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  1. The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ containing diverse cell types specialized in secreting hormones that regulate physiology. Pituitary thyrotropes produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a critic...

    Authors: Alexandre Z. Daly, Lindsey A. Dudley, Michael T. Peel, Stephen A. Liebhaber, Stephen C. J. Parker and Sally A. Camper
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:76
  2. Helminth-associated changes in gut microbiota composition have been hypothesised to contribute to the immune-suppressive properties of parasitic worms. Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated autoimmune disea...

    Authors: Timothy P. Jenkins, David I. Pritchard, Radu Tanasescu, Gary Telford, Marina Papaiakovou, Riccardo Scotti, Alba Cortés, Cris S. Constantinescu and Cinzia Cantacessi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:74
  3. Dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae are important photosynthetic symbionts in cnidarians (such as corals) and other coral reef organisms. Breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to enviro...

    Authors: Raúl A. González-Pech, Timothy G. Stephens, Yibi Chen, Amin R. Mohamed, Yuanyuan Cheng, Sarah Shah, Katherine E. Dougan, Michael D. A. Fortuin, Rémi Lagorce, David W. Burt, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A. Ragan and Cheong Xin Chan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:73
  4. Membrane protrusions that occur on the dorsal surface of a cell are an excellent experimental system to study actin machinery at work in a living cell. Small GTPase Rac1 controls the membrane protrusions that ...

    Authors: F. Leyden, S. Uthishtran, U. K. Moorthi, H. M. York, A. Patil, H. Gandhi, E. P. Petrov, T. Bornschlögl and S. Arumugam
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:72
  5. Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cellular homeostasis. In vivo, cells experience plasma membrane damage from a multitude of stressors in the extra- and intra-cellular environment. To avoid lethal con...

    Authors: Dustin A. Ammendolia, William M. Bement and John H. Brumell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:71
  6. Breast cancer is amongst the 10 first causes of death in women worldwide. Around 20% of patients are misdiagnosed leading to early metastasis, resistance to treatment and relapse. Many clinical and gene expres...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Villemin, Claudio Lorenzi, Marie-Sarah Cabrillac, Andrew Oldfield, William Ritchie and Reini F. Luco
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:70
  7. Unreliable research programmes waste funds, time, and even the lives of the organisms we seek to help and understand. Reducing this waste and increasing the value of scientific evidence require changing the ac...

    Authors: Rose E. O’Dea, Timothy H. Parker, Yung En Chee, Antica Culina, Szymon M. Drobniak, David H. Duncan, Fiona Fidler, Elliot Gould, Malika Ihle, Clint D. Kelly, Malgorzata Lagisz, Dominique G. Roche, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, David P. Wilkinson, Bonnie C. Wintle and Shinichi Nakagawa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:68
  8. Trachypithecus leucocephalus, the white-headed langur, is a critically endangered primate that is endemic to the karst mountains in the southern Guangxi province of China. Studying the genomic and transcriptomic ...

    Authors: Tengcheng Que, Huifeng Wang, Weifei Yang, Jianbao Wu, Chenyang Hou, Surui Pei, Qunying Wu, Liu Ming Li, Shilu Wei, Xing Xie, Hongli Huang, Panyu Chen, Yiming Huang, Aiqiong Wu, Meihong He, Dengpan Nong…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:67
  9. ESCRT-III proteins are involved in many membrane remodeling processes including multivesicular body biogenesis as first discovered in yeast. In humans, ESCRT-III CHMP2 exists as two isoforms, CHMP2A and CHMP2B...

    Authors: Maryam Alqabandi, Nicola de Franceschi, Sourav Maity, Nolwenn Miguet, Marta Bally, Wouter H. Roos, Winfried Weissenhorn, Patricia Bassereau and Stéphanie Mangenot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:66
  10. Homeostatic regulation of sleep is reflected in the maintenance of a daily balance between sleep and wakefulness. Although numerous internal and external factors can influence sleep, it is unclear whether and ...

    Authors: Linus Milinski, Simon P. Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Laura E. McKillop, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Gauri Ang, Tomoko Yamagata, David M. Bannerman and Vladyslav V. Vyazovskiy
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:65
  11. Wound healing is one of the defining features of life and is seen not only in tissues but also within individual cells. Understanding wound response at the single-cell level is critical for determining fundame...

    Authors: Kevin S. Zhang, Lucas R. Blauch, Wesley Huang, Wallace F. Marshall and Sindy K. Y. Tang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:63
  12. IK is a splicing factor that promotes spliceosome activation and contributes to pre-mRNA splicing. Although the molecular mechanism of IK has been previously reported in vitro, the physiological role of IK has...

    Authors: Hye In Ka, Hyemin Seo, Youngsook Choi, Joohee Kim, Mina Cho, Seok-Yong Choi, Sujeong Park, Sora Han, Jinsu An, Hak Suk Chung, Young Yang and Min Jung Kim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:44

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:119

  13. A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover general models and mechanisms that create the phenotypes of organisms. However, universal models of such fundamental growth and form are rare, ...

    Authors: Alistair R. Evans, Tahlia I. Pollock, Silke G. C. Cleuren, William M. G. Parker, Hazel L. Richards, Kathleen L. S. Garland, Erich M. G. Fitzgerald, Tim E. Wilson, David P. Hocking and Justin W. Adams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:58
  14. The demographic history of South and Southeast Asia (S&SEA) is complex and contentious, with multiple waves of human migration. Some of the earliest footfalls were of the ancestors of modern Austroasiatic (AA)...

    Authors: Debashree Tagore, Farhang Aghakhanian, Rakesh Naidu, Maude E. Phipps and Analabha Basu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:61

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:238

  15. Extensive molecular differences exist between proliferative and differentiated cells. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic datasets from preimplantation and differentiation sta...

    Authors: Aristeidis G. Telonis and Isidore Rigoutsos
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:60
  16. Evidence of global heterochromatin decay and aberrant gene expression in models of physiological and premature ageing have long supported the “heterochromatin loss theory of ageing”, which proposes that ageing...

    Authors: Abigail R. R. Guillermo, Karolina Chocian, Gavriil Gavriilidis, Julien Vandamme, Anna Elisabetta Salcini, Jane Mellor and Alison Woollard
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:59
  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of aging, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases. Hence, mitotherapeutics may be valuable disease modifiers for a large number of conditions. In this study, we ...

    Authors: Luana Naia, Catarina M. Pinho, Giacomo Dentoni, Jianping Liu, Nuno Santos Leal, Duarte M. S. Ferreira, Bernadette Schreiner, Riccardo Filadi, Lígia Fão, Niamh M. C. Connolly, Pontus Forsell, Gunnar Nordvall, Makoto Shimozawa, Elisa Greotti, Emy Basso, Pierre Theurey…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:57
  18. The preservative effects of low temperature on biological materials have been long recognised, and cryopreservation is now widely used in biomedicine, including in organ transplantation, regenerative medicine ...

    Authors: Sanja Bojic, Alex Murray, Barry L. Bentley, Ralf Spindler, Piotr Pawlik, José L. Cordeiro, Roman Bauer and João Pedro de Magalhães
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:56
  19. The anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) is impacting carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland and other terrestrial biomes. Plant canopy stomatal conductance is a key playe...

    Authors: Juan C. Baca Cabrera, Regina T. Hirl, Rudi Schäufele, Andy Macdonald and Hans Schnyder
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:50
  20. The fungus Leptosphaeria maculans has an exceptionally long and complex relationship with its host plant, Brassica napus, during which it switches between different lifestyles, including asymptomatic, biotrophic,...

    Authors: Elise J. Gay, Jessica L. Soyer, Nicolas Lapalu, Juliette Linglin, Isabelle Fudal, Corinne Da Silva, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Cruaud, Anne Levrel, Jocelyne Lemoine, Regine Delourme, Thierry Rouxel and Marie-Hélène Balesdent
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:55
  21. The three-dimensional spatial organization of the genome plays important roles in chromatin accessibility and gene expression in multiple biological processes and has been reported to be altered in response to...

    Authors: Zhe Liang, Qian Zhang, Changmian Ji, Guihua Hu, Pingxian Zhang, Yifan Wang, Liwen Yang and Xiaofeng Gu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:53
  22. Eukaryote genomes frequently harbor supernumerary B chromosomes in addition to the “standard” A chromosome set. B chromosomes are thought to arise as byproducts of genome rearrangements and have mostly been co...

    Authors: Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade Silva, Francisco J. Ruiz-Ruano, Ricardo Utsunomia, María Martín-Peciña, Jonathan Pena Castro, Paula Paccielli Freire, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Diogo T. Hashimoto, Alexander Suh, Claudio Oliveira, Fábio Porto-Foresti, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Fausto Foresti and Juan Pedro M. Camacho
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:52
  23. Calorie restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF) can promote metabolic health through a process that is partially mediated by gut microbiota modulation. To compare the effects of CR and IF with different...

    Authors: Ziyi Zhang, Xiaoyu Chen, Yuh Jiun Loh, Xin Yang and Chenhong Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:51
  24. A long-standing debate concerns where in the processing hierarchy of the central nervous system (CNS) selective attention takes effect. In the auditory system, cochlear processes can be influenced via direct a...

    Authors: Moritz Herbert Albrecht Köhler, Gianpaolo Demarchi and Nathan Weisz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:48
  25. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuromodulator that is widely distributed in the brain and plays a key role in mediating stress responses and autonomic functions. While the distribution p...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Pu Hu, Qinghong Shan, Chuan Huang, Zhaohuan Huang, Peng Chen, Anan Li, Hui Gong and Jiang-Ning Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:47
  26. Iron is essential for bacterial survival. Bacterial siderophores are small molecules with unmatched capacity to scavenge iron from proteins and the extracellular milieu, where it mostly occurs as insoluble Fe3+. ...

    Authors: Sara Cleto, Kristina Haslinger, Kristala L. J. Prather and Timothy K. Lu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:46
  27. Nucleic acids can fold into non-canonical secondary structures named G-quadruplexes (G4s), which consist of guanine-rich sequences stacked into guanine tetrads stabilized by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding, π-π int...

    Authors: Alessio De Magis, Melanie Kastl, Peter Brossart, Annkristin Heine and Katrin Paeschke
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:45
  28. Amyloids are ordered, insoluble protein aggregates, characterized by a cross-β sheet quaternary structure in which molecules in a β-strand conformation are stacked along the filament axis via intermolecular in...

    Authors: Rubén Hervás, María del Carmen Fernández-Ramírez, Albert Galera-Prat, Mari Suzuki, Yoshitaka Nagai, Marta Bruix, Margarita Menéndez, Douglas V. Laurents and Mariano Carrión-Vázquez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:43
  29. The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is a major blood-feeding pest of livestock that has near worldwide distribution, causing an annual cost of over $2 billion for control and product loss in the USA alone. Contr...

    Authors: Pia U. Olafson, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Greta Buckmeier, Xiaoting Chen, Craig J. Coates, Megan Davis, Justin Dykema, Scott J. Emrich, Markus Friedrich, Christopher J. Holmes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Evan N. Jansen, Emily C. Jennings, Daniel Lawson, Ellen O. Martinson…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:41

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:150

  30. Polyploidy has played a prominent role in the evolution of plants and many other eukaryotic lineages. However, how polyploid genomes adapt to the abrupt presence of two or more sets of chromosomes via genome r...

    Authors: Zhenling Lv, Zijuan Li, Meiyue Wang, Fei Zhao, Wenjie Zhang, Changping Li, Lei Gong, Yijng Zhang, Annaliese S. Mason and Bao Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:42
  31. Insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell is finely modulated by different signals to allow an adequate control of glucose homeostasis. Incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) act as key p...

    Authors: Alba C. Arcones, Rocío Vila-Bedmar, Mercedes Mirasierra, Marta Cruces-Sande, Mario Vallejo, Ben Jones, Alejandra Tomas, Federico Mayor Jr and Cristina Murga
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:40
  32. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a critical transcription factor for juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, known to play a key role in regulating metamorphosis and adult reproduction in insects. Kr-h1 can also be induc...

    Authors: Zidan Zhu, Chunmei Tong, Binbin Qiu, Hongguang Yang, Jiahui Xu, Sichun Zheng, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng and Huimin Deng
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:39
  33. Cell type-specific transcriptional programming results from the combinatorial interplay between the repertoire of active regulatory elements. Disease-associated variants disrupt such programming, leading to al...

    Authors: Aiping Duan, Hong Wang, Yan Zhu, Qi Wang, Jing Zhang, Qing Hou, Yuexian Xing, Jinsong Shi, Jinhua Hou, Zhaohui Qin, Zhaohong Chen, Zhihong Liu and Jingping Yang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:38
  34. Organoids are morphologically heterogeneous three-dimensional cell culture systems and serve as an ideal model for understanding the principles of collective cell behaviour in mammalian organs during developme...

    Authors: Lotta Hof, Till Moreth, Michael Koch, Tim Liebisch, Marina Kurtz, Julia Tarnick, Susanna M. Lissek, Monique M. A. Verstegen, Luc J. W. van der Laan, Meritxell Huch, Franziska Matthäus, Ernst H. K. Stelzer and Francesco Pampaloni
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:37
  35. Custom genes have become a common resource in recombinant biology over the last 20 years due to the plummeting cost of DNA synthesis. These genes are often “optimized” to non-native sequences for overexpressio...

    Authors: Matthew J. Ranaghan, Jeffrey J. Li, Dylan M. Laprise and Colin W. Garvie
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:36
  36. The G1 checkpoint is a critical regulator of genomic stability in untransformed cells, preventing cell cycle progression after DNA damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) recruit and activate ATM, a kinase whi...

    Authors: Iraia García-Santisteban, Alba Llopis, Lenno Krenning, Jon Vallejo-Rodríguez, Bram van den Broek, Ana M. Zubiaga and René H. Medema
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:35
  37. Site-specific C>T DNA base editing has been achieved by recruiting cytidine deaminases to the target C using catalytically impaired Cas proteins; the target C is typically located within 5-nt editing window sp...

    Authors: Wenxia Yu, Jianan Li, Shisheng Huang, Xiangyang Li, Ping Li, Guanglei Li, Aibin Liang, Tian Chi and Xingxu Huang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:34
  38. Meta-analysis is often used to make generalisations across all available evidence at the global scale. But how can these global generalisations be used for evidence-based decision making at the local scale, if...

    Authors: Gorm E. Shackelford, Philip A. Martin, Amelia S. C. Hood, Alec P. Christie, Elena Kulinskaya and William J. Sutherland
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:33
  39. The genealogical histories of individuals within populations are of interest to studies aiming both to uncover detailed pedigree information and overall quantitative population demographic histories. However, ...

    Authors: Ardalan Naseri, Kecong Tang, Xin Geng, Junjie Shi, Jing Zhang, Pramesh Shakya, Xiaoming Liu, Shaojie Zhang and Degui Zhi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:32
  40. Proper regulation of feeding is important for an organism’s well-being and survival and involves a motivational component directing the search for food. Dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of motiva...

    Authors: Puskar Mishra, Shany E. Yang, Austin B. Montgomery, Addison R. Reed, Aylin R. Rodan and Adrian Rothenfluh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:31
  41. The concentrations of distinct types of RNA in cells result from a dynamic equilibrium between RNA synthesis and decay. Despite the critical importance of RNA decay rates, current approaches for measuring them...

    Authors: Amit Blumberg, Yixin Zhao, Yi-Fei Huang, Noah Dukler, Edward J. Rice, Alexandra G. Chivu, Katie Krumholz, Charles G. Danko and Adam Siepel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:30
  42. The mosquito Anopheles stephensi is a vector of urban malaria in Asia that recently invaded Africa. Studying the genetic basis of vectorial capacity and engineering genetic interventions are both impeded by limit...

    Authors: Mahul Chakraborty, Arunachalam Ramaiah, Adriana Adolfi, Paige Halas, Bhagyashree Kaduskar, Luna Thanh Ngo, Suvratha Jayaprasad, Kiran Paul, Saurabh Whadgar, Subhashini Srinivasan, Suresh Subramani, Ethan Bier, Anthony A. James and J. J. Emerson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:28

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:96

  43. Recognition of stress and mobilization of adequate “fight-or-flight” responses is key for survival and health. Previous studies have shown that exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to pathogens or toxins simultaneo...

    Authors: Gábor Hajdú, Eszter Gecse, István Taisz, István Móra and Csaba Sőti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:26
  44. Biomarker discovery remains a major challenge for predictive medicine, in particular, in the context of chronic diseases. This is true for the widespread protozoan Toxoplasma gondii which establishes long-lasting...

    Authors: Céline Dard, Christopher Swale, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Dayana C. Farhat, Valeria Bellini, Marie Gladys Robert, Dominique Cannella, Hervé Pelloux, Isabelle Tardieux and Mohamed-Ali Hakimi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:25