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  1. Content type: Research article

    Many pathogens secrete toxins that target key host processes resulting in the activation of immune pathways. The secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A (ToxA) disrupts intestinal protein synthesis, whic...

    Authors: Deborah L. McEwan, Rhonda L. Feinbaum, Nicholas Stroustrup, Wilhelm Haas, Annie L. Conery, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev and Frederick M. Ausubel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:105

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Defects in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (mFAO) reduce the ability of patients to cope with metabolic challenges. mFAO enzymes accept multiple substrates of different chain length, leadi...

    Authors: Karen van Eunen, Catharina M. L. Volker-Touw, Albert Gerding, Aycha Bleeker, Justina C. Wolters, Willemijn J. van Rijt, Anne-Claire M. F. Martines, Klary E. Niezen-Koning, Rebecca M. Heiner, Hjalmar Permentier, Albert K. Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Terry G. J. Derks and Barbara M. Bakker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:107

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Tribbles proteins are conserved pseudokinases that function to control kinase signalling and transcription in diverse biological processes. Abnormal function in human Tribbles has been implicated in a number o...

    Authors: Kyung Won Kim, Nishant Thakur, Christopher A. Piggott, Shizue Omi, Jolanta Polanowska, Yishi Jin and Nathalie Pujol

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:104

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Palmitoylation, the addition of palmitate to proteins by palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs), is an important regulator of synaptic protein localization and function. Many palmitoylated proteins and PATs have be...

    Authors: Shaun S. Sanders, Matthew P. Parsons, Katherine K. N. Mui, Amber L. Southwell, Sonia Franciosi, Daphne Cheung, Sabine Waltl, Lynn A. Raymond and Michael R. Hayden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:108

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α factor (LITAF) cause the autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C). LITAF encodes a 17 kDa pr...

    Authors: Anita K. Ho, Jane L. Wagstaff, Paul T. Manna, Lena Wartosch, Seema Qamar, Elspeth F. Garman, Stefan M. V. Freund and Rhys C. Roberts

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:109

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established wit...

    Authors: Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi and Yumiko Yoshimura

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:103

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  7. Content type: Commentary

    Delving into European prehistory, two recent studies analyze ancient DNA from bison species depicted by our ancestors on the walls of their caves. The DNA tells a story of migrations driven by climate change b...

    Authors: Johannes A. Lenstra and Jianquan Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:100

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The several-micrometer-sized Toxoplasma gondii protozoan parasite invades virtually any type of nucleated cell from a warm-blooded animal within seconds. Toxoplasma initiates the formation of a tight ring-like ju...

    Authors: Marion Bichet, Bastien Touquet, Virginie Gonzalez, Isabelle Florent, Markus Meissner and Isabelle Tardieux

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:97

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Arbovirus transmission by the mosquito Aedes aegypti can be reduced by the introduction and establishment of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia in wild populations of the vector. Wolbachia spreads by increasing...

    Authors: Penelope A. Hancock, Vanessa L. White, Scott A. Ritchie, Ary A. Hoffmann and H. Charles J. Godfray

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:96

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  10. Content type: Research article

    TPA Induced Sequence 7 acts as a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in differentiation of various cell types, including skeletal myoblasts. We and others have shown that ...

    Authors: Andrea Lammirato, Katherin Patsch, Fabien Feiereisen, Karl Maly, Charity Nofziger, Markus Paulmichl, Hubert Hackl, Zlatko Trajanoski, Taras Valovka, Lukas A. Huber and Ilja Vietor

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:95

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe’s megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European larg...

    Authors: Diyendo Massilani, Silvia Guimaraes, Jean-Philip Brugal, E. Andrew Bennett, Malgorzata Tokarska, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Gennady Baryshnikov, Gennady Boeskorov, Jean-Christophe Castel, Sergey Davydov, Stéphane Madelaine, Olivier Putelat, Natalia N. Spasskaya, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange and Eva-Maria Geigl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:93

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of mortality in childhood malignancies. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that chemoresistant ALL is driven by activating mutations in NT5...

    Authors: Aleš Hnízda, Jana Škerlová, Milan Fábry, Petr Pachl, Martina Šinalová, Lukáš Vrzal, Petr Man, Petr Novák, Pavlína Řezáčová and Václav Veverka

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:91

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  13. Content type: Comment

    A common symbiont of insects, the bacterium Wolbachia has been implicated in phenomena as diverse as sex determination, pathogen defence and speciation and is being used in public health programs to prevent mosqu...

    Authors: Francis M. Jiggins

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:92

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecolog...

    Authors: Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner and Ernst A. Wimmer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:90

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The navigation of magnetotactic bacteria relies on specific intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed crystals of magnetite aligned into a linear chain. The magnetosome chain acts...

    Authors: Mauricio Toro-Nahuelpan, Frank D. Müller, Stefan Klumpp, Jürgen M. Plitzko, Marc Bramkamp and Dirk Schüler

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:88

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The General Control Nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase is a conserved member of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway that represses protein translation and helps cells to adapt to conditions of nutrient ...

    Authors: Rafael C. Ferraz, Henrique Camara, Evandro A. De-Souza, Silas Pinto, Ana Paula F. Pinca, Richard C. Silva, Vitor N. Sato, Beatriz A. Castilho and Marcelo A. Mori

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:87

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Application of apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in crop breeding would allow rapid fixation of complex traits, economizing improved crop delivery. Identification of apomixis genes is confounded by the poly...

    Authors: David S. Rabiger, Jennifer M. Taylor, Andrew Spriggs, Melanie L. Hand, Steven T. Henderson, Susan D. Johnson, Karsten Oelkers, Maria Hrmova, Keisuke Saito, Go Suzuki, Yasuhiko Mukai, Bernard J. Carroll and Anna M. G. Koltunow

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:86

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  18. Content type: Comment

    Any figure in a research article will typically represent only a small portion of the total data gained by a researcher for that experiment, and it is therefore key that the figure accurately reflects what was...

    Authors: John F. Y. Brookfield

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:85

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Banglade...

    Authors: M. Tofazzal Islam, Daniel Croll, Pierre Gladieux, Darren M. Soanes, Antoine Persoons, Pallab Bhattacharjee, Md. Shaid Hossain, Dipali Rani Gupta, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, M. Golam Mahboob, Nicola Cook, Moin U. Salam, Musrat Zahan Surovy, Vanessa Bueno Sancho, João Leodato Nunes Maciel, Antonio NhaniJúnior…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:84

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Like most animals, insects rely on their olfactory systems for finding food and mates and in avoiding noxious chemicals and predators. Most insect olfactory neurons express an odorant-specific odorant receptor...

    Authors: Suhyoung Bahk and Walton D. Jones

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:83

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds, which is often rate-limiting for protein folding. SlyD is a two-domain enzyme containing both a PPIase FK506-bind...

    Authors: Esben M. Quistgaard, Ulrich Weininger, Yonca Ural-Blimke, Kristofer Modig, Pär Nordlund, Mikael Akke and Christian Löw

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:82

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Due to the paucity of novel antibiotics, colistin has become a last resort antibiotic for treating multidrug resistant bacteria. Colistin acts by binding the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides and subseq...

    Authors: Vlatko Stojanoski, Banumathi Sankaran, B. V. Venkataram Prasad, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann and Timothy Palzkill

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:81

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  23. Content type: Research article

    As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquit...

    Authors: Garrett P. League and Julián F. Hillyer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:78

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl or c-Cbl) is a RING ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signalling. Phosphorylation of a conserved residue (Tyr371) on the linker helix regi...

    Authors: Lori Buetow, Giancarlo Tria, Syed Feroj Ahmed, Andreas Hock, Hao Dou, Gary J. Sibbet, Dmitri I. Svergun and Danny T. Huang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:76

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  25. Content type: Research article

    High directional persistence is often assumed to enhance the efficiency of chemotactic migration. Yet, cells in vivo usually display meandering trajectories with relatively low directional persistence, and the...

    Authors: Alba Diz-Muñoz, Pawel Romanczuk, Weimiao Yu, Martin Bergert, Kenzo Ivanovitch, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg and Ewa K. Paluch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:74

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The red algae (Rhodophyta) diverged from the green algae and plants (Viridiplantae) over one billion years ago within the kingdom Archaeplastida. These photosynthetic lineages provide an ideal model to study p...

    Authors: JunMo Lee, Chung Hyun Cho, Seung In Park, Ji Won Choi, Hyun Suk Song, John A. West, Debashish Bhattacharya and Hwan Su Yoon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:75

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The Cry6 family of proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis represents a group of powerful toxins with great potential for use in the control of coleopteran insects and of nematode parasites of importance to agricult...

    Authors: Alexey Dementiev, Jason Board, Anand Sitaram, Timothy Hey, Matthew S. Kelker, Xiaoping Xu, Yan Hu, Cristian Vidal-Quist, Vimbai Chikwana, Samantha Griffin, David McCaskill, Nick X. Wang, Shao-Ching Hung, Michael K. Chan, Marianne M. Lee, Jessica Hughes…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:71

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is a devastating pest of livestock endemic to subtropical and tropical regions of the Western hemisphere. The larvae of this species feed on the tissue of living ...

    Authors: Carolina Concha, Azhahianambi Palavesam, Felix D. Guerrero, Agustin Sagel, Fang Li, Jason A. Osborne, Yillian Hernandez, Trinidad Pardo, Gladys Quintero, Mario Vasquez, Gwen P. Keller, Pamela L. Phillips, John B. Welch, W. Owen McMillan, Steven R. Skoda and Maxwell J. Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:72

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  29. Content type: Research article

    ATG1 belongs to the Uncoordinated-51-like kinase protein family. Members of this family are best characterized for roles in macroautophagy and neuronal development. Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a c...

    Authors: Mingli Li, Jillian L. Lindblad, Ernesto Perez, Andreas Bergmann and Yun Fan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:70

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  30. Content type: Research article

    After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activat...

    Authors: Marie Pourcelot, Naima Zemirli, Leandro Silva Da Costa, Roxane Loyant, Dominique Garcin, Damien Vitour, Ivana Munitic, Aimé Vazquez and Damien Arnoult

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:69

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  31. Content type: Methodology article

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) is a widely used approach to identify protein interactions and complexes. In multicellular organisms, the accurate identification of protein complexe...

    Authors: Selma Waaijers, Javier Muñoz, Christian Berends, João J. Ramalho, Soenita S. Goerdayal, Teck Y. Low, Adja D. Zoumaro-Djayoon, Michael Hoffmann, Thijs Koorman, Roderick P. Tas, Martin Harterink, Stefanie Seelk, Jana Kerver, Casper C. Hoogenraad, Olaf Bossinger, Baris Tursun…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:66

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The biguanides are a family of drugs with diverse clinical applications. Metformin, a widely used anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, suppresses mitochondrial respiration by inhibiting respiratory complex I. Phenfor...

    Authors: Hannah R. Bridges, Ville A. Sirviö, Ahmed-Noor A. Agip and Judy Hirst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:65

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The nerve net of Nematostella is generated using a conserved cascade of neurogenic transcription factors. For example, NvashA, a homolog of the achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...

    Authors: Michael J. Layden, Hereroa Johnston, Aldine R. Amiel, Jamie Havrilak, Bailey Steinworth, Taylor Chock, Eric Röttinger and Mark Q. Martindale

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:61

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  34. Content type: Research article

    It is generally thought that the evolutionary transition to parasitism is irreversible because it is associated with the loss of functions needed for a free-living lifestyle. Nevertheless, free-living taxa are...

    Authors: Feifei Xu, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist, Martin Kolisko, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Andrew J. Roger, Staffan G. Svärd and Jan O. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:62

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:77

  35. Content type: Research article

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlie developmental patterning and morphogenetic processes, and changes in the interactions within the underlying GRNs are a major driver of evolutionary processes. In order ...

    Authors: Daniel Pers, Thomas Buchta, Orhan Özüak, Selma Wolff, Jessica M. Pietsch, Mohammad Bilal Memon, Siegfried Roth and Jeremy A. Lynch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:63

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood–gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis ...

    Authors: Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B. Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I. Maalouf, Nandor Nagy and Patricia K. Donahoe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:59

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:73