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  1. Mitochondrial dynamics is the result of a dynamic balance between fusion and fission events, which are driven via a set of mitochondria-shaping proteins. These proteins are generally considered to be binary co...

    Authors: Rong Yu, Tong Liu, Shao-Bo Jin, Maria Ankarcrona, Urban Lendahl, Monica Nistér and Jian Zhao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:229

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK-D, NME4, NM23-H4) is a multifunctional enzyme mainly localized in the intermembrane space, bound to the inner membrane.

    Authors: Marie-Lise Lacombe, Frederic Lamarche, Olivier De Wever, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Alyssa Carlson, Imran Khan, Anda Huna, Sophie Vacher, Claire Calmel, Céline Desbourdes, Cécile Cottet-Rousselle, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Stéphane Attia, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Joël Raingeaud, Christelle Machon…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:228

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Female reproductive behaviors and physiology change profoundly after mating. The control of pregnancy-associated changes in physiology and behaviors are largely hard-wired into the brain to guarantee reproduct...

    Authors: Mohanakarthik P. Nallasivan, Irmgard U. Haussmann, Alberto Civetta and Matthias Soller

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:226

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transduces extracellular signals in virtually all eukaryotic cells. The soluble Beggiatoa photoactivatable adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) rapid...

    Authors: Shang Yang, Oana M. Constantin, Divya Sachidanandan, Hannes Hofmann, Tobias C. Kunz, Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic, Thomas G. Oertner, Georg Nagel, Robert J. Kittel, Christine E. Gee and Shiqiang Gao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:227

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The human foetus typically needs to rotate when passing through the tight birth canal because of the complex shape of the pelvis. In most women, the upper part, or inlet, of the birth canal has a round or medi...

    Authors: Ekaterina Stansfield, Barbara Fischer, Nicole D. S. Grunstra, Maria Villa Pouca and Philipp Mitteroecker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:224

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The zinc-finger transcription factor Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) exerts a dual regulatory role during insect development by preventing precocious larval/nymphal metamorphosis and in stimulating aspects of adult ...

    Authors: Zhongxia Wu, Libin Yang, Huihui Li and Shutang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:222

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Skin-penetrating nematodes of the genus Strongyloides infect over 600 million people, posing a major global health burden. Their life cycle includes both a parasitic and free-living generation. During the parasit...

    Authors: Ivan N. Chavez, Taylor M. Brown, Adrien Assié, Astra S. Bryant, Buck S. Samuel and Elissa A. Hallem

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:221

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Hansen’s disease (leprosy), widespread in medieval Europe, is today mainly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with around 200,000 new cases reported annually. Despite its long history and appearance...

    Authors: Saskia Pfrengle, Judith Neukamm, Meriam Guellil, Marcel Keller, Martyna Molak, Charlotte Avanzi, Alena Kushniarevich, Núria Montes, Gunnar U. Neumann, Ella Reiter, Rezeda I. Tukhbatova, Nataliya Y. Berezina, Alexandra P. Buzhilova, Dmitry S. Korobov, Stian Suppersberger Hamre, Vitor M. J. Matos…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:220

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Plasmodium simium, a malaria parasite of non-human primates (NHP), was recently shown to cause zoonotic infections in humans in Brazil. We sequenced the P. simium genome to investigate its evolutionary history an...

    Authors: Tobias Mourier, Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Abhinav Kaushik, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Olga Douvropoulou, Qingtian Guan, Francisco J. Guzmán-Vega, Sarah Forrester, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Cesare Bianco Júnior, Julio Cesar de Souza Junior, Silvia Bahadian Moreira, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:219

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is a childhood-onset, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes NPC1 or NPC2 and characterized by impaired cholesterol homeostasis,...

    Authors: Anika V. Prabhu, Insung Kang, Raffaella De Pace, Christopher A. Wassif, Hideji Fujiwara, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S. Ory, Juan S. Bonifacino, Michael E. Ward and Forbes D. Porter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:218

    Content type: Research article

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  11. DNA barcodes are a useful tool for discovering, understanding, and monitoring biodiversity which are critical tasks at a time of rapid biodiversity loss. However, widespread adoption of barcodes requires cost-...

    Authors: Amrita Srivathsan, Leshon Lee, Kazutaka Katoh, Emily Hartop, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Johnathan Wong, Darren Yeo and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:217

    Content type: Methodology article

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  12. Maturation is a process that allows synapses to acquire full functionality, optimizing their activity to diverse neural circuits, and defects in synaptic maturation may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorde...

    Authors: Andonia Petkova-Tuffy, Nina Gödecke, Julio Viotti, Martin Korte and Thomas Dresbach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:215

    Content type: Research article

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  13. How microbes affect host fitness and environmental adaptation has become a fundamental research question in evolutionary biology. To better understand the role of microbial genomic variation for host fitness, ...

    Authors: Yun Wang, Franz Baumdicker, Paul Schweiger, Sven Kuenzel and Fabian Staubach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:187

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) is a common technique for identifying DNA-protein interactions, and robotic platforms have been developed for high-throughput analyses to unravel the gene regulatory networks in many org...

    Authors: Ni-Chiao Tsai, Tzu-Shu Hsu, Shang-Che Kuo, Chung-Ting Kao, Tzu-Huan Hung, Da-Gin Lin, Chung-Shu Yeh, Chia-Chen Chu, Jeng-Shane Lin, Hsin-Hung Lin, Chia-Ying Ko, Tien-Hsien Chang, Jung-Chen Su and Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:214

    Content type: Software

    Published on:

  15. Activation of gene expression in striped domains is a key building block of biological patterning, from the recursive formation of veins in plant leaves to that of ribs and vertebrae in our bodies. In animals,...

    Authors: Anmol Krishna, Jason Gardiner, Tyler J. Donner and Enrico Scarpella

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:213

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Advances in three-dimensional culture technologies have led to progression in systems used to model the gonadal microenvironment in vitro. Despite demonstrating basic functionality, tissue organisation is ofte...

    Authors: Elizabeth Oliver, João Pedro Alves-Lopes, Femke Harteveld, Rod T. Mitchell, Elisabet Åkesson, Olle Söder and Jan-Bernd Stukenborg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:212

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Glossina species (tsetse flies), the sole vectors of African trypanosomes, maintained along their long evolutionary history a unique reproductive strategy, adenotrophic viviparity. Viviparity reduces their reprod...

    Authors: Grazia Savini, Francesca Scolari, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Davide Carraretto, Ludvik M. Gomulski, Giuliano Gasperi, Adly M. M. Abd-Alla, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo and Anna R. Malacrida

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:211

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Species co-occurrences can have profound effects on the habitat use of species, and therefore habitat structure alone cannot fully explain observed abundances. To account for this aspect of community organizat...

    Authors: Marco Basile, Thomas Asbeck, João M. Cordeiro Pereira, Grzegorz Mikusiński and Ilse Storch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:210

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Authors: Sarah Farhat, Phuong Le, Ehsan Kayal, Benjamin Noel, Estelle Bigeard, Erwan Corre, Florian Maumus, Isabelle Florent, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Tristan Barbeyron, Ruibo Cai, Corinne Da Silva, Benjamin Istace, Karine Labadie, Dominique Marie…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:209

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:1

  20. Variability is a hallmark of animal behavior. It contributes to survival by endowing individuals and populations with the capacity to adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. Intra-individual variabili...

    Authors: Guillaume Le Goc, Julie Lafaye, Sophia Karpenko, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier and Georges Debrégeas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:208

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) encompasses cellular differences in tumors and is related to clinical outcomes such as drug resistance. However, little is known about the dynamics of ITH, owing to the lack of ...

    Authors: Hanako Ono, Yasuhito Arai, Eisaku Furukawa, Daichi Narushima, Tetsuya Matsuura, Hiromi Nakamura, Daisuke Shiokawa, Momoko Nagai, Toshio Imai, Koshi Mimori, Koji Okamoto, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuhiro Shibata and Mamoru Kato

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:207

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Eukaryotic genomes are known to display an enormous variation in size, but the evolutionary causes of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. To obtain mechanistic insights into such variation, previous s...

    Authors: C. P. Stelzer, J. Blommaert, A. M. Waldvogel, M. Pichler, B. Hecox-Lea and D. B. Mark Welch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:206

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Pineal-related organs in cyclostomes, teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles exhibit color opponency, generating antagonistic neural responses to different wavelengths of light and thereby sensory information abou...

    Authors: Seiji Wada, Emi Kawano-Yamashita, Tomohiro Sugihara, Satoshi Tamotsu, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Akihisa Terakita

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:188

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The cuticular microbiomes of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants pose a conundrum in microbiome biology because they are freely colonisable, and yet the prevalence of the vertically transmitted bacteria Pseudonocardia, ...

    Authors: Sarah F. Worsley, Tabitha M. Innocent, Neil A. Holmes, Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam, Morten Schiøtt, Barrie Wilkinson, J. Colin Murrell, Jacobus J. Boomsma, Douglas W. Yu and Matthew I. Hutchings

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:205

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Murray’s Law, which describes the branching architecture of bifurcating tubes, predicts the morphology of vessels in many amniotes and plants. Here, we use insects to explore the universality of Murray’s Law a...

    Authors: Sandra R. Schachat, C. Kevin Boyce, Jonathan L. Payne and David Lentink

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:204

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) is essential for maintaining genome stability. Plants use small RNAs (sRNAs) to direct DNA methylation to TEs (RNA-directed DNA methylation; RdDM). Similar mechanisms o...

    Authors: Jana Sperschneider, Ashley W. Jones, Jamila Nasim, Bo Xu, Silke Jacques, Chengcheng Zhong, Narayana M. Upadhyaya, Rohit Mago, Yiheng Hu, Melania Figueroa, Karam B. Singh, Eric A. Stone, Benjamin Schwessinger, Ming-Bo Wang, Jennifer M. Taylor and Peter N. Dodds

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:203

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The world’s fast disappearing mangrove forests have low plant diversity and are often assumed to also have a species-poor insect fauna. We here compare the tropical arthropod fauna across a freshwater swamp an...

    Authors: Darren Yeo, Amrita Srivathsan, Jayanthi Puniamoorthy, Foo Maosheng, Patrick Grootaert, Lena Chan, Benoit Guénard, Claas Damken, Rodzay A. Wahab, Ang Yuchen and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:202

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Gravity plays an important role in most life forms on Earth. Yet, a complete molecular understanding of sensing and responding to gravity is lacking. While there are anatomical differences among animals, there...

    Authors: Wei-Long Chen, Hungtang Ko, Han-Sheng Chuang, David M. Raizen and Haim H. Bau

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:186

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets in mice have previously been studied using cell surface markers, and more recently single-cell technologies. The recent revolution of single-cell analysis ...

    Authors: Jinheng Wang, Chenggong Tu, Hui Zhang, Yongliang Huo, Eline Menu and Jinbao Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:201

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Although oocyte quality is the dominant factor determining embryo quality, few studies have been conducted to evaluate embryo quality based on the metabolites related to the oocyte. With quantification of the ...

    Authors: Ju Wang, Wei Zheng, Shuoping Zhang, Keqiang Yan, Miao Jin, Huiling Hu, Zhen Ma, Fei Gong, Guangxiu Lu, Yan Ren, Liang Lin, Ge Lin, Liang Hu and Siqi Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:200

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. The microtubule-associated protein tau forms aggregates in different neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. Prior work has shown that a single P301L mutation in tau gene, MAPT, can promote alternative tau...

    Authors: Sang-Gyun Kang, Zhuang Zhuang Han, Nathalie Daude, Emily McNamara, Serene Wohlgemuth, Laura Molina-Porcel, Jiri G. Safar, Sue-Ann Mok and David Westaway

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:199

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Deciphering the functions of Y chromosome in mammals has been slow owing to the presence of repeats. Some of these repeats transcribe coding RNAs, the roles of which have been studied. Functions of the noncodi...

    Authors: Hemakumar M. Reddy, Rupa Bhattacharya, Shrish Tiwari, Kankadeb Mishra, Pranatharthi Annapurna, Zeenath Jehan, Nissankararao Mary Praveena, Jomini Liza Alex, Vishnu M. Dhople, Lalji Singh, Mahadevan Sivaramakrishnan, Anurag Chaturvedi, Nandini Rangaraj, Thomas Michael Shiju, Badanapuram Sreedevi, Sachin Kumar…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:198

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying hair follicle development is of paramount importance in the genetic improvement of wool-related traits in sheep and skin-related traits in humans. The Me...

    Authors: Bingru Zhao, Hanpeng Luo, Junmin He, Xixia Huang, Siqian Chen, Xuefeng Fu, Weidan Zeng, Yuezhen Tian, Shuli Liu, Cong-jun Li, George E. Liu, Lingzhao Fang, Shengli Zhang and Kechuan Tian

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:197

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The biophysics of an organism span multiple scales from subcellular to organismal and include processes characterized by spatial properties, such as the diffusion of molecules, cell migration, and flow of intr...

    Authors: T. J. Sego, Josua O. Aponte-Serrano, Juliano F. Gianlupi and James A. Glazier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:196

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. QconCATs are quantitative concatamers for proteomic applications that yield stoichiometric quantities of sets of stable isotope-labelled internal standards. However, changing a QconCAT design, for example, to ...

    Authors: James Johnson, Victoria M. Harman, Catarina Franco, Edward Emmott, Nichola Rockliffe, Yaqi Sun, Lu-Ning Liu, Ayako Takemori, Nobuaki Takemori and Robert J. Beynon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:195

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

  36. KDEL receptor helps establish cellular equilibrium in the early secretory pathway by recycling leaked ER-chaperones to the ER during secretion of newly synthesized proteins. Studies have also shown that KDEL r...

    Authors: Xihua Yue, Yi Qian, Lianhui Zhu, Bopil Gim, Mengjing Bao, Jie Jia, Shuaiyang Jing, Yijing Wang, Chuanting Tan, Francesca Bottanelli, Pascal Ziltener, Sunkyu Choi, Piliang Hao and Intaek Lee

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:194

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The presence of mitochondria is a distinguishing feature between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It is currently accepted that the evolutionary origin of mitochondria coincided with the formation of eukaryot...

    Authors: Pavla Tůmová, Luboš Voleman, Andreas Klingl, Eva Nohýnková, Gerhard Wanner and Pavel Doležal

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:193

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in tumor progression. However, their biological functions and underlying mechanisms in hypoxia adaptation remain largely unclear.

    Authors: Tao Shen, Wangxiao Xia, Sainan Min, Zixuan Yang, Lehua Cheng, Wei Wang, Qianxi Zhan, Fanghong Shao, Xuehan Zhang, Zhiyu Wang, Yan Zhang, Guodong Shen, Huafeng Zhang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Qing-Peng Kong…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:192

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the gravest threats to human health and food security worldwide. The use of antimicrobials in livestock production can lead to emergence of AMR, which can have direct ef...

    Authors: Nazreen F. Hadjirin, Eric L. Miller, Gemma G. R. Murray, Phung L. K. Yen, Ho D. Phuc, Thomas M. Wileman, Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Susanna M. Williamson, Julian Parkhill, Duncan J. Maskell, Rui Zhou, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Marcelo Gottschalk, A. W. ( Dan) Tucker, Ngo Thi Hoa, John J. Welch…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:191

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Urbanization is rapidly changing our planet and animals that live in urban environments must quickly adjust their behavior. One of the most prevalent behavioral characteristics of urban dwelling animals is an ...

    Authors: Lee Harten, Nesim Gonceer, Michal Handel, Orit Dash, H. Bobby Fokidis and Yossi Yovel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:190

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. The identification of open chromatin regions and transcription factor binding sites (TFBs) is an important step in understanding the regulation of gene expression in diverse species. ATAC-seq is a technique us...

    Authors: Lianggang Huang, Xuejie Li, Liangbo Dong, Bin Wang and Li Pan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:189

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. A number of cellular processes have evolved in metazoans that increase the proteome repertoire in relation to the genome, such as alternative splicing and translation recoding. Another such process, translatio...

    Authors: Yunpo Zhao, Bo Gustav Lindberg, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Xiongzhuo Tang, Stefano Piazza and Ylva Engström

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:185

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. A variety of human genetic diseases is known to be caused by mutations in genes encoding chromatin factors and epigenetic regulators, such as DNA or histone modifying enzymes and members of ATP-dependent chrom...

    Authors: Giovanni Messina, Yuri Prozzillo, Francesca Delle Monache, Maria Virginia Santopietro, Maria Teresa Atterrato and Patrizio Dimitri

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:184

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Knowledge on the localization and mobility of enzymes inside bacterial cells is scarce, but important for understanding spatial regulation of metabolism. The four central enzymes (Rib enzymes) of the riboflavi...

    Authors: Daniel A. O. Rotter, Christoph Heger, Luis M. Oviedo-Bocanegra and Peter L. Graumann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:183

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Speed and trajectory of locomotion are the characteristic traits of individual species. Locomotion kinematics may have been shaped during evolution towards increased survival in the habitats of each species. A...

    Authors: Yuji Matsuo, Akinao Nose and Hiroshi Kohsaka

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:176

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The volvocine algae, which include the single-celled species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial species Volvox carteri, serve as a model in which to study the evolution of multicellularity and cellular di...

    Authors: Charles Ross Lindsey, Frank Rosenzweig and Matthew D. Herron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:182

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. In flowering plants, precise timing of the floral transition is crucial to maximize chances of reproductive success, and as such, this process has been intensively studied. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL ...

    Authors: Tom Bennett and Laura E. Dixon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:181

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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