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  1. To survive and reproduce, animals must be able to modify their motor behavior in response to changes in the environment. We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provid...

    Authors: Allyson J Whittaker and Paul W Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:33

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship b...

    Authors: Sara L Goodacre, Oliver Y Martin, Dries Bonte, Linda Hutchings, Chris Woolley, Kamal Ibrahim, CF George Thomas and Godfrey M Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:32

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE) induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study,...

    Authors: Cesar V Borlongan, Teruo Hayashi, Peter R Oeltgen, Tsung-Ping Su and Yun Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:31

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions an...

    Authors: Emmanuel Perisse, Valérie Raymond-Delpech, Isabelle Néant, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Catherine Leclerc, Marc Moreau and Jean-Christophe Sandoz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:30

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evoluti...

    Authors: Alexis C Edwards, Liesbeth Zwarts, Akihiko Yamamoto, Patrick Callaerts and Trudy FC Mackay

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:29

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones...

    Authors: Scott F Cummins, Dirk Erpenbeck, Zhihua Zou, Charles Claudianos, Leonid L Moroz, Gregg T Nagle and Bernard M Degnan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:28

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest c...

    Authors: Francesca Orso, Richard Jäger, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Hubert Schorle, Piero Sismondi, Michele De Bortoli and Daniela Taverna

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:25

    Content type: Research article

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  8. We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10...

    Authors: Eusebio Chiefari, Francesco Paonessa, Stefania Iiritano, Ilaria Le Pera, Dario Palmieri, Giuseppe Brunetti, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Alfredo Fusco and Antonio Brunetti

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:24

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only ...

    Authors: Zhenguo Zhang, Dedong Xin, Ping Wang, Li Zhou, Landian Hu, Xiangyin Kong and Laurence D Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:23

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Antimicrobial peptides are found in all kingdoms of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, antimicrobial peptides were established as key elements of innate immunity. Most antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Sebastian Leptihn, Jia Yi Har, Jianzhu Chen, Bow Ho, Thorsten Wohland and Jeak Ling Ding

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:22

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Gene gain and subsequent retention or loss during evolution may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the diversity of metazoan nervous systems. However, the causal relationships acting th...

    Authors: Nozomu Higuchi, Keigo Kohno and Tatsuhiko Kadowaki

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:21

    Content type: Research article

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  12. In Drosophila, all the 64 clonally derived spermatocytes differentiate in syncytium inside two somatic-origin cyst cells. They elongate to form slender spermatids, which are individualized and then released into ...

    Authors: Bela S Desai, Seema Shirolikar and Krishanu Ray

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:19

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Allopolyploid speciation requires rapid evolutionary reconciliation of two diverged genomes and gene regulatory networks. Here we describe global patterns of gene expression accompanying genomic merger and dou...

    Authors: Ryan A Rapp, Joshua A Udall and Jonathan F Wendel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:18

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland. Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone g...

    Authors: Hillel Galitzer, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Morris Nechama, Tomer Meir, Justin Silver and Tally Naveh-Many

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:17

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology ha...

    Authors: Joseph A Jackson, Ida M Friberg, Luke Bolch, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Philip D Harris, Jerzy M Behnke and Janette E Bradley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:16

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, w...

    Authors: Haisun Zhu, Robert J Gegear, Amy Casselman, Sriramana Kanginakudru and Steven M Reppert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:14

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of ...

    Authors: David S Hibbett and P Brandon Matheny

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:13

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (γ-Proteobacteria). Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential ...

    Authors: Naruo Nikoh and Atsushi Nakabachi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:12

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the...

    Authors: Nichole A Broderick, Courtney J Robinson, Matthew D McMahon, Jonathan Holt, Jo Handelsman and Kenneth F Raffa

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:11

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of...

    Authors: Ana Martín-González, Jacek Wierzchos, Juan-Carlos Gutiérrez, Jesús Alonso and Carmen Ascaso

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on t...

    Authors: Lieke M van der Aa, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Malika Yahmi, Emilie Lauret, Valérie Briolat, Philippe Herbomel, Abdenour Benmansour and Pierre Boudinot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:7

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthrop...

    Authors: Lucy A Weinert, John H Werren, Alexandre Aebi, Graham N Stone and Francis M Jiggins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived fro...

    Authors: Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz and M Dolors Ludevid

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used ...

    Authors: Marc F Schetelig, Carlos Caceres, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz and Ernst A Wimmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Methods for assigning strains to bacterial species are cumbersome and no longer fit for purpose. The concatenated sequences of multiple house-keeping genes have been shown to be able to define and circumscribe...

    Authors: Cynthia J Bishop, David M Aanensen, Gregory E Jordan, Mogens Kilian, William P Hanage and Brian G Spratt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, th...

    Authors: Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takahiro Hosokawa, Naruo Nikoh, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR) and denervat...

    Authors: James R Monaghan, Leonard G Epp, Srikrishna Putta, Robert B Page, John A Walker, Chris K Beachy, Wei Zhu, Gerald M Pao, Inder M Verma, Tony Hunter, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner, Tim T Harkins and S Randal Voss

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regi...

    Authors: Thomas LP Couvreur, Lars W Chatrou, Marc SM Sosef and James E Richardson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:54

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other...

    Authors: Jagan Srinivasan, Omer Durak and Paul W Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:52

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80 kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane through its FERM domain. While the expression pattern of 4.1R in mat...

    Authors: Eva Lospitao, Carmen M Pérez-Ferreiro, Altea Gosálbez, Miguel A Alonso and Isabel Correas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:51

    Content type: Research article

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  31. In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping') genes. We have ...

    Authors: Zoltán Dezső, Yuri Nikolsky, Evgeny Sviridov, Weiwei Shi, Tatiana Serebriyskaya, Damir Dosymbekov, Andrej Bugrim, Eugene Rakhmatulin, Richard J Brennan, Alexey Guryanov, Kelly Li, Julie Blake, Raymond R Samaha and Tatiana Nikolskaya

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:49

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The mammary gland undergoes a sophisticated programme of developmental changes during pregnancy/lactation. However, little is known about processes involving initiation of apoptosis at involution following wea...

    Authors: Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefèvre and Kevin R Nicholas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:48

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demogr...

    Authors: Sofie Vandewoestijne, Nicolas Schtickzelle and Michel Baguette

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:46

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward,...

    Authors: Hong Shi, Hua Zhong, Yi Peng, Yong-Li Dong, Xue-Bin Qi, Feng Zhang, Lu-Fang Liu, Si-Jie Tan, Runlin Z Ma, Chun-Jie Xiao, R Spencer Wells, Li Jin and Bing Su

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:45

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have...

    Authors: Caroline Anselme, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Agnès Vallier, Carole Vincent-Monegat, Delphine Charif, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya and Abdelaziz Heddi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:43

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of ge...

    Authors: James H Thomas and Hugh M Robertson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:42

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of...

    Authors: Malcolm Burrows, Stephen R Shaw and Gregory P Sutton

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:41

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, otherwise known as prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc)...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi, Luisa Diomede, Mario Salmona and Alun Williams

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:39

    Content type: Research article

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