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  1. Oligodendrocytes, responsible for axon ensheathment, are critical for central nervous system (CNS) development, function, and diseases. OLIG2 is an important transcription factor (TF) that acts during oligoden...

    Authors: Haichao Wei, Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Bo Hai, Raquel Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Xizi Wu, Natasha Kharas and Jia Qian Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:132
  2. Plant pathogens and their hosts undergo adaptive changes in managed agricultural ecosystems, by overcoming host resistance, but the underlying genetic adaptations are difficult to determine in natural settings. V...

    Authors: Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jin-Qun Huang, Ran Li, Dan Wang, Jian Song, Krishna D. Puri, Lin Yang, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Bang-Zhuo Tong, Jun-Jiao Li, Yu-Shan Huang, Ivan Simko, Steven J. Klosterman, Xiao-Feng Dai and Krishna V. Subbarao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:131
  3. Targeted installation of designer chemical moieties on biopolymers provides an orthogonal means for their visualisation, manipulation and sequence analysis. Although high-throughput RNA sequencing is a widely ...

    Authors: Milda Mickutė, Kotryna Kvederavičiūtė, Aleksandr Osipenko, Raminta Mineikaitė, Saulius Klimašauskas and Giedrius Vilkaitis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:129
  4. Complex organismal traits are often the result of multiple interacting genes and sub-organismal phenotypes, but how these interactions shape the evolutionary trajectories of adaptive traits is poorly understoo...

    Authors: Oliver H. Wearing, Catherine M. Ivy, Natalia Gutiérrez-Pinto, Jonathan P. Velotta, Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Zachary A. Cheviron, Jay F. Storz and Graham R. Scott
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:128
  5. Proper placentation, including trophoblast differentiation and function, is essential for the health and well-being of both the mother and baby throughout pregnancy. Placental abnormalities that occur during t...

    Authors: Jimi L. Rosenkrantz, Jessica E. Gaffney, Victoria H. J. Roberts, Lucia Carbone and Shawn L. Chavez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:127
  6. Anatomical and cognitive adaptations to overcome morpho-mechanical limitations of laryngeal sound production, where body size and the related vocal apparatus dimensions determine the fundamental frequency, inc...

    Authors: Veronika C. Beeck, Gunnar Heilmann, Michael Kerscher and Angela S. Stoeger
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:121

    The Author Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:237

  7. Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anti-cancer anthracycline drug that causes double-stranded DNA breaks. It is highly effective against several types of tumours; however, it also has adverse effects on regenerative popu...

    Authors: Sara Beji, Marco D’Agostino, Elisa Gambini, Sara Sileno, Alessandro Scopece, Maria Cristina Vinci, Giuseppina Milano, Guido Melillo, Monica Napolitano, Giulio Pompilio, Maurizio C. Capogrossi, Daniele Avitabile and Alessandra Magenta
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:124
  8. Urbanization is one of the most influential processes on our globe, putting a great number of species under threat. Some species learn to cope with urbanization, and a few even benefit from it, but we are only...

    Authors: Katya Egert-Berg, Michal Handel, Aya Goldshtein, Ofri Eitan, Ivailo Borissov and Yossi Yovel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:123
  9. The anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT), first isolated from Camptotheca acuminata, was subsequently discovered in unrelated plants, including Ophiorrhiza pumila. Unlike known monoterpene indole alkaloids, CPT in

    Authors: Mengquan Yang, Qiang Wang, Yining Liu, Xiaolong Hao, Can Wang, Yuchen Liang, Jianbo Chen, Youli Xiao and Guoyin Kai
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:122
  10. Species domestication is generally characterized by the exploitation of high-impact mutations through processes that involve complex shifting demographics of domesticated species. These include not only inbree...

    Authors: Ming-Shan Wang, Jin-Jin Zhang, Xing Guo, Ming Li, Rachel Meyer, Hidayat Ashari, Zhu-Qing Zheng, Sheng Wang, Min-Sheng Peng, Yu Jiang, Mukesh Thakur, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Ali Esmailizadeh, Nalini Yasoda Hirimuthugoda, Moch Syamsul Arifin Zein, Szilvia Kusza…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:118
  11. The Hydra head organizer acts as a signaling center that initiates and maintains the primary body axis in steady state polyps and during budding or regeneration. Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling functions as a primary ...

    Authors: Berenice Ziegler, Irene Yiallouros, Benjamin Trageser, Sumit Kumar, Moritz Mercker, Svenja Kling, Maike Fath, Uwe Warnken, Martina Schnölzer, Thomas W. Holstein, Markus Hartl, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Jörg Stetefeld, Walter Stöcker and Suat Özbek
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:120
  12. The vacuole/lysosome is the final destination of autophagic pathways, but can also itself be degraded in whole or in part by selective macroautophagic or microautophagic processes. Diverse molecular mechanisms...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen He, Xue-Fei Cui, Shao-Jie Ma, Qin Xu, Yan-Peng Ran, Wei-Zhi Chen, Jun-Xi Mu, Hui Li, Jing Zhu, Qingqiu Gong and Zhiping Xie
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:117
  13. Sensorimotor gating is a fundamental pre-attentive process that is defined as the inhibition of a motor response by a sensory event. Sensorimotor gating, commonly measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) o...

    Authors: Jose Carlos Cano, Wanyun Huang and Karine Fénelon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:116
  14. Many of genome features which could help unravel the often complex post-speciation evolution of closely related species are obscured because of their location in chromosomal regions difficult to accurately cha...

    Authors: Zhaoen Yang, Xiaoyang Ge, Weinan Li, Yuying Jin, Lisen Liu, Wei Hu, Fuyan Liu, Yanli Chen, Shaoliang Peng and Fuguang Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:115
  15. Sexual dimorphism in immunity is believed to reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies and trade-offs between competing life history demands. Sexual selection can have major effects on mating rates an...

    Authors: Basabi Bagchi, Quentin Corbel, Imroze Khan, Ellen Payne, Devshuvam Banerji, Johanna Liljestrand-Rönn, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Julian Baur, Ahmed Sayadi, Elina Immonen, Göran Arnqvist, Irene Söderhäll and David Berger
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:114
  16. Epigenetic memory plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of cell identities in multicellular organisms. Polycomb and trithorax group (PcG and TrxG) proteins are responsible for epigenetic m...

    Authors: Maksim Erokhin, Fedor Gorbenko, Dmitry Lomaev, Marina Yu Mazina, Anna Mikhailova, Azat K. Garaev, Aleksander Parshikov, Nadezhda E. Vorobyeva, Pavel Georgiev, Paul Schedl and Darya Chetverina
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:113
  17. The anti-tumor activity of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies correlates with T cell infiltration in tumors. Thus, a major goal in oncology is to find strategies that enhance T cell infiltration and efficacy of anti-PD...

    Authors: Yoong Wearn Lim, Garry L. Coles, Savreet K. Sandhu, David S. Johnson, Adam S. Adler and Erica L. Stone
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:107
  18. Social insect colonies routinely face large vertebrate predators, against which they need to mount a collective defence. To do so, honeybees use an alarm pheromone that recruits nearby bees into mass stinging ...

    Authors: Andrea López-Incera, Morgane Nouvian, Katja Ried, Thomas Müller and Hans J. Briegel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:106
  19. Resistance and tolerance are two coexisting defense strategies for fighting infections. Resistance is mediated by signaling pathways that induce transcriptional activation of resistance factors that directly e...

    Authors: Human Riahi, Michaela Fenckova, Kayla J. Goruk, Annette Schenck and Jamie M. Kramer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:112
  20. The evolutionary origin of the telencephalon, the most anterior part of the vertebrate brain, remains obscure. Since no obvious counterpart to the telencephalon has yet been identified in invertebrate chordate...

    Authors: Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez, Giacomo Gattoni, Manuel Stemmer, Silvia D. Rohr, Laura N. Schuhmacher, Jocelyn Tang, Aleksandra Marconi, Gáspár Jékely and Detlev Arendt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:110
  21. The amino acid sequence of proteins generally carries all the necessary information for acquisition of native conformations, but the vectorial nature of translation can additionally determine the folding outco...

    Authors: Janire Urrutia, Alejandra Aguado, Carolina Gomis-Perez, Arantza Muguruza-Montero, Oscar R. Ballesteros, Jiaren Zhang, Eider Nuñez, Covadonga Malo, Hee Jung Chung, Aritz Leonardo, Aitor Bergara and Alvaro Villarroel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:109
  22. The majority of the human genome is transcribed in the form of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs. While these transcripts have attracted considerable interest, their molecular mechanisms of function and biological si...

    Authors: Huifen Cao, Dongyang Xu, Ye Cai, Xueer Han, Lu Tang, Fan Gao, Yao Qi, DingDing Cai, Huifang Wang, Maxim Ri, Denis Antonets, Yuri Vyatkin, Yue Chen, Xiang You, Fang Wang, Estelle Nicolas…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:108
  23. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are universal metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). They are involved in various biological processes, including pH cont...

    Authors: Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Miki Senda, Kodai Fukuda, Hong Yang Yu, Masaki Ishida, Masafumi Taira, Kazushi Kinbara and Toshiya Senda
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:105
  24. The ability to regenerate body parts is a feature of metazoan organisms and the focus of intense research aiming to understand its basis. A number of mechanisms involved in regeneration, such as proliferation ...

    Authors: Jamie A. Havrilak, Layla Al-Shaer, Noor Baban, Nesli Akinci and Michael J. Layden
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:104
  25. The supergroup Euglenozoa unites heterotrophic flagellates from three major clades, kinetoplastids, diplonemids, and euglenids, each of which exhibits extremely divergent mitochondrial characteristics. Mitocho...

    Authors: Kristína Záhonová, Gordon Lax, Savar D. Sinha, Guy Leonard, Thomas A. Richards, Julius Lukeš and Jeremy G. Wideman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:103
  26. Environmental stimuli experienced by the parental generation influence the phenotype of subsequent generations (Demoinet et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E2689-E2698, 2017; Burton et al., Nat Cell Biol 19:...

    Authors: Pedro Robles, Anisa Turner, Giusy Zuco, Sally Adams, Panagiota Paganopolou, Michael Winton, Beth Hill, Vikas Kache, Christine Bateson and Andre Pires-daSilva
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:102
  27. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy carrier in living organisms, critical for metabolism and essential physiological processes. In humans, abnormal regulation of energy levels (ATP concentration) a...

    Authors: Yijie Deng, Douglas Raymond Beahm, Steven Ionov and Rahul Sarpeshkar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:101
  28. Animals and plants diverged over one billion years ago and evolved unique mechanisms for many cellular processes, including cell death. One of the most well-studied cell death programmes in animals, apoptosis,...

    Authors: Elena A. Minina, Adrian N. Dauphinee, Florentine Ballhaus, Vladimir Gogvadze, Andrei P. Smertenko and Peter V. Bozhkov
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:100
  29. Visualizing and quantifying cellular heterogeneity is of central importance to study tissue complexity, development, and physiology and has a vital role in understanding pathologies. Mass spectrometry-based me...

    Authors: Matthijs J. D. Baars, Neeraj Sinha, Mojtaba Amini, Annelies Pieterman-Bos, Stephanie van Dam, Maroussia M. P. Ganpat, Miangela M. Laclé, Bas Oldenburg and Yvonne Vercoulen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:99

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:125

  30. Mitochondrial respiration is organized in a series of enzyme complexes in turn forming dynamic supercomplexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast), Cox13 (CoxVIa in mammals) is a conserved peripheral subu...

    Authors: Shu Zhou, Pontus Pettersson, Markus L. Björck, Hannah Dawitz, Peter Brzezinski, Lena Mäler and Pia Ädelroth
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:98
  31. Vertebrate brain structure is characterised not only by relative consistency in scaling between components, but also by many examples of divergence from these general trends.. Alternative hypotheses explain th...

    Authors: Shahar Avin, Adrian Currie and Stephen H. Montgomery
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:97
  32. The extent to which tumors acquire nutrients from dietary sources as opposed to from the breakdown of host tissues is not known. In this issue of BMC Biology, Holland et al. report an approach where food sourc...

    Authors: Keene L. Abbott and Matthew G. Vander Heiden
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:92

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:85

  33. Radioactive or stable isotopic labeling of metabolites is a strategy that is routinely used to map the cellular fate of a selected labeled metabolite after it is added to cell culture or to the circulation of ...

    Authors: Petter Holland, William M. Hagopian, A. Hope Jahren and Tor Erik Rusten
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:85

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:92

  34. Medicago ruthenica, a wild and perennial legume forage widely distributed in semi-arid grasslands, is distinguished by its outstanding tolerance to environmental stress. It is a close relative of commonly cultiva...

    Authors: Tianzuo Wang, Lifei Ren, Caihong Li, Di Zhang, Xiuxiu Zhang, Gang Zhou, Dan Gao, Rujin Chen, Yuhui Chen, Zhaolan Wang, Fengling Shi, Andrew D. Farmer, Yansu Li, Mengyan Zhou, Nevin D. Young and Wen-Hao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:96
  35. Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex that couples the presence of growth factors and nutrients in the environment with cellular proliferation. TORC1 is primari...

    Authors: Mohammad Alfatah, Jin Huei Wong, Vidhya Gomathi Krishnan, Yong Cheow Lee, Quan Feng Sin, Corinna Jie Hui Goh, Kiat Whye Kong, Wei Ting Lee, Jacqueline Lewis, Shawn Hoon and Prakash Arumugam
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:95
  36. The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is the most promising insect candidate for nutrient-recycling through bioconversion of organic waste into biomass, thereby improving sustainability of protein supplies fo...

    Authors: Cengiz Kaya, Tomas N. Generalovic, Gunilla Ståhls, Martin Hauser, Ana C. Samayoa, Carlos G. Nunes-Silva, Heather Roxburgh, Jens Wohlfahrt, Ebenezer A. Ewusie, Marc Kenis, Yupa Hanboonsong, Jesus Orozco, Nancy Carrejo, Satoshi Nakamura, Laura Gasco, Santos Rojo…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:94
  37. Brassica oleracea includes several morphologically diverse, economically important vegetable crops, such as the cauliflower and cabbage. However, genetic variants, especially large structural variants (SVs), that...

    Authors: Ning Guo, Shenyun Wang, Lei Gao, Yongming Liu, Xin Wang, Enhui Lai, Mengmeng Duan, Guixiang Wang, Jingjing Li, Meng Yang, Mei Zong, Shuo Han, Yanzheng Pei, Theo Borm, Honghe Sun, Liming Miao…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:93
  38. Infections with influenza A virus (IAV) cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Additional to vaccination, antiviral drugs are a treatment option. Besides FDA-approved drugs such as oseltamivir or zanami...

    Authors: Marc D. Hein, Prerna Arora, Pavel Marichal-Gallardo, Michael Winkler, Yvonne Genzel, Stefan Pöhlmann, Klaus Schughart, Sascha Y. Kupke and Udo Reichl
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:91
  39. Exaggerated secondary sexual traits are widespread in nature and often evolve under strong directional sexual selection. Although heavily studied from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints, we have little ...

    Authors: William Toubiana, David Armisén, Corentin Dechaud, Roberto Arbore and Abderrahman Khila
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:89
  40. Vertebrate meiotic recombination events are concentrated in regions (hotspots) that display open chromatin marks, such as trimethylation of lysines 4 and 36 of histone 3 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3). Mouse and human...

    Authors: Ondrej Mihola, Vladimir Landa, Florencia Pratto, Kevin Brick, Tatyana Kobets, Fitore Kusari, Srdjan Gasic, Fatima Smagulova, Corinne Grey, Petr Flachs, Vaclav Gergelits, Karel Tresnak, Jan Silhavy, Petr Mlejnek, R. Daniel Camerini-Otero, Michal Pravenec…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:86