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  1. Content type: Research article

    Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Lili Ren, Mingyao Yang, Yaofeng Zhao, Zongyi Guo, Haijin Yi, Mingzhou Li, Yiqing Hu, Xi Long, Boyuan Sun, Jinxiu Li, Suoqiang Zhai, Tinghuan Zhang, Shilin Tian, Qingyong Meng…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:52

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are present in all forms of life and play a crucial role in protein folding and regulation. They catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond that precedes proline...

    Authors: Lukas Hoppstock, Franziska Trusch, Christoph Lederer, Pieter van West, Martin Koenneke and Peter Bayer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:53

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  3. Content type: Research article

    In HIV-infected macrophages, newly formed progeny virus particles accumulate in intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Although the virus is usually seen in these compartments, it is unc...

    Authors: David O. Nkwe, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Jemima J. Burden, Lucy M. Collinson and Mark Marsh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:50

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  4. Content type: Comment

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that i...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:51

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  5. Content type: Comment

    Modern biomedical research depends critically on access to databases that house and disseminate genetic, genomic, molecular, and cell biological knowledge. Even as the explosion of available genome sequences a...

    Authors: Stephen G. Oliver, Antonia Lock, Midori A. Harris, Paul Nurse and Valerie Wood

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:49

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  6. Content type: Methodology article

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in metastasis and therapy resistance of carcinomas and can endow cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. The ability to detect ca...

    Authors: M. J. Toneff, A. Sreekumar, A. Tinnirello, P. Den Hollander, S. Habib, S. Li, M. J. Ellis, L. Xin, S. A. Mani and J. M. Rosen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:47

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  7. Content type: Research article

    A central goal of evolutionary biology is to link genomic change to phenotypic evolution. The origin of new transcription factors is a special case of genomic evolution since it brings opportunities for novel ...

    Authors: Ignacio Maeso, Thomas L. Dunwell, Chris D. R. Wyatt, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Borbála Vető, Juan A. Bernal, Shan Quah, Manuel Irimia and Peter W. H. Holland

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:45

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  8. Content type: Question and Answer

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet f...

    Authors: James R. Edgar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:46

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  9. Content type: Commentary

    One of the classic questions in the early evolution of eukaryotic life concerns the role of oxygen. Many unicellular eukaryotes are strict anaerobes and many animals have long anoxic phases in their life cycle...

    Authors: Marek Mentel, Aloysius G. M. Tielens and William F. Martin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:44

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  10. Content type: Correspondence

    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phyl...

    Authors: Roberto Danovaro, Cristina Gambi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Pusceddu, Ricardo Cardoso Neves and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:43

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  11. Content type: Comment

    Protein X is a signalling molecule that stimulates apoptosis. Treatment of cells with Protein X results in five times higher levels of cell death than those seen in untreated cells (wild type), as measured by ...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:42

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the adaptation of lineages to changing environments. The extent of this process in eukaryotes, however, remains controversial. The most well-known and ...

    Authors: Huan Qiu, Guohong Cai, Jing Luo, Debashish Bhattacharya and Ning Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:41

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  13. Content type: Forum

    The mechanism of memory remains one of the great unsolved problems of biology. Grappling with the question more than a hundred years ago, the German zoologist Richard Semon formulated the concept of the engram...

    Authors: Mu-ming Poo, Michele Pignatelli, Tomás J. Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Kelsey C. Martin, Andrii Rudenko, Li-Huei Tsai, Richard W. Tsien, Gord Fishell, Caitlin Mullins, J. Tiago Gonçalves, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T. Johnston, Fred H. Gage, Yang Dan…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:40

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Host-microbe associations underlie many key processes of host development, immunity, and life history. Yet, none of the current research on the central model species Caenorhabditis elegans considers the worm’s na...

    Authors: Philipp Dirksen, Sarah Arnaud Marsh, Ines Braker, Nele Heitland, Sophia Wagner, Rania Nakad, Sebastian Mader, Carola Petersen, Vienna Kowallik, Philip Rosenstiel, Marie-Anne Félix and Hinrich Schulenburg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:38

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  15. Content type: Commentary

    Until recently, almost nothing has been known about the natural microbiota of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Reporting their research in BMC Biology, Dirksen and colleagues describe the first sequenci...

    Authors: Laura C. Clark and Jonathan Hodgkin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:37

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged over the last decade as a useful model for the study of innate immunity. Its infection with the pathogenic fungus Drechmeria coniospora leads to the ...

    Authors: Olivier Zugasti, Nishant Thakur, Jérôme Belougne, Barbara Squiban, C. Léopold Kurz, Julien Soulé, Shizue Omi, Laurent Tichit, Nathalie Pujol and Jonathan J. Ewbank

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:35

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity maintains the balance between differentiated SMCs and proliferative mesenchymal progenitors, crucial for muscular tissue homeostasis. Studies on the development of mesenchym...

    Authors: Jennifer McKey, Delphine Martire, Pascal de Santa Barbara and Sandrine Faure

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:34

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes ...

    Authors: Jelena Maric-Biresev, Julia P. Hunn, Oleg Krut, J. Bernd Helms, Sascha Martens and Jonathan C. Howard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:33

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Cell polarity, essential for cell physiology and tissue coherence, emerges as a consequence of asymmetric localization of protein complexes and directional trafficking of cellular components. Although molecule...

    Authors: Francisco J. Calero-Cuenca, José Manuel Espinosa-Vázquez, Miguel Reina-Campos, María T. Díaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat and Sol Sotillos

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:32

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is an S/T kinase with more than 200 known substrates, and with critical roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation and currently no membrane proteins ...

    Authors: Ruth Hendus-Altenburger, Elena Pedraz-Cuesta, Christina W. Olesen, Elena Papaleo, Jeff A. Schnell, Jonathan T. S. Hopper, Carol V. Robinson, Stine F. Pedersen and Birthe B. Kragelund

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:31

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Skeletal muscle stem cells enable the formation, growth, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscle throughout life. The regeneration process is compromised in several pathological conditions, and muscle...

    Authors: Elvira Carrió, Alessandro Magli, Mar Muñoz, Miguel A. Peinado, Rita Perlingeiro and Mònica Suelves

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:30

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