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  1. The Hydra head organizer acts as a signaling center that initiates and maintains the primary body axis in steady state polyps and during budding or regeneration. Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling functions as a primary ...

    Authors: Berenice Ziegler, Irene Yiallouros, Benjamin Trageser, Sumit Kumar, Moritz Mercker, Svenja Kling, Maike Fath, Uwe Warnken, Martina Schnölzer, Thomas W. Holstein, Markus Hartl, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Jörg Stetefeld, Walter Stöcker and Suat Özbek

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:120

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The vacuole/lysosome is the final destination of autophagic pathways, but can also itself be degraded in whole or in part by selective macroautophagic or microautophagic processes. Diverse molecular mechanisms...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen He, Xue-Fei Cui, Shao-Jie Ma, Qin Xu, Yan-Peng Ran, Wei-Zhi Chen, Jun-Xi Mu, Hui Li, Jing Zhu, Qingqiu Gong and Zhiping Xie

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:117

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Sensorimotor gating is a fundamental pre-attentive process that is defined as the inhibition of a motor response by a sensory event. Sensorimotor gating, commonly measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) o...

    Authors: Jose Carlos Cano, Wanyun Huang and Karine Fénelon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:116

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Many of genome features which could help unravel the often complex post-speciation evolution of closely related species are obscured because of their location in chromosomal regions difficult to accurately cha...

    Authors: Zhaoen Yang, Xiaoyang Ge, Weinan Li, Yuying Jin, Lisen Liu, Wei Hu, Fuyan Liu, Yanli Chen, Shaoliang Peng and Fuguang Li

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:115

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Sexual dimorphism in immunity is believed to reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies and trade-offs between competing life history demands. Sexual selection can have major effects on mating rates an...

    Authors: Basabi Bagchi, Quentin Corbel, Imroze Khan, Ellen Payne, Devshuvam Banerji, Johanna Liljestrand-Rönn, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Julian Baur, Ahmed Sayadi, Elina Immonen, Göran Arnqvist, Irene Söderhäll and David Berger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:114

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Epigenetic memory plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of cell identities in multicellular organisms. Polycomb and trithorax group (PcG and TrxG) proteins are responsible for epigenetic m...

    Authors: Maksim Erokhin, Fedor Gorbenko, Dmitry Lomaev, Marina Yu Mazina, Anna Mikhailova, Azat K. Garaev, Aleksander Parshikov, Nadezhda E. Vorobyeva, Pavel Georgiev, Paul Schedl and Darya Chetverina

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:113

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The anti-tumor activity of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies correlates with T cell infiltration in tumors. Thus, a major goal in oncology is to find strategies that enhance T cell infiltration and efficacy of anti-PD...

    Authors: Yoong Wearn Lim, Garry L. Coles, Savreet K. Sandhu, David S. Johnson, Adam S. Adler and Erica L. Stone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:107

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Social insect colonies routinely face large vertebrate predators, against which they need to mount a collective defence. To do so, honeybees use an alarm pheromone that recruits nearby bees into mass stinging ...

    Authors: Andrea López-Incera, Morgane Nouvian, Katja Ried, Thomas Müller and Hans J. Briegel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:106

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Resistance and tolerance are two coexisting defense strategies for fighting infections. Resistance is mediated by signaling pathways that induce transcriptional activation of resistance factors that directly e...

    Authors: Human Riahi, Michaela Fenckova, Kayla J. Goruk, Annette Schenck and Jamie M. Kramer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:112

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The evolutionary origin of the telencephalon, the most anterior part of the vertebrate brain, remains obscure. Since no obvious counterpart to the telencephalon has yet been identified in invertebrate chordate...

    Authors: Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez, Giacomo Gattoni, Manuel Stemmer, Silvia D. Rohr, Laura N. Schuhmacher, Jocelyn Tang, Aleksandra Marconi, Gáspár Jékely and Detlev Arendt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The amino acid sequence of proteins generally carries all the necessary information for acquisition of native conformations, but the vectorial nature of translation can additionally determine the folding outco...

    Authors: Janire Urrutia, Alejandra Aguado, Carolina Gomis-Perez, Arantza Muguruza-Montero, Oscar R. Ballesteros, Jiaren Zhang, Eider Nuñez, Covadonga Malo, Hee Jung Chung, Aritz Leonardo, Aitor Bergara and Alvaro Villarroel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:109

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The majority of the human genome is transcribed in the form of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs. While these transcripts have attracted considerable interest, their molecular mechanisms of function and biological si...

    Authors: Huifen Cao, Dongyang Xu, Ye Cai, Xueer Han, Lu Tang, Fan Gao, Yao Qi, DingDing Cai, Huifang Wang, Maxim Ri, Denis Antonets, Yuri Vyatkin, Yue Chen, Xiang You, Fang Wang, Estelle Nicolas…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:108

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are universal metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). They are involved in various biological processes, including pH cont...

    Authors: Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Miki Senda, Kodai Fukuda, Hong Yang Yu, Masaki Ishida, Masafumi Taira, Kazushi Kinbara and Toshiya Senda

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:105

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The ability to regenerate body parts is a feature of metazoan organisms and the focus of intense research aiming to understand its basis. A number of mechanisms involved in regeneration, such as proliferation ...

    Authors: Jamie A. Havrilak, Layla Al-Shaer, Noor Baban, Nesli Akinci and Michael J. Layden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:104

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The supergroup Euglenozoa unites heterotrophic flagellates from three major clades, kinetoplastids, diplonemids, and euglenids, each of which exhibits extremely divergent mitochondrial characteristics. Mitocho...

    Authors: Kristína Záhonová, Gordon Lax, Savar D. Sinha, Guy Leonard, Thomas A. Richards, Julius Lukeš and Jeremy G. Wideman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:103

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Environmental stimuli experienced by the parental generation influence the phenotype of subsequent generations (Demoinet et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E2689-E2698, 2017; Burton et al., Nat Cell Biol 19:...

    Authors: Pedro Robles, Anisa Turner, Giusy Zuco, Sally Adams, Panagiota Paganopolou, Michael Winton, Beth Hill, Vikas Kache, Christine Bateson and Andre Pires-daSilva

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:102

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main energy carrier in living organisms, critical for metabolism and essential physiological processes. In humans, abnormal regulation of energy levels (ATP concentration) a...

    Authors: Yijie Deng, Douglas Raymond Beahm, Steven Ionov and Rahul Sarpeshkar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:101

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Animals and plants diverged over one billion years ago and evolved unique mechanisms for many cellular processes, including cell death. One of the most well-studied cell death programmes in animals, apoptosis,...

    Authors: Elena A. Minina, Adrian N. Dauphinee, Florentine Ballhaus, Vladimir Gogvadze, Andrei P. Smertenko and Peter V. Bozhkov

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:100

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Visualizing and quantifying cellular heterogeneity is of central importance to study tissue complexity, development, and physiology and has a vital role in understanding pathologies. Mass spectrometry-based me...

    Authors: Matthijs J. D. Baars, Neeraj Sinha, Mojtaba Amini, Annelies Pieterman-Bos, Stephanie van Dam, Maroussia M. P. Ganpat, Miangela M. Laclé, Bas Oldenburg and Yvonne Vercoulen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:99

    Content type: Methodology article

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  20. Mitochondrial respiration is organized in a series of enzyme complexes in turn forming dynamic supercomplexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast), Cox13 (CoxVIa in mammals) is a conserved peripheral subu...

    Authors: Shu Zhou, Pontus Pettersson, Markus L. Björck, Hannah Dawitz, Peter Brzezinski, Lena Mäler and Pia Ädelroth

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:98

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Vertebrate brain structure is characterised not only by relative consistency in scaling between components, but also by many examples of divergence from these general trends.. Alternative hypotheses explain th...

    Authors: Shahar Avin, Adrian Currie and Stephen H. Montgomery

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:97

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The extent to which tumors acquire nutrients from dietary sources as opposed to from the breakdown of host tissues is not known. In this issue of BMC Biology, Holland et al. report an approach where food sourc...

    Authors: Keene L. Abbott and Matthew G. Vander Heiden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:92

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:85

  23. Radioactive or stable isotopic labeling of metabolites is a strategy that is routinely used to map the cellular fate of a selected labeled metabolite after it is added to cell culture or to the circulation of ...

    Authors: Petter Holland, William M. Hagopian, A. Hope Jahren and Tor Erik Rusten

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:85

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:92

  24. Medicago ruthenica, a wild and perennial legume forage widely distributed in semi-arid grasslands, is distinguished by its outstanding tolerance to environmental stress. It is a close relative of commonly cultiva...

    Authors: Tianzuo Wang, Lifei Ren, Caihong Li, Di Zhang, Xiuxiu Zhang, Gang Zhou, Dan Gao, Rujin Chen, Yuhui Chen, Zhaolan Wang, Fengling Shi, Andrew D. Farmer, Yansu Li, Mengyan Zhou, Nevin D. Young and Wen-Hao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:96

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex that couples the presence of growth factors and nutrients in the environment with cellular proliferation. TORC1 is primari...

    Authors: Mohammad Alfatah, Jin Huei Wong, Vidhya Gomathi Krishnan, Yong Cheow Lee, Quan Feng Sin, Corinna Jie Hui Goh, Kiat Whye Kong, Wei Ting Lee, Jacqueline Lewis, Shawn Hoon and Prakash Arumugam

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:95

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is the most promising insect candidate for nutrient-recycling through bioconversion of organic waste into biomass, thereby improving sustainability of protein supplies fo...

    Authors: Cengiz Kaya, Tomas N. Generalovic, Gunilla Ståhls, Martin Hauser, Ana C. Samayoa, Carlos G. Nunes-Silva, Heather Roxburgh, Jens Wohlfahrt, Ebenezer A. Ewusie, Marc Kenis, Yupa Hanboonsong, Jesus Orozco, Nancy Carrejo, Satoshi Nakamura, Laura Gasco, Santos Rojo…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:94

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Brassica oleracea includes several morphologically diverse, economically important vegetable crops, such as the cauliflower and cabbage. However, genetic variants, especially large structural variants (SVs), that...

    Authors: Ning Guo, Shenyun Wang, Lei Gao, Yongming Liu, Xin Wang, Enhui Lai, Mengmeng Duan, Guixiang Wang, Jingjing Li, Meng Yang, Mei Zong, Shuo Han, Yanzheng Pei, Theo Borm, Honghe Sun, Liming Miao…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:93

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Infections with influenza A virus (IAV) cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Additional to vaccination, antiviral drugs are a treatment option. Besides FDA-approved drugs such as oseltamivir or zanami...

    Authors: Marc D. Hein, Prerna Arora, Pavel Marichal-Gallardo, Michael Winkler, Yvonne Genzel, Stefan Pöhlmann, Klaus Schughart, Sascha Y. Kupke and Udo Reichl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Exaggerated secondary sexual traits are widespread in nature and often evolve under strong directional sexual selection. Although heavily studied from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints, we have little ...

    Authors: William Toubiana, David Armisén, Corentin Dechaud, Roberto Arbore and Abderrahman Khila

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:89

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Vertebrate meiotic recombination events are concentrated in regions (hotspots) that display open chromatin marks, such as trimethylation of lysines 4 and 36 of histone 3 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3). Mouse and human...

    Authors: Ondrej Mihola, Vladimir Landa, Florencia Pratto, Kevin Brick, Tatyana Kobets, Fitore Kusari, Srdjan Gasic, Fatima Smagulova, Corinne Grey, Petr Flachs, Vaclav Gergelits, Karel Tresnak, Jan Silhavy, Petr Mlejnek, R. Daniel Camerini-Otero, Michal Pravenec…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. The dorsal domain of the neural tube is an excellent model to investigate the generation of complexity during embryonic development. It is a highly dynamic and multifaceted region being first transiently popul...

    Authors: Shai Ofek, Sophie Wiszniak, Sarah Kagan, Markus Tondl, Quenten Schwarz and Chaya Kalcheim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:84

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) serve as tractable tools to study malaria parasite biology and host-parasite-vector interactions. Among the four RMPs originally collected from wild thicket rats in sub-Saharan ...

    Authors: Abhinay Ramaprasad, Severina Klaus, Olga Douvropoulou, Richard Culleton and Arnab Pain

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:82

  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Léonard Hérault, Mathilde Poplineau, Adrien Mazuel, Nadine Platet, Élisabeth Remy and Estelle Duprez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:80

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:19

  34. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that involves a variety of cell types. However, how the epigenetic dysregulations of peripheral immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis o...

    Authors: Dandan Zong, Beibei Huang, Young Li, Yichen Lu, Nan Xiang, Chuang Guo, Qian Liu, Qing Sha, Pengcheng Du, Qiaoni Yu, Wen Zhang, Pengfei Cai, Yanping Sun, Jinhui Tao, Xiaomei Li, Shanbao Cai…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Genetic sex ratio distorters are systems aimed at effecting a bias in the reproductive sex ratio of a population and could be applied for the area-wide control of sexually reproducing insects that vector disea...

    Authors: Angela Meccariello, Flavia Krsticevic, Rita Colonna, Giuseppe Del Corsano, Barbara Fasulo, Philippos Aris Papathanos and Nikolai Windbichler

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:78

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Apicomplexa is a diverse phylum comprising unicellular endobiotic animal parasites and contains some of the most well-studied microbial eukaryotes including the devastating human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum a...

    Authors: Eric D. Salomaki, Kristina X. Terpis, Sonja Rueckert, Michael Kotyk, Zuzana Kotyková Varadínová, Ivan Čepička, Christopher E. Lane and Martin Kolisko

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:77

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ containing diverse cell types specialized in secreting hormones that regulate physiology. Pituitary thyrotropes produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a critic...

    Authors: Alexandre Z. Daly, Lindsey A. Dudley, Michael T. Peel, Stephen A. Liebhaber, Stephen C. J. Parker and Sally A. Camper

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:76

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Temperature influences biology at all levels, from altering rates of biochemical reactions to determining sustainability of entire ecosystems. Although extended exposure to elevated temperatures influences org...

    Authors: Rosemary N. Plagens, Isiah Mossiah, Karen S. Kim Guisbert and Eric Guisbert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:75

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Helminth-associated changes in gut microbiota composition have been hypothesised to contribute to the immune-suppressive properties of parasitic worms. Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated autoimmune disea...

    Authors: Timothy P. Jenkins, David I. Pritchard, Radu Tanasescu, Gary Telford, Marina Papaiakovou, Riccardo Scotti, Alba Cortés, Cris S. Constantinescu and Cinzia Cantacessi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:74

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae are important photosynthetic symbionts in cnidarians (such as corals) and other coral reef organisms. Breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to enviro...

    Authors: Raúl A. González-Pech, Timothy G. Stephens, Yibi Chen, Amin R. Mohamed, Yuanyuan Cheng, Sarah Shah, Katherine E. Dougan, Michael D. A. Fortuin, Rémi Lagorce, David W. Burt, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A. Ragan and Cheong Xin Chan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:73

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Membrane protrusions that occur on the dorsal surface of a cell are an excellent experimental system to study actin machinery at work in a living cell. Small GTPase Rac1 controls the membrane protrusions that ...

    Authors: F. Leyden, S. Uthishtran, U. K. Moorthi, H. M. York, A. Patil, H. Gandhi, E. P. Petrov, T. Bornschlögl and S. Arumugam

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:72

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  42. Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cellular homeostasis. In vivo, cells experience plasma membrane damage from a multitude of stressors in the extra- and intra-cellular environment. To avoid lethal con...

    Authors: Dustin A. Ammendolia, William M. Bement and John H. Brumell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:71

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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