsty C Condon, Sarah Scaife, Christl A Donnelly, Paul G Coleman, Helen White-Cooper and Luke Alphey

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The Ras-related GTPase, Rheb, regulates the growth of animal cells. Genetic and biochemical tests place Rheb upstream of the target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, and downstream of the tuberous sclerosis c...

    Authors: Dayna J Hall, Savraj S Grewal, Aida Flor A de la Cruz and Bruce A Edgar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:10

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describ...

    Authors: Joanna K Bentley, Zoe Veneti, Joseph Heraty and Gregory DD Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science ...

    Authors: J Martin Collinson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:8

    Content type: Correspondence

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  19. Despite advances in imaging techniques, real-time visualization of the structure and dynamics of tissues and organs inside small living animals has remained elusive. Recently, we have been using synchrotron x-...

    Authors: John J Socha, Mark W Westneat, Jon F Harrison, James S Waters and Wah-Keat Lee

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are a species-rich group of primates that have attracted considerable attention from both primatologists and evolutionary biologists. The complex speciation pattern has made the ...

    Authors: Jinchuan Xing, Hui Wang, Yuhua Zhang, David A Ray, Anthony J Tosi, Todd R Disotell and Mark A Batzer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Transcription of large numbers of non-coding RNAs originating from intronic regions of human genes has been recently reported, but mechanisms governing their biosynthesis and biological functions are largely u...

    Authors: Rodrigo Louro, Helder I Nakaya, Paulo P Amaral, Fernanda Festa, Mari C Sogayar, Aline M da Silva, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida and Eduardo M Reis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in ...

    Authors: Claude Lemieux, Christian Otis and Monique Turmel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Embryos of taxonomically different vertebrates are thought to pass through a stage in which they resemble one another morphologically. This "vertebrate phylotypic stage" may represent the basic vertebrate body...

    Authors: Naoki Irie and Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa

    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:1

    Content type: Methodology article

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  24. TBLASTN is a mode of operation for BLAST that aligns protein sequences to a nucleotide database translated in all six frames. We present the first description of the modern implementation of TBLASTN, focusing ...

    Authors: E Michael Gertz, Yi-Kuo Yu, Richa Agarwala, Alejandro A Schäffer and Stephen F Altschul

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:41

    Content type: Methodology article

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  25. Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusk...

    Authors: Daniel J Jackson, Carmel McDougall, Kathryn Green, Fiona Simpson, Gert Wörheide and Bernard M Degnan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:40

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Present protein interaction network data sets include only interactions among subsets of the proteins in an organism. Previously this has been ignored, but in principle any global network analysis that only lo...

    Authors: Eric de Silva, Thomas Thorne, Piers Ingram, Ino Agrafioti, Jonathan Swire, Carsten Wiuf and Michael PH Stumpf

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:39

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Several lines of evidence suggest that codon usage in the Drosophila saltans and D. willistoni lineages has shifted towards a less frequent use of GC-ending codons. Introns in these lineages show a parallel shift...

    Authors: Nadia D Singh, Peter F Arndt and Dmitri A Petrov

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:37

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known as a powerful regulator of white blood cell proliferation and differentiation in mammals. We, and others, have shown that G-CSF is effective in treating c...

    Authors: Armin Schneider, Rainer Wysocki, Claudia Pitzer, Carola Krüger, Rico Laage, Stefan Schwab, Alfred Bach and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:36

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Fertilization restores the diploid state and begins the process by which the single-cell oocyte is converted into a polarized, multicellular organism. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, two of the earliest ...

    Authors: Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus and James W Dennis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:35

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA...

    Authors: Bert Ely, Jamie Lee Wilson, Fatimah Jackson and Bruce A Jackson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:34

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:13

  31. Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorph...

    Authors: Katrin Juling, Hermann Schwarzenbacher, John L Williams and Ruedi Fries

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:33

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite ext...

    Authors: Danny W Rice and Jeffrey D Palmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:31

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Mean phosphorous:nitrogen (P:N) ratios and relationships of P:N ratios with the growth rate of organisms indicate a surprising similarity among and within microbial species, plants, and insect herbivores. To r...

    Authors: Tatiana V Karpinets, Duncan J Greenwood, Carl E Sams and John T Ammons

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:30

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Protein translocation to the proper cellular destination may be guided by various classes of sorting signals recognizable in the primary sequence. Detection in some genomes, but not others, may reveal sorting ...

    Authors: Daniel H Haft, Ian T Paulsen, Naomi Ward and Jeremy D Selengut

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) offer a renewable source of a wide range of cell types for use in research and cell-based therapies to treat disease. Inspection of protein markers provides important informat...

    Authors: Richard Josephson, Gregory Sykes, Ying Liu, Carol Ording, Weining Xu, Xianmin Zeng, Soojung Shin, Jeanne Loring, Anirban Maitra, Mahendra S Rao and Jonathan M Auerbach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Congenital aniridia caused by heterozygousity at the PAX6 locus is associated with ocular surface disease including keratopathy. It is not clear whether the keratopathy is a direct result of reduced PAX6 gene dos...

    Authors: Lucy J Leiper, Petr Walczysko, Romana Kucerova, Jingxing Ou, Lynne J Shanley, Diane Lawson, John V Forrester, Colin D McCaig, Min Zhao and J Martin Collinson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:27

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The Caenorhabditis elegans male exhibits a stereotypic behavioral pattern when attempting to mate. This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule inse...

    Authors: Gary Schindelman, Allyson J Whittaker, Jian Yuan Thum, Shahla Gharib and Paul W Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:26

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 h...

    Authors: Peter Sörös, Nikolaus Michael, Melanie Tollkötter and Bettina Pfleiderer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:25

    Content type: Research article

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Announcement: COVID-19 and impact on peer review

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.