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  1. The endostyle is an epithelial exocrine gland found in non-vertebrate chordates (amphioxi and tunicates) and the larvae of modern lampreys. It is generally considered to be an evolutionary precursor of the thy...

    Authors: Wataru Takagi, Fumiaki Sugahara, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Rie Kusakabe, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Iori Sato, Yasuhiro Oisi, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Hiroshi Miyanishi, Noritaka Adachi, Susumu Hyodo and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:76
  2. Understanding the contribution of gene function in distinct organ systems to the pathogenesis of human diseases in biomedical research requires modifying gene expression through the generation of gain- and los...

    Authors: Anna Georgina Kopasz, Dávid Zsolt Pusztai, Réka Karkas, Liza Hudoba, Khaldoon Sadiq Ahmed Abdullah, Gergely Imre, Gabriella Pankotai-Bodó, Ede Migh, Andrea Nagy, András Kriston, Péter Germán, Andrea Bakné Drubi, Anna Molnár, Ildikó Fekete, Virág Éva Dani, Imre Ocsovszki…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:74
  3. Using genetically modified plants as natural dispensers of insect pheromones may eventually become part of a novel strategy for integrated pest management.

    Authors: Yi-Han Xia, Bao-Jian Ding, Shuang-Lin Dong, Hong-Lei Wang, Per Hofvander and Christer Löfstedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:80
  4. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiling across tissues can provide necessary information for an in-depth understanding of their biological functions. We performed a large-scale gene expression an...

    Authors: Tianliu Zhang, Tianzhen Wang, Qunhao Niu, Lei Xu, Yan Chen, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Lupei Zhang, George E. Liu, Junya Li and Lingyang Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:79
  5. Spermatogenesis is regulated by a complex network of intercellular communication processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of the important mediators in intercellular communication. Previous reports have...

    Authors: Kathleen Hoi Kei Choy, Sze Yan Chan, William Lam, Jing Jin, Tingting Zheng, Tin Yu Samuel Law, Sidney Siubun Yu, Weiping Wang, Linxian Li, Gangcai Xie, Howard Chi Ho Yim, Hao Chen and Ellis Kin Lam Fok
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:78
  6. Tissue-clearing techniques have recently been developed to make tissues transparent for three-dimensional (3D) imaging at different scales, including single-cell resolution. However, current tissue-clearing wo...

    Authors: Qing-Hong Shan, Xin-Ya Qin, Nan Zhou, Chuan Huang, Yu Wang, Peng Chen and Jiang-Ning Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:77
  7. Seahorses, seadragons, pygmy pipehorses, and pipefishes (Syngnathidae, Syngnathiformes) are among the most recognizable groups of fishes because of their derived morphology, unusual life history, and worldwide...

    Authors: Josefin Stiller, Graham Short, Healy Hamilton, Norah Saarman, Sarah Longo, Peter Wainwright, Greg W. Rouse and W. Brian Simison
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:75
  8. Supraphysiological hemodynamics are a recognized driver of platelet activation and thrombosis at high-grade stenosis and in blood contacting circulatory support devices. However, whether platelets mechano-sens...

    Authors: Nurul A. Zainal Abidin, Eric K. W. Poon, Crispin Szydzik, Mariia Timofeeva, Farzan Akbaridoust, Rose J. Brazilek, Francisco J. Tovar Lopez, Xiao Ma, Chitrarth Lav, Ivan Marusic, Philip E. Thompson, Arnan Mitchell, Andrew S. H. Ooi, Justin R. Hamilton and Warwick S. Nesbitt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:73
  9. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by nearly every cell type and have attracted much attention for their ability to transfer protein and diverse RNA species from donor to recipient cells. Much attention...

    Authors: Tina O’Grady, Makon-Sébastien Njock, Michelle Lion, Jonathan Bruyr, Emeline Mariavelle, Bartimée Galvan, Amandine Boeckx, Ingrid Struman and Franck Dequiedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:72
  10. Despite recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating aging and lifespan, and the pathways involved being conserved in different species, a full understanding of the aging process has no...

    Authors: Yizhou Jiang, Uma Gaur, Zhibai Cao, Sheng-Tao Hou and Wenhua Zheng
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:71
  11. Cytosine DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic mark present in most eukaryotic groups. While the patterns and functions of DNA methylation have been extensively studied in mouse and human, their conservati...

    Authors: Hala Al Adhami, Anaïs Flore Bardet, Michael Dumas, Elouan Cleroux, Sylvain Guibert, Patricia Fauque, Hervé Acloque and Michael Weber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:70
  12. Functional complexity of the eukaryotic mitochondrial proteome is augmented by independent gene acquisition from bacteria since its endosymbiotic origins. Mammalian homologs of many ancestral mitochondrial pro...

    Authors: Andrew J. Smith, Jayshree Advani, Daniel C. Brock, Jacob Nellissery, Jessica Gumerson, Lijin Dong, L. Aravind, Breandán Kennedy and Anand Swaroop
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:68
  13. Mice carrying targeted mutations are important for investigating gene function and the role of genes in disease, but off-target mutagenic effects associated with the processes of generating targeted alleles, f...

    Authors: Morag A. Lewis, Neil J. Ingham, Jing Chen, Selina Pearson, Francesca Di Domenico, Sohinder Rekhi, Rochelle Allen, Matthew Drake, Annelore Willaert, Victoria Rook, Johanna Pass, Thomas Keane, David J. Adams, Abigail S. Tucker, Jacqueline K. White and Karen P. Steel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:67
  14. The plastid genomes of the green algal order Chlamydomonadales tend to expand their non-coding regions, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here we shed new light on organellar genome evolution in Chlamy...

    Authors: Tomáš Pánek, Dovilė Barcytė, Sebastian C. Treitli, Kristína Záhonová, Martin Sokol, Tereza Ševčíková, Eliška Zadrobílková, Karin Jaške, Naoji Yubuki, Ivan Čepička and Marek Eliáš
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:66
  15. Ubiquitylation of the ligands and the receptor plays an important part in the regulation of the activity of the evolutionary conserved Notch signalling pathway. However, its function for activation of Notch is...

    Authors: Björn Schnute, Hideyuki Shimizu, Marvin Lyga, Martin Baron and Thomas Klein
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:65
  16. During mammalian preimplantation development, as the fertilized egg develops and differentiates, three cell lineages become specified: trophectoderm (TE), epiblast, and primitive endoderm (PrE). Through two st...

    Authors: Mami Tsume-Kajioka, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Kyoko Mochida, Yoko Ueda and Isao Matsuo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:64
  17. Twenty-four-hour rhythmicity in mammalian tissues and organs is driven by local circadian oscillators, systemic factors, the central circadian pacemaker and light-dark cycles. At the physiological level, the n...

    Authors: Carla S. Möller-Levet, Emma E. Laing, Simon N. Archer and Derk-Jan Dijk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:63

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:98

  18. T cell activation is a mechanical process as much as it is a biochemical process. In this study, we used a cone-and-plate viscometer system to treat Jurkat and primary human T cells with fluid shear stress (FS...

    Authors: Jacob M. Hope, Jenna A. Dombroski, Rebecca S. Pereles, Maria Lopez-Cavestany, Joshua D. Greenlee, Samantha C. Schwager, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King and Michael R. King
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:61
  19. Mature blood cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow by a process of differentiation along one of several different lineage trajectories. This is often represented as a series of discrete ...

    Authors: Charles Dussiau, Agathe Boussaroque, Mathilde Gaillard, Clotilde Bravetti, Laila Zaroili, Camille Knosp, Chloé Friedrich, Philippe Asquier, Lise Willems, Laurent Quint, Didier Bouscary, Michaela Fontenay, Thibault Espinasse, Adriana Plesa, Pierre Sujobert, Olivier Gandrillon…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:60
  20. Many epidemiological studies revealed that shift work is associated with an increased risk of a number of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. An experimental model of shift work in rats has additio...

    Authors: Alexandra J. Trott, Ben J. Greenwell, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Natali N. Guerrero-Vargas, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M. Buijs and Jerome S. Menet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:58
  21. Mitochondria and peroxisomes are the two organelles that are most affected during adaptation to microoxic or anoxic environments. Mitochondria are known to transform into anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes...

    Authors: Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Cristian Treitli, Tien Le, Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Pavla Hanousková, Ivan Čepička, Jan Tachezy and Vladimír Hampl
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:56
  22. Verticillium dahliae is a fungal pathogen that causes a vascular wilt on many economically important crops. Common fungal extracellular membrane (CFEM) domain proteins including secreted types have been implicate...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jian Song, Jun-Jiao Li, Jun Wang, Ran Li, Steven J. Klosterman, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Fa-Zhuang Lin, Xiao-Feng Dai, Krishna V. Subbarao and Jie-Yin Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:55
  23. Structural variants (SVs), including deletions, insertions, duplications, and inversions, are relatively long genomic variations implicated in a diverse range of processes from human disease to ecology and evo...

    Authors: Marc-André Lemay, Jonas A. Sibbesen, Davoud Torkamaneh, Jérémie Hamel, Roger C. Levesque and François Belzile
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:53
  24. Long-term selection experiments are a powerful tool to understand the genetic background of complex traits. The longest of such experiments has been conducted in the Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology ...

    Authors: Sergio E. Palma-Vera, Henry Reyer, Martina Langhammer, Norbert Reinsch, Lorena Derezanin, Joerns Fickel, Saber Qanbari, Joachim M. Weitzel, Soeren Franzenburg, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak and Jennifer Schoen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:52

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:238

  25. Parasite evolution has been conceptualized as a process of genetic loss and simplification. Contrary to this model, there is evidence of expansion and conservation of gene families related to essential functio...

    Authors: Qingxiang Guo, Stephen D. Atkinson, Bin Xiao, Yanhua Zhai, Jerri L. Bartholomew and Zemao Gu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:51
  26. Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play critical, sometimes opposing roles, in multiple physiological and pathological processes and diseases. They signal to distinct Smad branches; activins signa...

    Authors: Szabina Szófia Szilágyi, Ayelet R. Amsalem-Zafran, Keren E. Shapira, Marcelo Ehrlich and Yoav I. Henis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:50
  27. Mosquito control is a crucial global issue for protecting the human community from mosquito-borne diseases. There is an urgent need for the development of selective and safe reagents for mosquito control. Flav...

    Authors: Kazue Inaba, Kana Ebihara, Miki Senda, Ryunosuke Yoshino, Chisako Sakuma, Kotaro Koiwai, Daisuke Takaya, Chiduru Watanabe, Akira Watanabe, Yusuke Kawashima, Kaori Fukuzawa, Riyo Imamura, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takayoshi Okabe, Nozomi Uemura, Shinji Kasai…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:43
  28. The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics an...

    Authors: Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li and Yanlei Feng
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:49
  29. To localize sound sources accurately in a reverberant environment, human binaural hearing strongly favors analyzing the initial wave front of sounds. Behavioral studies of this “precedence effect” have so far ...

    Authors: Kongyan Li, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Chloe H. K. Chan, Ambika Prasad Mishra and Jan W. H. Schnupp
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:48
  30. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a global leading cause of vision loss in older populations. Distinct from typical AMD, PCV is characterized by p...

    Authors: Kan Xing Wu, Natalie Jia Ying Yeo, Chun Yi Ng, Florence Wen Jing Chioh, Qiao Fan, Xianfeng Tian, Binxia Yang, Gunaseelan Narayanan, Hui Min Tay, Han Wei Hou, N. Ray Dunn, Xinyi Su, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung and Christine Cheung
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:47
  31. Resistance in malaria vectors to pyrethroids, the most widely used class of insecticides for malaria vector control, threatens the continued efficacy of vector control tools. Target-site resistance is an impor...

    Authors: Penelope A. Hancock, Amy Lynd, Antoinette Wiebe, Maria Devine, John Essandoh, Francis Wat’senga, Emile Z. Manzambi, Fiacre Agossa, Martin J. Donnelly, David Weetman and Catherine L. Moyes
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:46
  32. Base editors (BEs) display diverse applications in a variety of plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, maize, soybean, and cotton, where they have been used to mediate precise base pair conversions wi...

    Authors: Guanying Wang, Zhongping Xu, Fuqiu Wang, Yuefan Huang, Yanfeng Xin, Sijia Liang, Bo Li, Huan Si, Lin Sun, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao Ding, Xiangqian Zhu, Luo Chen, Lu Yu, Keith Lindsey, Xianlong Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:45
  33. Primary cilia are sensory organelles crucial for organ development. The pivotal structure of the primary cilia is a microtubule that is generated via tubulin polymerization reaction that occurs in the basal bo...

    Authors: Emi Hibino, Yusuke Ichiyama, Atsushi Tsukamura, Yosuke Senju, Takao Morimune, Masahito Ohji, Yoshihiro Maruo, Masaki Nishimura and Masaki Mori
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:42
  34. In sprouting angiogenesis, VEGFR2 level is regulated via a fine-tuned process involving various signaling pathways. Other than VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway, Wnt/ β-catenin signaling is also important in vascu...

    Authors: Yeaji Kim, Dong Young Kim, Haiying Zhang, Cho-Rong Bae, Daehyeon Seong, Yeomyung Kim, Jaewhan Song, Young-Myeong Kim and Young-Guen Kwon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:41
  35. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present at high copy numbers in animal cells, and though characterized by a single haplotype in each individual due to maternal germline inheritance, deleterious mutations and inta...

    Authors: Lana Meshnik, Dan Bar-Yaacov, Dana Kasztan, Tali Neiger, Tal Cohen, Mor Kishner, Itay Valenci, Sara Dadon, Christopher J. Klein, Jeffery M. Vance, Yoram Nevo, Stephan Züchner, Ofer Ovadia, Dan Mishmar and Anat Ben-Zvi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:40
  36. Obesity leads to a decline in the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle, thereby reducing mobility and promoting obesity-associated health risks. Dietary intervention has been shown to be an important measure t...

    Authors: Wei Chen, Yushi Chen, Ruifan Wu, Guanqun Guo, Youhua Liu, Botao Zeng, Xing Liao, Yizhen Wang and Xinxia Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:39
  37. Most of the known genes required for developmental processes have been identified by genetic screens in a few well-studied model organisms, which have been considered representative of related species, and inf...

    Authors: Muhammad Salim Hakeemi, Salim Ansari, Matthias Teuscher, Matthias Weißkopf, Daniela Großmann, Tobias Kessel, Jürgen Dönitz, Janna Siemanowski, Xuebin Wan, Dorothea Schultheis, Manfred Frasch, Siegfried Roth, Michael Schoppmeier, Martin Klingler and Gregor Bucher
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:38
  38. Body mass estimation is of paramount importance for paleobiological studies, as body size influences numerous other biological parameters. In mammals, body mass has been traditionally estimated using regressio...

    Authors: Russell K. Engelman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:37

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:54

  39. The full catalog of satellite DNA (satDNA) within a same genome constitutes the satellitome. The Library Hypothesis predicts that satDNA in relative species reflects that in their common ancestor, but the evol...

    Authors: Juan Pedro M. Camacho, Josefa Cabrero, María Dolores López-León, María Martín-Peciña, Francisco Perfectti, Manuel A. Garrido-Ramos and Francisco J. Ruiz-Ruano
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:36

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:69

  40. Sex allocation is the distribution of resources to male or female reproduction. In hermaphrodites, this concerns an individual’s resource allocation to, for example, the production of male or female gametes. M...

    Authors: Jeremias N. Brand, Luke J. Harmon and Lukas Schärer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:35
  41. In insects, airborne chemical signals are mainly detected by two receptor families, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). Functions of ORs have been intensively investigated in Diptera and Le...

    Authors: Xiao-Qing Hou, Dan-Dan Zhang, Daniel Powell, Hong-Lei Wang, Martin N. Andersson and Christer Löfstedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:34
  42. The process of thrombus formation is thought to involve interactions between platelets and leukocytes. Leukocyte incorporation into growing thrombi has been well established in vivo, and a number of properties...

    Authors: Daria S. Morozova, Alexey A. Martyanov, Sergei I. Obydennyi, Julia-Jessica D. Korobkin, Alexey V. Sokolov, Ekaterina V. Shamova, Irina V. Gorudko, Anna L. Khoreva, Anna Shcherbina, Mikhail A. Panteleev and Anastasia N. Sveshnikova
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:32
  43. Biopesticides and transgenic crops based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are extensively used to control insect pests, but the rapid evolution of insect resistance seriously threatens their effectiveness. B...

    Authors: Dan Sun, Liuhong Zhu, Le Guo, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Neil Crickmore, Xuguo Zhou, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Zhaojiang Guo and Youjun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:33
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