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  1. Content type: Research article

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of mortality in childhood malignancies. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that chemoresistant ALL is driven by activating mutations in NT5...

    Authors: Aleš Hnízda, Jana Škerlová, Milan Fábry, Petr Pachl, Martina Šinalová, Lukáš Vrzal, Petr Man, Petr Novák, Pavlína Řezáčová and Václav Veverka

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:91

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  2. Content type: Comment

    A common symbiont of insects, the bacterium Wolbachia has been implicated in phenomena as diverse as sex determination, pathogen defence and speciation and is being used in public health programs to prevent mosqu...

    Authors: Francis M. Jiggins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:92

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecolog...

    Authors: Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner and Ernst A. Wimmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:90

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The navigation of magnetotactic bacteria relies on specific intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed crystals of magnetite aligned into a linear chain. The magnetosome chain acts...

    Authors: Mauricio Toro-Nahuelpan, Frank D. Müller, Stefan Klumpp, Jürgen M. Plitzko, Marc Bramkamp and Dirk Schüler

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:88

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The General Control Nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase is a conserved member of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway that represses protein translation and helps cells to adapt to conditions of nutrient ...

    Authors: Rafael C. Ferraz, Henrique Camara, Evandro A. De-Souza, Silas Pinto, Ana Paula F. Pinca, Richard C. Silva, Vitor N. Sato, Beatriz A. Castilho and Marcelo A. Mori

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:87

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Application of apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in crop breeding would allow rapid fixation of complex traits, economizing improved crop delivery. Identification of apomixis genes is confounded by the poly...

    Authors: David S. Rabiger, Jennifer M. Taylor, Andrew Spriggs, Melanie L. Hand, Steven T. Henderson, Susan D. Johnson, Karsten Oelkers, Maria Hrmova, Keisuke Saito, Go Suzuki, Yasuhiko Mukai, Bernard J. Carroll and Anna M. G. Koltunow

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:86

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  7. Content type: Comment

    Any figure in a research article will typically represent only a small portion of the total data gained by a researcher for that experiment, and it is therefore key that the figure accurately reflects what was...

    Authors: John F. Y. Brookfield

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:85

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Banglade...

    Authors: M. Tofazzal Islam, Daniel Croll, Pierre Gladieux, Darren M. Soanes, Antoine Persoons, Pallab Bhattacharjee, Md. Shaid Hossain, Dipali Rani Gupta, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, M. Golam Mahboob, Nicola Cook, Moin U. Salam, Musrat Zahan Surovy, Vanessa Bueno Sancho, João Leodato Nunes Maciel, Antonio NhaniJúnior…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:84

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Like most animals, insects rely on their olfactory systems for finding food and mates and in avoiding noxious chemicals and predators. Most insect olfactory neurons express an odorant-specific odorant receptor...

    Authors: Suhyoung Bahk and Walton D. Jones

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:83

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds, which is often rate-limiting for protein folding. SlyD is a two-domain enzyme containing both a PPIase FK506-bind...

    Authors: Esben M. Quistgaard, Ulrich Weininger, Yonca Ural-Blimke, Kristofer Modig, Pär Nordlund, Mikael Akke and Christian Löw

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:82

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Due to the paucity of novel antibiotics, colistin has become a last resort antibiotic for treating multidrug resistant bacteria. Colistin acts by binding the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides and subseq...

    Authors: Vlatko Stojanoski, Banumathi Sankaran, B. V. Venkataram Prasad, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann and Timothy Palzkill

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:81

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  12. Content type: Research article

    As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquit...

    Authors: Garrett P. League and Julián F. Hillyer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:78

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl or c-Cbl) is a RING ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signalling. Phosphorylation of a conserved residue (Tyr371) on the linker helix regi...

    Authors: Lori Buetow, Giancarlo Tria, Syed Feroj Ahmed, Andreas Hock, Hao Dou, Gary J. Sibbet, Dmitri I. Svergun and Danny T. Huang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:76

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  14. Content type: Research article

    High directional persistence is often assumed to enhance the efficiency of chemotactic migration. Yet, cells in vivo usually display meandering trajectories with relatively low directional persistence, and the...

    Authors: Alba Diz-Muñoz, Pawel Romanczuk, Weimiao Yu, Martin Bergert, Kenzo Ivanovitch, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg and Ewa K. Paluch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:74

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The red algae (Rhodophyta) diverged from the green algae and plants (Viridiplantae) over one billion years ago within the kingdom Archaeplastida. These photosynthetic lineages provide an ideal model to study p...

    Authors: JunMo Lee, Chung Hyun Cho, Seung In Park, Ji Won Choi, Hyun Suk Song, John A. West, Debashish Bhattacharya and Hwan Su Yoon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:75

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The Cry6 family of proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis represents a group of powerful toxins with great potential for use in the control of coleopteran insects and of nematode parasites of importance to agricult...

    Authors: Alexey Dementiev, Jason Board, Anand Sitaram, Timothy Hey, Matthew S. Kelker, Xiaoping Xu, Yan Hu, Cristian Vidal-Quist, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, David McCaskill, Nick X. Wang, Shao-Ching Hung, Michael K. Chan, Marianne M. Lee, Jessica Hughes…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:71

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is a devastating pest of livestock endemic to subtropical and tropical regions of the Western hemisphere. The larvae of this species feed on the tissue of living ...

    Authors: Carolina Concha, Azhahianambi Palavesam, Felix D. Guerrero, Agustin Sagel, Fang Li, Jason A. Osborne, Yillian Hernandez, Trinidad Pardo, Gladys Quintero, Mario Vasquez, Gwen P. Keller, Pamela L. Phillips, John B. Welch, W. Owen McMillan, Steven R. Skoda and Maxwell J. Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:72

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  18. Content type: Research article

    ATG1 belongs to the Uncoordinated-51-like kinase protein family. Members of this family are best characterized for roles in macroautophagy and neuronal development. Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a c...

    Authors: Mingli Li, Jillian L. Lindblad, Ernesto Perez, Andreas Bergmann and Yun Fan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:70

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  19. Content type: Research article

    After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activat...

    Authors: Marie Pourcelot, Naima Zemirli, Leandro Silva Da Costa, Roxane Loyant, Dominique Garcin, Damien Vitour, Ivana Munitic, Aimé Vazquez and Damien Arnoult

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:69

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  20. Content type: Methodology article

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) is a widely used approach to identify protein interactions and complexes. In multicellular organisms, the accurate identification of protein complexe...

    Authors: Selma Waaijers, Javier Muñoz, Christian Berends, João J. Ramalho, Soenita S. Goerdayal, Teck Y. Low, Adja D. Zoumaro-Djayoon, Michael Hoffmann, Thijs Koorman, Roderick P. Tas, Martin Harterink, Stefanie Seelk, Jana Kerver, Casper C. Hoogenraad, Olaf Bossinger, Baris Tursun…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:66

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The biguanides are a family of drugs with diverse clinical applications. Metformin, a widely used anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, suppresses mitochondrial respiration by inhibiting respiratory complex I. Phenfor...

    Authors: Hannah R. Bridges, Ville A. Sirviö, Ahmed-Noor A. Agip and Judy Hirst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:65

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The nerve net of Nematostella is generated using a conserved cascade of neurogenic transcription factors. For example, NvashA, a homolog of the achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...

    Authors: Michael J. Layden, Hereroa Johnston, Aldine R. Amiel, Jamie Havrilak, Bailey Steinworth, Taylor Chock, Eric Röttinger and Mark Q. Martindale

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:61

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  23. Content type: Research article

    It is generally thought that the evolutionary transition to parasitism is irreversible because it is associated with the loss of functions needed for a free-living lifestyle. Nevertheless, free-living taxa are...

    Authors: Feifei Xu, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist, Martin Kolisko, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Andrew J. Roger, Staffan G. Svärd and Jan O. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:62

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:77

  24. Content type: Research article

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlie developmental patterning and morphogenetic processes, and changes in the interactions within the underlying GRNs are a major driver of evolutionary processes. In order ...

    Authors: Daniel Pers, Thomas Buchta, Orhan Özüak, Selma Wolff, Jessica M. Pietsch, Mohammad Bilal Memon, Siegfried Roth and Jeremy A. Lynch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:63

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood–gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis ...

    Authors: Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B. Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I. Maalouf, Nandor Nagy and Patricia K. Donahoe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:59

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:73

  26. Content type: Research article

    Compartment boundaries are an essential developmental mechanism throughout evolution, designated to act as organizing centers and to regulate and localize differently fated cells. The hindbrain serves as a fas...

    Authors: Yuval Peretz, Noa Eren, Ayelet Kohl, Gideon Hen, Karina Yaniv, Karen Weisinger, Yuval Cinnamon and Dalit Sela-Donenfeld

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:57

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  27. Content type: Question and Answer

    A significant part of the communication between plant cells is mediated by signaling peptides and their corresponding plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinases. This communication mechanism serves as a k...

    Authors: Maike Breiden and Rüdiger Simon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:58

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The combination of a meager fossil record of vermiform enteropneusts and their disparity with the tubicolous pterobranchs renders early hemichordate evolution conjectural. The middle Cambrian Oesia disjuncta from...

    Authors: Karma Nanglu, Jean-Bernard Caron, Simon Conway Morris and Christopher B. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:56

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  29. Content type: Research article

    A tight regulation of the Wnt-signaling network, activated by 19 Wnt molecules and numerous receptors and co-receptors, is required for the establishment of a complex organism. Different branches of this Wnt-s...

    Authors: Veronika Wallkamm, Karolin Rahm, Jana Schmoll, Lilian T. Kaufmann, Eva Brinkmann, Jessica Schunk, Bianca Kraft, Doris Wedlich and Dietmar Gradl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:55

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing ...

    Authors: Gitte H. Bruun, Thomas K. Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R. Krainer, Kinji Ohno and Brage S. Andresen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:54

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Lili Ren, Mingyao Yang, Yaofeng Zhao, Zongyi Guo, Haijin Yi, Mingzhou Li, Yiqing Hu, Xi Long, Boyuan Sun, Jinxiu Li, Suoqiang Zhai, Tinghuan Zhang, Shilin Tian, Qingyong Meng…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:52

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are present in all forms of life and play a crucial role in protein folding and regulation. They catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond that precedes proline...

    Authors: Lukas Hoppstock, Franziska Trusch, Christoph Lederer, Pieter van West, Martin Koenneke and Peter Bayer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:53

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  33. Content type: Research article

    In HIV-infected macrophages, newly formed progeny virus particles accumulate in intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Although the virus is usually seen in these compartments, it is unc...

    Authors: David O. Nkwe, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Jemima J. Burden, Lucy M. Collinson and Mark Marsh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:50

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  34. Content type: Comment

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that i...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:51

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  35. Content type: Comment

    Modern biomedical research depends critically on access to databases that house and disseminate genetic, genomic, molecular, and cell biological knowledge. Even as the explosion of available genome sequences a...

    Authors: Stephen G. Oliver, Antonia Lock, Midori A. Harris, Paul Nurse and Valerie Wood

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:49

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  36. Content type: Methodology article

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in metastasis and therapy resistance of carcinomas and can endow cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. The ability to detect ca...

    Authors: M. J. Toneff, A. Sreekumar, A. Tinnirello, P. Den Hollander, S. Habib, S. Li, M. J. Ellis, L. Xin, S. A. Mani and J. M. Rosen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:47

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  37. Content type: Research article

    A central goal of evolutionary biology is to link genomic change to phenotypic evolution. The origin of new transcription factors is a special case of genomic evolution since it brings opportunities for novel ...

    Authors: Ignacio Maeso, Thomas L. Dunwell, Chris D. R. Wyatt, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Borbála Vető, Juan A. Bernal, Shan Quah, Manuel Irimia and Peter W. H. Holland

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:45

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  38. Content type: Question and Answer

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet f...

    Authors: James R. Edgar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:46

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  39. Content type: Commentary

    One of the classic questions in the early evolution of eukaryotic life concerns the role of oxygen. Many unicellular eukaryotes are strict anaerobes and many animals have long anoxic phases in their life cycle...

    Authors: Marek Mentel, Aloysius G. M. Tielens and William F. Martin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:44

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  40. Content type: Correspondence

    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phyl...

    Authors: Roberto Danovaro, Cristina Gambi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Pusceddu, Ricardo Cardoso Neves and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:43

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