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  1. Content type: Research article

    The nerve net of Nematostella is generated using a conserved cascade of neurogenic transcription factors. For example, NvashA, a homolog of the achaete-scute family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors...

    Authors: Michael J. Layden, Hereroa Johnston, Aldine R. Amiel, Jamie Havrilak, Bailey Steinworth, Taylor Chock, Eric Röttinger and Mark Q. Martindale

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:61

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  2. Content type: Research article

    It is generally thought that the evolutionary transition to parasitism is irreversible because it is associated with the loss of functions needed for a free-living lifestyle. Nevertheless, free-living taxa are...

    Authors: Feifei Xu, Jon Jerlström-Hultqvist, Martin Kolisko, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Andrew J. Roger, Staffan G. Svärd and Jan O. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:62

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:77

  3. Content type: Research article

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlie developmental patterning and morphogenetic processes, and changes in the interactions within the underlying GRNs are a major driver of evolutionary processes. In order ...

    Authors: Daniel Pers, Thomas Buchta, Orhan Özüak, Selma Wolff, Jessica M. Pietsch, Mohammad Bilal Memon, Siegfried Roth and Jeremy A. Lynch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:63

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood–gas barrier (BGB). In mammals, the formation of a mature BGB occurs primarily after birth during alveologenesis ...

    Authors: Maria Loscertales, Fotini Nicolaou, Marion Jeanne, Mauro Longoni, Douglas B. Gould, Yunwei Sun, Faouzi I. Maalouf, Nandor Nagy and Patricia K. Donahoe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:59

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2016 14:73

  5. Content type: Research article

    Compartment boundaries are an essential developmental mechanism throughout evolution, designated to act as organizing centers and to regulate and localize differently fated cells. The hindbrain serves as a fas...

    Authors: Yuval Peretz, Noa Eren, Ayelet Kohl, Gideon Hen, Karina Yaniv, Karen Weisinger, Yuval Cinnamon and Dalit Sela-Donenfeld

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:57

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  6. Content type: Question and Answer

    A significant part of the communication between plant cells is mediated by signaling peptides and their corresponding plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinases. This communication mechanism serves as a k...

    Authors: Maike Breiden and Rüdiger Simon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:58

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The combination of a meager fossil record of vermiform enteropneusts and their disparity with the tubicolous pterobranchs renders early hemichordate evolution conjectural. The middle Cambrian Oesia disjuncta from...

    Authors: Karma Nanglu, Jean-Bernard Caron, Simon Conway Morris and Christopher B. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:56

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  8. Content type: Research article

    A tight regulation of the Wnt-signaling network, activated by 19 Wnt molecules and numerous receptors and co-receptors, is required for the establishment of a complex organism. Different branches of this Wnt-s...

    Authors: Veronika Wallkamm, Karolin Rahm, Jana Schmoll, Lilian T. Kaufmann, Eva Brinkmann, Jessica Schunk, Bianca Kraft, Doris Wedlich and Dietmar Gradl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:55

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing ...

    Authors: Gitte H. Bruun, Thomas K. Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R. Krainer, Kinji Ohno and Brage S. Andresen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:54

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Lili Ren, Mingyao Yang, Yaofeng Zhao, Zongyi Guo, Haijin Yi, Mingzhou Li, Yiqing Hu, Xi Long, Boyuan Sun, Jinxiu Li, Suoqiang Zhai, Tinghuan Zhang, Shilin Tian, Qingyong Meng…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:52

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are present in all forms of life and play a crucial role in protein folding and regulation. They catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond that precedes proline...

    Authors: Lukas Hoppstock, Franziska Trusch, Christoph Lederer, Pieter van West, Martin Koenneke and Peter Bayer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:53

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In HIV-infected macrophages, newly formed progeny virus particles accumulate in intracellular plasma membrane-connected compartments (IPMCs). Although the virus is usually seen in these compartments, it is unc...

    Authors: David O. Nkwe, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Jemima J. Burden, Lucy M. Collinson and Mark Marsh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:50

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  13. Content type: Comment

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that i...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:51

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  14. Content type: Comment

    Modern biomedical research depends critically on access to databases that house and disseminate genetic, genomic, molecular, and cell biological knowledge. Even as the explosion of available genome sequences a...

    Authors: Stephen G. Oliver, Antonia Lock, Midori A. Harris, Paul Nurse and Valerie Wood

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:49

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  15. Content type: Methodology article

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in metastasis and therapy resistance of carcinomas and can endow cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. The ability to detect ca...

    Authors: M. J. Toneff, A. Sreekumar, A. Tinnirello, P. Den Hollander, S. Habib, S. Li, M. J. Ellis, L. Xin, S. A. Mani and J. M. Rosen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:47

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  16. Content type: Research article

    A central goal of evolutionary biology is to link genomic change to phenotypic evolution. The origin of new transcription factors is a special case of genomic evolution since it brings opportunities for novel ...

    Authors: Ignacio Maeso, Thomas L. Dunwell, Chris D. R. Wyatt, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Borbála Vető, Juan A. Bernal, Shan Quah, Manuel Irimia and Peter W. H. Holland

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:45

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  17. Content type: Question and Answer

    Exosomes are extracellular vesicles first described as such 30 years ago and since implicated in cell–cell communication and the transmission of disease states, and explored as a means of drug discovery. Yet f...

    Authors: James R. Edgar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:46

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  18. Content type: Commentary

    One of the classic questions in the early evolution of eukaryotic life concerns the role of oxygen. Many unicellular eukaryotes are strict anaerobes and many animals have long anoxic phases in their life cycle...

    Authors: Marek Mentel, Aloysius G. M. Tielens and William F. Martin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:44

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  19. Content type: Correspondence

    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phyl...

    Authors: Roberto Danovaro, Cristina Gambi, Antonio Dell’Anno, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Pusceddu, Ricardo Cardoso Neves and Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:43

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  20. Content type: Comment

    Protein X is a signalling molecule that stimulates apoptosis. Treatment of cells with Protein X results in five times higher levels of cell death than those seen in untreated cells (wild type), as measured by ...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:42

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the adaptation of lineages to changing environments. The extent of this process in eukaryotes, however, remains controversial. The most well-known and ...

    Authors: Huan Qiu, Guohong Cai, Jing Luo, Debashish Bhattacharya and Ning Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:41

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  22. Content type: Forum

    The mechanism of memory remains one of the great unsolved problems of biology. Grappling with the question more than a hundred years ago, the German zoologist Richard Semon formulated the concept of the engram...

    Authors: Mu-ming Poo, Michele Pignatelli, Tomás J. Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Kelsey C. Martin, Andrii Rudenko, Li-Huei Tsai, Richard W. Tsien, Gord Fishell, Caitlin Mullins, J. Tiago Gonçalves, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T. Johnston, Fred H. Gage, Yang Dan…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:40

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