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  1. In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on t...

    Authors: Lieke M van der Aa, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Malika Yahmi, Emilie Lauret, Valérie Briolat, Philippe Herbomel, Abdenour Benmansour and Pierre Boudinot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:7

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthrop...

    Authors: Lucy A Weinert, John H Werren, Alexandre Aebi, Graham N Stone and Francis M Jiggins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived fro...

    Authors: Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz and M Dolors Ludevid

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used ...

    Authors: Marc F Schetelig, Carlos Caceres, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz and Ernst A Wimmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Methods for assigning strains to bacterial species are cumbersome and no longer fit for purpose. The concatenated sequences of multiple house-keeping genes have been shown to be able to define and circumscribe...

    Authors: Cynthia J Bishop, David M Aanensen, Gregory E Jordan, Mogens Kilian, William P Hanage and Brian G Spratt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, th...

    Authors: Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takahiro Hosokawa, Naruo Nikoh, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR) and denervat...

    Authors: James R Monaghan, Leonard G Epp, Srikrishna Putta, Robert B Page, John A Walker, Chris K Beachy, Wei Zhu, Gerald M Pao, Inder M Verma, Tony Hunter, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner, Tim T Harkins and S Randal Voss

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regi...

    Authors: Thomas LP Couvreur, Lars W Chatrou, Marc SM Sosef and James E Richardson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:54

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other...

    Authors: Jagan Srinivasan, Omer Durak and Paul W Sternberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:52

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80 kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane through its FERM domain. While the expression pattern of 4.1R in mat...

    Authors: Eva Lospitao, Carmen M Pérez-Ferreiro, Altea Gosálbez, Miguel A Alonso and Isabel Correas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:51

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping') genes. We have ...

    Authors: Zoltán Dezső, Yuri Nikolsky, Evgeny Sviridov, Weiwei Shi, Tatiana Serebriyskaya, Damir Dosymbekov, Andrej Bugrim, Eugene Rakhmatulin, Richard J Brennan, Alexey Guryanov, Kelly Li, Julie Blake, Raymond R Samaha and Tatiana Nikolskaya

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:49

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The mammary gland undergoes a sophisticated programme of developmental changes during pregnancy/lactation. However, little is known about processes involving initiation of apoptosis at involution following wea...

    Authors: Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefèvre and Kevin R Nicholas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:48

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demogr...

    Authors: Sofie Vandewoestijne, Nicolas Schtickzelle and Michel Baguette

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:46

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward,...

    Authors: Hong Shi, Hua Zhong, Yi Peng, Yong-Li Dong, Xue-Bin Qi, Feng Zhang, Lu-Fang Liu, Si-Jie Tan, Runlin Z Ma, Chun-Jie Xiao, R Spencer Wells, Li Jin and Bing Su

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:45

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have...

    Authors: Caroline Anselme, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Agnès Vallier, Carole Vincent-Monegat, Delphine Charif, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya and Abdelaziz Heddi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:43

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of ge...

    Authors: James H Thomas and Hugh M Robertson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:42

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of...

    Authors: Malcolm Burrows, Stephen R Shaw and Gregory P Sutton

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:41

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, otherwise known as prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc)...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi, Luisa Diomede, Mario Salmona and Alun Williams

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:39

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In pathogens, certain genes encoding proteins that directly interact with host defences coevolve with their host and are subject to positive selection. In the lepidopteran host-wasp parasitoid system, one of t...

    Authors: Céline Serbielle, Shafinaz Chowdhury, Samuel Pichon, Stéphane Dupas, Jérôme Lesobre, Enrico O Purisima, Jean-Michel Drezen and Elisabeth Huguet

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:38

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of ho...

    Authors: Bartosz Adamcio, Derya Sargin, Alicja Stradomska, Lucian Medrihan, Christoph Gertler, Fabian Theis, Mingyue Zhang, Michael Müller, Imam Hassouna, Kathrin Hannke, Swetlana Sperling, Konstantin Radyushkin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Lizzy Schulze, Anja Ronnenberg, Fred Wolf…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:37

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and mat...

    Authors: Uwe G Maier, Andrew Bozarth, Helena T Funk, Stefan Zauner, Stefan A Rensing, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber, Thomas Börner and Michael Tillich

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:36

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Gene duplication provides opportunities for lineage diversification and evolution of developmental novelties. Duplicated genes generally either disappear by accumulation of mutations (nonfunctionalization), or...

    Authors: Susan Bassham, Cristian Cañestro and John H Postlethwait

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:35

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Vertebrate alpha (α)- and beta (β)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin cluster...

    Authors: Vidushi S Patel, Steven JB Cooper, Janine E Deakin, Bob Fulton, Tina Graves, Wesley C Warren, Richard K Wilson and Jennifer AM Graves

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:34

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are techn...

    Authors: Alexander Ziegler, Cornelius Faber, Susanne Mueller and Thomas Bartolomaeus

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:33

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Periodic patterning of iterative structures is a fundamental process during embryonic organization and development. Studies have shown how gene networks are employed to pattern butterfly eyespots, fly bristles...

    Authors: Gareth J Fraser, Ryan F Bloomquist and J Todd Streelman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:32

    Content type: Research article

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  26. We have applied a high-throughput pyrosequencing technology for transcriptome profiling of Caenorhabditis elegans in its first larval stage. Using this approach, we have generated a large amount of data for expre...

    Authors: Heesun Shin, Martin Hirst, Matthew N Bainbridge, Vincent Magrini, Elaine Mardis, Donald G Moerman, Marco A Marra, David L Baillie and Steven JM Jones

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:30

    Content type: Research article

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  27. tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as an mRNA to rescue stalled ribosomes in eubacteria. Two unanswered questions about tmRNA function remain: how does tmRNA, lacking an anticodon, bypass the decoding machine...

    Authors: Mickey R Miller, David W Healey, Stephen G Robison, Jonathan D Dewey and Allen R Buskirk

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:29

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive par...

    Authors: Olivier Duron, Didier Bouchon, Sébastien Boutin, Lawrence Bellamy, Liqin Zhou, Jan Engelstädter and Gregory D Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:27

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As...

    Authors: Gerd P Bienert, Michael Thorsen, Manuela D Schüssler, Henrik R Nilsson, Annemarie Wagner, Markus J Tamás and Thomas P Jahn

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:26

    Content type: Research article

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  30. New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister)...

    Authors: Jacob G Bundy, Jasmin K Sidhu, Faisal Rana, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Jodie F Wren, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan and Peter Kille

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whet...

    Authors: Alexei A Sharov, Geppino Falco, Yulan Piao, Suresh Poosala, Kevin G Becker, Alan B Zonderman, Dan L Longo, David Schlessinger and Minoru SH Ko

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:24

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geogra...

    Authors: Bridget J Piculell, Jason D Hoeksema and John N Thompson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes diff...

    Authors: Karen L Carleton, Tyrone C Spady, J Todd Streelman, Michael R Kidd, William N McFarland and Ellis R Loew

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:22

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera) represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, L...

    Authors: Wenhui Nie, Beiyuan Fu, Patricia CM O'Brien, Jinhuan Wang, Weiting Su, Alongkoad Tanomtong, Vitaly Volobouev, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith and Fengtang Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:18

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redun...

    Authors: Lex Flagel, Joshua Udall, Dan Nettleton and Jonathan Wendel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The proneural proteins Mash1 and Ngn2 are key cell autonomous regulators of neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system, yet little is known about the molecular pathways regulated by these transcripti...

    Authors: Julia M Gohlke, Olivier Armant, Frederick M Parham, Marjolein V Smith, Celine Zimmer, Diogo S Castro, Laurent Nguyen, Joel S Parker, Gerard Gradwohl, Christopher J Portier and François Guillemot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:15

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyrax...

    Authors: Robert J Asher and Thomas Lehmann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP), the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP) variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit ...

    Authors: Hui-wang Ai, Scott G Olenych, Peter Wong, Michael W Davidson and Robert E Campbell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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