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  1. Content type: Research article

    As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquit...

    Authors: Garrett P. League and Julián F. Hillyer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:78

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl or c-Cbl) is a RING ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signalling. Phosphorylation of a conserved residue (Tyr371) on the linker helix regi...

    Authors: Lori Buetow, Giancarlo Tria, Syed Feroj Ahmed, Andreas Hock, Hao Dou, Gary J. Sibbet, Dmitri I. Svergun and Danny T. Huang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:76

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  3. Content type: Research article

    High directional persistence is often assumed to enhance the efficiency of chemotactic migration. Yet, cells in vivo usually display meandering trajectories with relatively low directional persistence, and the...

    Authors: Alba Diz-Muñoz, Pawel Romanczuk, Weimiao Yu, Martin Bergert, Kenzo Ivanovitch, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg and Ewa K. Paluch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:74

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The red algae (Rhodophyta) diverged from the green algae and plants (Viridiplantae) over one billion years ago within the kingdom Archaeplastida. These photosynthetic lineages provide an ideal model to study p...

    Authors: JunMo Lee, Chung Hyun Cho, Seung In Park, Ji Won Choi, Hyun Suk Song, John A. West, Debashish Bhattacharya and Hwan Su Yoon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:75

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The Cry6 family of proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis represents a group of powerful toxins with great potential for use in the control of coleopteran insects and of nematode parasites of importance to agricult...

    Authors: Alexey Dementiev, Jason Board, Anand Sitaram, Timothy Hey, Matthew S. Kelker, Xiaoping Xu, Yan Hu, Cristian Vidal-Quist, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, David McCaskill, Nick X. Wang, Shao-Ching Hung, Michael K. Chan, Marianne M. Lee, Jessica Hughes…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:71

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is a devastating pest of livestock endemic to subtropical and tropical regions of the Western hemisphere. The larvae of this species feed on the tissue of living ...

    Authors: Carolina Concha, Azhahianambi Palavesam, Felix D. Guerrero, Agustin Sagel, Fang Li, Jason A. Osborne, Yillian Hernandez, Trinidad Pardo, Gladys Quintero, Mario Vasquez, Gwen P. Keller, Pamela L. Phillips, John B. Welch, W. Owen McMillan, Steven R. Skoda and Maxwell J. Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:72

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  7. Content type: Research article

    ATG1 belongs to the Uncoordinated-51-like kinase protein family. Members of this family are best characterized for roles in macroautophagy and neuronal development. Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a c...

    Authors: Mingli Li, Jillian L. Lindblad, Ernesto Perez, Andreas Bergmann and Yun Fan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:70

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  8. Content type: Research article

    After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activat...

    Authors: Marie Pourcelot, Naima Zemirli, Leandro Silva Da Costa, Roxane Loyant, Dominique Garcin, Damien Vitour, Ivana Munitic, Aimé Vazquez and Damien Arnoult

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:69

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  9. Content type: Methodology article

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) is a widely used approach to identify protein interactions and complexes. In multicellular organisms, the accurate identification of protein complexe...

    Authors: Selma Waaijers, Javier Muñoz, Christian Berends, João J. Ramalho, Soenita S. Goerdayal, Teck Y. Low, Adja D. Zoumaro-Djayoon, Michael Hoffmann, Thijs Koorman, Roderick P. Tas, Martin Harterink, Stefanie Seelk, Jana Kerver, Casper C. Hoogenraad, Olaf Bossinger, Baris Tursun…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:66

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The biguanides are a family of drugs with diverse clinical applications. Metformin, a widely used anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, suppresses mitochondrial respiration by inhibiting respiratory complex I. Phenfor...

    Authors: Hannah R. Bridges, Ville A. Sirviö, Ahmed-Noor A. Agip and Judy Hirst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:65

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The nerve net of Nematostella is generated using a conserved cascade of neurogenic transcription factors. For example, NvashA, a homolog of the achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...

    Authors: Michael J. Layden, Hereroa Johnston, Aldine R. Amiel, Jamie Havrilak, Bailey Steinworth, Taylor Chock, Eric Röttinger and Mark Q. Martindale

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:61

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  12. Content type: Research article

    It is generally thought that the evolutionary transition to parasitism is irreversible because it is associated with the loss of functions needed for a free-living lifestyle. Nevertheless, free-living taxa are...

    Authors: Feifei Xu, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist, Martin Kolisko, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Andrew J. Roger, Staffan G. Svärd and Jan O. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:62

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:77

  13. Content type: Research article

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlie developmental patterning and morphogenetic processes, and changes in the interactions within the underlying GRNs are a major driver of evolutionary processes. In order ...

    Authors: Daniel Pers, Thomas Buchta, Orhan Özüak, Selma Wolff, Jessica M. Pietsch, Mohammad Bilal Memon, Siegfried Roth and Jeremy A. Lynch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:63

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood–gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis ...

    Authors: Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B. Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I. Maalouf, Nandor Nagy and Patricia K. Donahoe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:59

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:73

  15. Content type: Research article

    Compartment boundaries are an essential developmental mechanism throughout evolution, designated to act as organizing centers and to regulate and localize differently fated cells. The hindbrain serves as a fas...

    Authors: Yuval Peretz, Noa Eren, Ayelet Kohl, Gideon Hen, Karina Yaniv, Karen Weisinger, Yuval Cinnamon and Dalit Sela-Donenfeld

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:57

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  16. Content type: Question and Answer

    A significant part of the communication between plant cells is mediated by signaling peptides and their corresponding plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinases. This communication mechanism serves as a k...

    Authors: Maike Breiden and Rüdiger Simon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:58

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The combination of a meager fossil record of vermiform enteropneusts and their disparity with the tubicolous pterobranchs renders early hemichordate evolution conjectural. The middle Cambrian Oesia disjuncta from...

    Authors: Karma Nanglu, Jean-Bernard Caron, Simon Conway Morris and Christopher B. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:56

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  18. Content type: Research article

    A tight regulation of the Wnt-signaling network, activated by 19 Wnt molecules and numerous receptors and co-receptors, is required for the establishment of a complex organism. Different branches of this Wnt-s...

    Authors: Veronika Wallkamm, Karolin Rahm, Jana Schmoll, Lilian T. Kaufmann, Eva Brinkmann, Jessica Schunk, Bianca Kraft, Doris Wedlich and Dietmar Gradl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:55

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing ...

    Authors: Gitte H. Bruun, Thomas K. Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R. Krainer, Kinji Ohno and Brage S. Andresen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:54

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