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Table 1 Rates of mutation and phenotypic change on trunk and side branches and mutational expectation

From: Canalization of the evolutionary trajectory of the human influenza virus

  Baseline Side branch Trunk Trunk/side branch
Mutation size (antigenic units) 0.60 0.79 1.58 1.99×
Mutation rate (mutations per year) 0.04 0.06 0.81 13.23×
Antigenic flux (antigenic units per year) 0.02 0.05 1.27 26.25×