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  1. Content type: Research article

    Compartment boundaries are an essential developmental mechanism throughout evolution, designated to act as organizing centers and to regulate and localize differently fated cells. The hindbrain serves as a fas...

    Authors: Yuval Peretz, Noa Eren, Ayelet Kohl, Gideon Hen, Karina Yaniv, Karen Weisinger, Yuval Cinnamon and Dalit Sela-Donenfeld

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:57

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  2. Content type: Question and Answer

    A significant part of the communication between plant cells is mediated by signaling peptides and their corresponding plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinases. This communication mechanism serves as a k...

    Authors: Maike Breiden and Rüdiger Simon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:58

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The combination of a meager fossil record of vermiform enteropneusts and their disparity with the tubicolous pterobranchs renders early hemichordate evolution conjectural. The middle Cambrian Oesia disjuncta from...

    Authors: Karma Nanglu, Jean-Bernard Caron, Simon Conway Morris and Christopher B. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:56

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  4. Content type: Research article

    A tight regulation of the Wnt-signaling network, activated by 19 Wnt molecules and numerous receptors and co-receptors, is required for the establishment of a complex organism. Different branches of this Wnt-s...

    Authors: Veronika Wallkamm, Karolin Rahm, Jana Schmoll, Lilian T. Kaufmann, Eva Brinkmann, Jessica Schunk, Bianca Kraft, Doris Wedlich and Dietmar Gradl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:55

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing ...

    Authors: Gitte H. Bruun, Thomas K. Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R. Krainer, Kinji Ohno and Brage S. Andresen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:54

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Lili Ren, Mingyao Yang, Yaofeng Zhao, Zongyi Guo, Haijin Yi, Mingzhou Li, Yiqing Hu, Xi Long, Boyuan Sun, Jinxiu Li, Suoqiang Zhai, Tinghuan Zhang, Shilin Tian, Qingyong Meng…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:52

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are present in all forms of life and play a crucial role in protein folding and regulation. They catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond that precedes proline...

    Authors: Lukas Hoppstock, Franziska Trusch, Christoph Lederer, Pieter van West, Martin Koenneke and Peter Bayer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:53

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  8. Content type: Research article

    In HIV-infected macrophages, newly formed progeny virus particles accumulate in intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Although the virus is usually seen in these compartments, it is unc...

    Authors: David O. Nkwe, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Jemima J. Burden, Lucy M. Collinson and Mark Marsh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:50

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  9. Content type: Comment

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that i...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:51

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  10. Content type: Comment

    Modern biomedical research depends critically on access to databases that house and disseminate genetic, genomic, molecular, and cell biological knowledge. Even as the explosion of available genome sequences a...

    Authors: Stephen G. Oliver, Antonia Lock, Midori A. Harris, Paul Nurse and Valerie Wood

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:49

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  11. Content type: Methodology article

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in metastasis and therapy resistance of carcinomas and can endow cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. The ability to detect ca...

    Authors: M. J. Toneff, A. Sreekumar, A. Tinnirello, P. Den Hollander, S. Habib, S. Li, M. J. Ellis, L. Xin, S. A. Mani and J. M. Rosen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:47

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  12. Content type: Research article

    A central goal of evolutionary biology is to link genomic change to phenotypic evolution. The origin of new transcription factors is a special case of genomic evolution since it brings opportunities for novel ...

    Authors: Ignacio Maeso, Thomas L. Dunwell, Chris D. R. Wyatt, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Borbála Vető, Juan A. Bernal, Shan Quah, Manuel Irimia and Peter W. H. Holland

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:45

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  13. Content type: Question and Answer

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet f...

    Authors: James R. Edgar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:46

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  14. Content type: Commentary

    One of the classic questions in the early evolution of eukaryotic life concerns the role of oxygen. Many unicellular eukaryotes are strict anaerobes and many animals have long anoxic phases in their life cycle...

    Authors: Marek Mentel, Aloysius G. M. Tielens and William F. Martin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:44

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  15. Content type: Correspondence

    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phyl...

    Authors: Roberto Danovaro, Cristina Gambi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Pusceddu, Ricardo Cardoso Neves and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:43

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  16. Content type: Comment

    Protein X is a signalling molecule that stimulates apoptosis. Treatment of cells with Protein X results in five times higher levels of cell death than those seen in untreated cells (wild type), as measured by ...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:42

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the adaptation of lineages to changing environments. The extent of this process in eukaryotes, however, remains controversial. The most well-known and ...

    Authors: Huan Qiu, Guohong Cai, Jing Luo, Debashish Bhattacharya and Ning Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:41

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  18. Content type: Forum

    The mechanism of memory remains one of the great unsolved problems of biology. Grappling with the question more than a hundred years ago, the German zoologist Richard Semon formulated the concept of the engram...

    Authors: Mu-ming Poo, Michele Pignatelli, Tomás J. Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Kelsey C. Martin, Andrii Rudenko, Li-Huei Tsai, Richard W. Tsien, Gord Fishell, Caitlin Mullins, J. Tiago Gonçalves, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T. Johnston, Fred H. Gage, Yang Dan…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:40

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Host-microbe associations underlie many key processes of host development, immunity, and life history. Yet, none of the current research on the central model species Caenorhabditis elegans considers the worm’s na...

    Authors: Philipp Dirksen, Sarah Arnaud Marsh, Ines Braker, Nele Heitland, Sophia Wagner, Rania Nakad, Sebastian Mader, Carola Petersen, Vienna Kowallik, Philip Rosenstiel, Marie-Anne Félix and Hinrich Schulenburg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:38

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  20. Content type: Commentary

    Until recently, almost nothing has been known about the natural microbiota of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Reporting their research in BMC Biology, Dirksen and colleagues describe the first sequenci...

    Authors: Laura C. Clark and Jonathan Hodgkin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:37

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged over the last decade as a useful model for the study of innate immunity. Its infection with the pathogenic fungus Drechmeria coniospora leads to the ...

    Authors: Olivier Zugasti, Nishant Thakur, Jérôme Belougne, Barbara Squiban, C. Léopold Kurz, Julien Soulé, Shizue Omi, Laurent Tichit, Nathalie Pujol and Jonathan J. Ewbank

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:35

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity maintains the balance between differentiated SMCs and proliferative mesenchymal progenitors, crucial for muscular tissue homeostasis. Studies on the development of mesenchym...

    Authors: Jennifer McKey, Delphine Martire, Pascal de Santa Barbara and Sandrine Faure

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:34

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes ...

    Authors: Jelena Maric-Biresev, Julia P. Hunn, Oleg Krut, J. Bernd Helms, Sascha Martens and Jonathan C. Howard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:33

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Cell polarity, essential for cell physiology and tissue coherence, emerges as a consequence of asymmetric localization of protein complexes and directional trafficking of cellular components. Although molecule...

    Authors: Francisco J. Calero-Cuenca, José Manuel Espinosa-Vázquez, Miguel Reina-Campos, María T. Díaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat and Sol Sotillos

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:32

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is an S/T kinase with more than 200 known substrates, and with critical roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation and currently no membrane proteins ...

    Authors: Ruth Hendus-Altenburger, Elena Pedraz-Cuesta, Christina W. Olesen, Elena Papaleo, Jeff A. Schnell, Jonathan T. S. Hopper, Carol V. Robinson, Stine F. Pedersen and Birthe B. Kragelund

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:31

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Skeletal muscle stem cells enable the formation, growth, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscle throughout life. The regeneration process is compromised in several pathological conditions, and muscle...

    Authors: Elvira Carrió, Alessandro Magli, Mar Muñoz, Miguel A. Peinado, Rita Perlingeiro and Mònica Suelves

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:30

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Regenerating damaged tissue is a complex process, requiring progenitor cells that must be stimulated to undergo proliferation, differentiation and, often, migratory behaviors and morphological changes. Multipl...

    Authors: Mario Sánchez, Maria Laura Ceci, Daniela Gutiérrez, Consuelo Anguita-Salinas and Miguel L. Allende

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:27

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  28. Content type: Comment

    The authors of this paper were interested to see whether the expression of three proteins (A, B and C) was altered in a knockout mouse model of a gene encoding Protein X. Each experiment measured the expressio...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:28

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  29. Content type: Research article

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in the form of monomers or homodimers that bind heterotrimeric G proteins, are fundamental in the transfer of extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways. Dif...

    Authors: Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Monika Zelman-Femiak, Marc Brugarolas, Estefania Moreno, David Aguinaga, Laura Perez-Benito, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó, Josefa Mallol, Enric I. Canela, Carme Lluís, Leonardo Pardo, Ana J. García-Sáez, Peter J. McCormick and Rafael Franco

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:26

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  30. Content type: Research article

    A crucial event in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the exit from the pluripotent ground state that leads to the acquisition of the ‘primed’ pluripotent phenotype, characteristic of ...

    Authors: Angelica Navarra, Anna Musto, Anna Gargiulo, Giuseppe Petrosino, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni, Alfredo Fusco, Tommaso Russo and Silvia Parisi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:24

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Synaptic loss strongly correlates with memory deterioration. Local accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, and neurotoxic Aβ42 in particular, due to abnormal neuronal activity may underlie synaptic dysfunction...

    Authors: Akira Kuzuya, Katarzyna M. Zoltowska, Kathryn L. Post, Muriel Arimon, Xuejing Li, Sarah Svirsky, Masato Maesako, Alona Muzikansky, Vivek Gautam, Dora Kovacs, Bradley T. Hyman and Oksana Berezovska

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:25

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The dorsal midline region of the neural tube that results from closure of the neural folds is generally termed the roof plate (RP). However, this domain is highly dynamic and complex, and is first transiently ...

    Authors: Erez Nitzan, Oshri Avraham, Nitza Kahane, Shai Ofek, Deepak Kumar and Chaya Kalcheim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:23

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  33. Content type: Review

    In his splendid article “Can a biologist fix a radio? — or, what I learned while studying apoptosis,” Y. Lazebnik argues that when one uses the right tools, similarity between a biological system, like a signa...

    Authors: Mustafa Khammash

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:22

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Resident fibroblasts synthesize the cardiac extracellular matrix, and can undergo phenotype conversion to myofibroblasts to augment matrix production, impairing function and contributing to organ failure. A si...

    Authors: Rushita A. Bagchi, Patricia Roche, Nina Aroutiounova, Leon Espira, Bernard Abrenica, Ronen Schweitzer and Michael P. Czubryt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:21

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Self-renewing, chemoresistant breast cancer stem cells are believed to contribute significantly to cancer invasion, migration and patient relapse. Therefore, the identification of signaling pathways that regul...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Stanford, Zhongyan Wang, Olga Novikov, Francesca Mulas, Esther Landesman-Bollag, Stefano Monti, Brenden W. Smith, David C. Seldin, George J. Murphy and David H. Sherr

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:20

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk is centerpiece in the development of many branched organs, including the lungs. The embryonic lung mesoderm provides instructional information not only for lung architectural ...

    Authors: Aimin Li, Shudong Ma, Susan M. Smith, Matt K. Lee, Ashley Fischer, Zea Borok, Saverio Bellusci, Changgong Li and Parviz Minoo

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:19

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Understanding how embryos specify asymmetric axes is a major focus of biology. While much has been done to discover signaling pathways and transcription factors important for axis specification, comparatively ...

    Authors: Zhijun Qiu, Zeinab Elsayed, Veronica Peterkin, Suehyb Alkatib, Dorothy Bennett and Joseph W. Landry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:18

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  38. Content type: Commentary

    Because of their sessile lifestyle and the lack of the sensory and feeding structures usually associated with the cephalic end, fixing the antero-posterior (AP) polarity of tapeworms is somewhat equivocal and ...

    Authors: Alessandro Minelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:17

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Early developmental patterns of flatworms are extremely diverse and difficult to compare between distant groups. In parasitic flatworms, such as tapeworms, this is confounded by highly derived life cycles invo...

    Authors: Uriel Koziol, Francesca Jarero, Peter D. Olson and Klaus Brehm

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:10

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  40. Content type: Research article

    In eukaryotes, tRNA trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm is a complex process connected with cell cycle regulation. Such trafficking is therefore of fundamental importance in cell biology, and disrupt...

    Authors: Dian-Fu Chen, Cheng Lin, Hong-Liang Wang, Li Zhang, Li Dai, Sheng-Nan Jia, Rong Zhou, Ran Li, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, James S. Clegg, Hiromichi Nagasawa and Wei-Jun Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:16

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Adaptation of the cellular metabolism to varying external conditions is brought about by regulated changes in the activity of enzymes and transporters. Hormone-dependent reversible enzyme phosphorylation and c...

    Authors: Sascha Bulik, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter and Nikolaus Berndt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:15

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) constitute a powerful cell-autonomous resistance system against several intracellular pathogens. Irga6 is a dynamin-like protein that oligomerizes at the parasitophorous vac...

    Authors: Kathrin Schulte, Nikolaus Pawlowski, Katja Faelber, Chris Fröhlich, Jonathan Howard and Oliver Daumke

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:14

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Plants deploy immune receptors to detect pathogen-derived molecules and initiate defense responses. Intracellular plant immune receptors called nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins contain a c...

    Authors: Panagiotis F. Sarris, Volkan Cevik, Gulay Dagdas, Jonathan D. G. Jones and Ksenia V. Krasileva

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:8

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Olfaction is a fundamental sense through which most animals perceive the external world. The olfactory system detects odors via specialized sensory organs such as the main olfactory epithelium and the vomerona...

    Authors: Thiago S. Nakahara, Leonardo M. Cardozo, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Andrew D. Bard, Vinicius M. A. Carvalho, Guilherme Z. Trintinalia, Darren W. Logan and Fabio Papes

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:12

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