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  1. N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the w...

    Authors: Vincent Corbel, Maria Stankiewicz, Cédric Pennetier, Didier Fournier, Jure Stojan, Emmanuelle Girard, Mitko Dimitrov, Jordi Molgó, Jean-Marc Hougard and Bruno Lapied

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:47

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2012 10:86

  2. In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, r...

    Authors: Makoto Mizunami, Sae Unoki, Yasuhiro Mori, Daisuke Hirashima, Ai Hatano and Yukihisa Matsumoto

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:46

    Content type: Research article

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  3. TATA-box-binding protein 2 (TBP2/TRF3) is a vertebrate-specific paralog of TBP that shares with TBP a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain and the ability to bind the TATA box. TBP2 is highly expressed in ...

    Authors: Waseem Akhtar and Gert Jan C Veenstra

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:45

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. How...

    Authors: Deenadayalan Bakthavatsalam, Jonathan M Choe, Nana E Hanson and Richard H Gomer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:44

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisat...

    Authors: Jerome HL Hui, Florian Raible, Natalia Korchagina, Nicolas Dray, Sylvie Samain, Ghislaine Magdelenat, Claire Jubin, Béatrice Segurens, Guillaume Balavoine, Detlev Arendt and David EK Ferrier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:43

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selec...

    Authors: Carlo G Artieri, Wilfried Haerty and Rama S Singh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:42

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chrom...

    Authors: Beatrice Bodega, Gabriella Di Capua Ramirez, Florian Grasser, Stefania Cheli, Silvia Brunelli, Marina Mora, Raffaella Meneveri, Anna Marozzi, Stefan Mueller, Elena Battaglioli and Enrico Ginelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:41

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic element capable of autonomous transposition via an RNA intermediate. Their large size and proliferative ability make them important con...

    Authors: Mark C Ungerer, Suzanne C Strakosh and Kaitlin M Stimpson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:40

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008,...

    Authors: Nicholas D Holland and Michael T Ghiselin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:39

    Content type: Correspondence

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  10. Adipose tissues serve not only as a store for energy in the form of lipid, but also as endocrine tissues that regulates metabolic activities of the organism by secreting various kinds of hormones. Peroxisome p...

    Authors: Katsunori Fujiki, Fumi Kano, Kunio Shiota and Masayuki Murata

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:38

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for ...

    Authors: Brian M Wiegmann, Michelle D Trautwein, Jung-Wook Kim, Brian K Cassel, Matthew A Bertone, Shaun L Winterton and David K Yeates

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:34

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To survive and reproduce, animals must be able to modify their motor behavior in response to changes in the environment. We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provid...

    Authors: Allyson J Whittaker and Paul W Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:33

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship b...

    Authors: Sara L Goodacre, Oliver Y Martin, Dries Bonte, Linda Hutchings, Chris Woolley, Kamal Ibrahim, CF George Thomas and Godfrey M Hewitt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:32

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE) induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study,...

    Authors: Cesar V Borlongan, Teruo Hayashi, Peter R Oeltgen, Tsung-Ping Su and Yun Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:31

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions an...

    Authors: Emmanuel Perisse, Valérie Raymond-Delpech, Isabelle Néant, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Catherine Leclerc, Marc Moreau and Jean-Christophe Sandoz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:30

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evoluti...

    Authors: Alexis C Edwards, Liesbeth Zwarts, Akihiko Yamamoto, Patrick Callaerts and Trudy FC Mackay

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:29

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones...

    Authors: Scott F Cummins, Dirk Erpenbeck, Zhihua Zou, Charles Claudianos, Leonid L Moroz, Gregg T Nagle and Bernard M Degnan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:28

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest c...

    Authors: Francesca Orso, Richard Jäger, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Hubert Schorle, Piero Sismondi, Michele De Bortoli and Daniela Taverna

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:25

    Content type: Research article

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  19. We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10...

    Authors: Eusebio Chiefari, Francesco Paonessa, Stefania Iiritano, Ilaria Le Pera, Dario Palmieri, Giuseppe Brunetti, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Alfredo Fusco and Antonio Brunetti

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:24

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only ...

    Authors: Zhenguo Zhang, Dedong Xin, Ping Wang, Li Zhou, Landian Hu, Xiangyin Kong and Laurence D Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:23

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Antimicrobial peptides are found in all kingdoms of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, antimicrobial peptides were established as key elements of innate immunity. Most antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Sebastian Leptihn, Jia Yi Har, Jianzhu Chen, Bow Ho, Thorsten Wohland and Jeak Ling Ding

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:22

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Gene gain and subsequent retention or loss during evolution may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the diversity of metazoan nervous systems. However, the causal relationships acting th...

    Authors: Nozomu Higuchi, Keigo Kohno and Tatsuhiko Kadowaki

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:21

    Content type: Research article

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  23. In Drosophila, all the 64 clonally derived spermatocytes differentiate in syncytium inside two somatic-origin cyst cells. They elongate to form slender spermatids, which are individualized and then released into ...

    Authors: Bela S Desai, Seema Shirolikar and Krishanu Ray

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:19

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Allopolyploid speciation requires rapid evolutionary reconciliation of two diverged genomes and gene regulatory networks. Here we describe global patterns of gene expression accompanying genomic merger and dou...

    Authors: Ryan A Rapp, Joshua A Udall and Jonathan F Wendel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland. Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone g...

    Authors: Hillel Galitzer, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Morris Nechama, Tomer Meir, Justin Silver and Tally Naveh-Many

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:17

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology ha...

    Authors: Joseph A Jackson, Ida M Friberg, Luke Bolch, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Philip D Harris, Jerzy M Behnke and Janette E Bradley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:16

    Content type: Research article

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  27. In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, w...

    Authors: Haisun Zhu, Robert J Gegear, Amy Casselman, Sriramana Kanginakudru and Steven M Reppert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:14

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of ...

    Authors: David S Hibbett and P Brandon Matheny

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:13

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (γ-Proteobacteria). Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential ...

    Authors: Naruo Nikoh and Atsushi Nakabachi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:12

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the...

    Authors: Nichole A Broderick, Courtney J Robinson, Matthew D McMahon, Jonathan Holt, Jo Handelsman and Kenneth F Raffa

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:11

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of...

    Authors: Ana Martín-González, Jacek Wierzchos, Juan-Carlos Gutiérrez, Jesús Alonso and Carmen Ascaso

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  32. In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on t...

    Authors: Lieke M van der Aa, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Malika Yahmi, Emilie Lauret, Valérie Briolat, Philippe Herbomel, Abdenour Benmansour and Pierre Boudinot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:7

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthrop...

    Authors: Lucy A Weinert, John H Werren, Alexandre Aebi, Graham N Stone and Francis M Jiggins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived fro...

    Authors: Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz and M Dolors Ludevid

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used ...

    Authors: Marc F Schetelig, Carlos Caceres, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz and Ernst A Wimmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Methods for assigning strains to bacterial species are cumbersome and no longer fit for purpose. The concatenated sequences of multiple house-keeping genes have been shown to be able to define and circumscribe...

    Authors: Cynthia J Bishop, David M Aanensen, Gregory E Jordan, Mogens Kilian, William P Hanage and Brian G Spratt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, th...

    Authors: Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takahiro Hosokawa, Naruo Nikoh, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR) and denervat...

    Authors: James R Monaghan, Leonard G Epp, Srikrishna Putta, Robert B Page, John A Walker, Chris K Beachy, Wei Zhu, Gerald M Pao, Inder M Verma, Tony Hunter, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner, Tim T Harkins and S Randal Voss

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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