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  1. The emergence and continued global spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for methods to identify novel or repurposed therapeutic drugs in a fast and effective way. Despite the availa...

    Authors: Jonne Rietdijk, Marianna Tampere, Aleksandra Pettke, Polina Georgiev, Maris Lapins, Ulrika Warpman-Berglund, Ola Spjuth, Marjo-Riitta Puumalainen and Jordi Carreras-Puigvert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:156

    Content type: Methodology article

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  2. Insects depend on their olfactory sense as a vital system. Olfactory cues are processed by a rather complex system and translated into various types of behavior. In holometabolous insects like the red flour be...

    Authors: Björn Trebels, Stefan Dippel, Brigitte Goetz, Maria Graebner, Carolin Hofmann, Florian Hofmann, Freya-Rebecca Schmid, Mara Uhl, Minh-Phung Vuong, Vanessa Weber and Joachim Schachtner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:155

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The skeletal muscle plays a central role in glucose homeostasis through the uptake of glucose from the extracellular medium in response to insulin. A number of factors are known to disrupt the normal response ...

    Authors: Marcel A. Vieira-Lara, Marleen B. Dommerholt, Wenxuan Zhang, Maaike Blankestijn, Justina C. Wolters, Fentaw Abegaz, Albert Gerding, Ydwine T. van der Veen, Rachel Thomas, Ronald P. van Os, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Johan W. Jonker, Janine K. Kruit and Barbara M. Bakker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:154

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Myogenesis is a highly regulated process ending with the formation of myotubes, the precursors of skeletal muscle fibers. Differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors...

    Authors: L. Coudert, A. Osseni, Y. G. Gangloff, L. Schaeffer and P. Leblanc

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:153

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Array tomography (AT) is a high-resolution imaging method to resolve fine details at the organelle level and has the advantage that it can provide 3D volumes to show the tissue context. AT can be carried out i...

    Authors: Sergio Gabarre, Frank Vernaillen, Pieter Baatsen, Katlijn Vints, Christopher Cawthorne, Steven Boeynaems, Emiel Michiels, Dorien Vandael, Natalia V. Gounko and Sebastian Munck

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:152

    Content type: Methodology article

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  6. Natural killer (NK) cells participate in cancer immunosurveillance and cancer immunotherapy. Live cell imaging of cancer cells targeted by NK cells, published today in BMC Biology by Zhu et al., reveals a rema...

    Authors: Timothy J. Mitchison

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:149

    Content type: Commentary

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    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:140

  7. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in cancer immunosurveillance and therapy. However, the target selectivity of NK cell activity is still poorly understood.

    Authors: Yanting Zhu, Jun Xie and Jue Shi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:140

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:149

  8. Authors: Pia U. Olafson, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Greta Buckmeier, Xiaoting Chen, Craig J. Coates, Megan Davis, Justin Dykema, Scott J. Emrich, Markus Friedrich, Christopher J. Holmes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Evan N. Jansen, Emily C. Jennings, Daniel Lawson, Ellen O. Martinson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:150

    Content type: Publisher Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:41

  9. Copy number variants (CNVs) linked to genes involved in nervous system development or function are often associated with neuropsychiatric disease. While CNVs involving deletions generally cause severe and high...

    Authors: Kesavan Meganathan, Ramachandran Prakasam, Dustin Baldridge, Paul Gontarz, Bo Zhang, Fumihiko Urano, Azad Bonni, Susan E. Maloney, Tychele N. Turner, James E. Huettner, John N. Constantino and Kristen L. Kroll

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Mitochondrial gene transfer/loss is common in land plants, and therefore the fate of missing mitochondrial genes has attracted more and more attention. The gene content of gymnosperm mitochondria varies greatl...

    Authors: Sheng-Long Kan, Ting-Ting Shen, Jin-Hua Ran and Xiao-Quan Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:146

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Hymenoptera comprise extremely diverse insect species with extensive variation in their life histories. The Dryinidae, a family of solitary wasps of Hymenoptera, have evolved innovations that allow them to hun...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Xinhai Ye, Cong Dang, Yunshen Cao, Rui Hong, Yu H. Sun, Shan Xiao, Yang Mei, Le Xu, Qi Fang, Huamei Xiao, Fei Li and Gongyin Ye

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Understanding how organisms evolve and adapt to extreme habitats is of crucial importance in evolutionary ecology. Altitude gradients are an important determinant of the distribution pattern and range of organ...

    Authors: Yupeng Geng, Yabin Guan, La Qiong, Shugang Lu, Miao An, M. James C. Crabbe, Ji Qi, Fangqing Zhao, Qin Qiao and Ticao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:143

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The opportunistic pathogen Naegleria fowleri establishes infection in the human brain, killing almost invariably within 2 weeks. The amoeba performs piece-meal ingestion, or trogocytosis, of brain material causin...

    Authors: Emily K. Herman, Alex Greninger, Mark van der Giezen, Michael L. Ginger, Inmaculada Ramirez-Macias, Haylea C. Miller, Matthew J. Morgan, Anastasios D. Tsaousis, Katrina Velle, Romana Vargová, Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Rodrigo Najle, Georgina MacIntyre, Norbert Muller, Mattias Wittwer, Denise C. Zysset-Burri…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:142

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Left-right asymmetries are a common feature of metazoans and can be found in a number of organs including the nervous system. These asymmetries are particularly pronounced in the simple central nervous system ...

    Authors: Matthew J. Kourakis, Michaela Bostwick, Amanda Zabriskie and William C. Smith

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Viruses can impose energetic demands on organisms they infect, in part by hosts mounting resistance. Recognizing that oxygen uptake reliably indicates steady-state energy consumption in all vertebrates, we com...

    Authors: Mark P. Polinski, Yangfan Zhang, Phillip R. Morrison, Gary D. Marty, Colin J. Brauner, Anthony P. Farrell and Kyle A. Garver

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:138

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Lactose malabsorption occurs in around 68% of the world’s population, causing lactose intolerance (LI) symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. To alleviate LI, previous studies have mainly fo...

    Authors: Mingyue Cheng, Zhangyu Cheng, Yiyan Yu, Wangjie Liu, Ruihao Li, Zhenyi Guo, Jiyue Qin, Zhi Zeng, Lin Di, Yufeng Mo, Chunxiu Pan, Yuanhao Liang, Jinman Li, Yigang Tong, Yunjun Yan, Yi Zhan…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Quantitative imaging of epithelial tissues requires bioimage analysis tools that are widely applicable and accurate. In the case of imaging 3D tissues, a common preprocessing step consists of projecting the ac...

    Authors: Sébastien Herbert, Léo Valon, Laure Mancini, Nicolas Dray, Paolo Caldarelli, Jérôme Gros, Elric Esposito, Spencer L. Shorte, Laure Bally-Cuif, Nathalie Aulner, Romain Levayer and Jean-Yves Tinevez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:136

    Content type: Software

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  18. Cerebellar neurogenesis involves the generation of large numbers of cerebellar granule neurons (GNs) throughout development of the cerebellum, a process that involves tight regulation of proliferation and diff...

    Authors: Wenqin Luo, Guan Ning Lin, Weichen Song, Yu Zhang, Huadong Lai, Man Zhang, Juju Miao, Xiaomu Cheng, Yongjie Wang, Wang Li, Wenxiang Wei, Wei-Qiang Gao, Ru Yang and Jia Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:135

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Gene-environment interactions are likely to underlie most human birth defects. The most common known environmental contributor to birth defects is prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (F...

    Authors: Alfire Sidik, Groves Dixon, Desire M. Buckley, Hannah G. Kirby, Shuge Sun and Johann K. Eberhart

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:134

    Content type: Research article

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  20. For many animals, chemosensory cues are vital for social and defensive interactions and are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system (VNS). These cues are often inherently associated with eth...

    Authors: Rohini Bansal, Maximilian Nagel, Romana Stopkova, Yizhak Sofer, Tali Kimchi, Pavel Stopka, Marc Spehr and Yoram Ben-Shaul

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:133

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Oligodendrocytes, responsible for axon ensheathment, are critical for central nervous system (CNS) development, function, and diseases. OLIG2 is an important transcription factor (TF) that acts during oligoden...

    Authors: Haichao Wei, Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Bo Hai, Raquel Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Xizi Wu, Natasha Kharas and Jia Qian Wu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:132

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Plant pathogens and their hosts undergo adaptive changes in managed agricultural ecosystems, by overcoming host resistance, but the underlying genetic adaptations are difficult to determine in natural settings. V...

    Authors: Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jin-Qun Huang, Ran Li, Dan Wang, Jian Song, Krishna D. Puri, Lin Yang, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Bang-Zhuo Tong, Jun-Jiao Li, Yu-Shan Huang, Ivan Simko, Steven J. Klosterman, Xiao-Feng Dai and Krishna V. Subbarao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:131

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Targeted installation of designer chemical moieties on biopolymers provides an orthogonal means for their visualisation, manipulation and sequence analysis. Although high-throughput RNA sequencing is a widely ...

    Authors: Milda Mickutė, Kotryna Kvederavičiūtė, Aleksandr Osipenko, Raminta Mineikaitė, Saulius Klimašauskas and Giedrius Vilkaitis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:129

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Complex organismal traits are often the result of multiple interacting genes and sub-organismal phenotypes, but how these interactions shape the evolutionary trajectories of adaptive traits is poorly understoo...

    Authors: Oliver H. Wearing, Catherine M. Ivy, Natalia Gutiérrez-Pinto, Jonathan P. Velotta, Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Zachary A. Cheviron, Jay F. Storz and Graham R. Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:128

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Proper placentation, including trophoblast differentiation and function, is essential for the health and well-being of both the mother and baby throughout pregnancy. Placental abnormalities that occur during t...

    Authors: Jimi L. Rosenkrantz, Jessica E. Gaffney, Victoria H. J. Roberts, Lucia Carbone and Shawn L. Chavez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:127

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Anatomical and cognitive adaptations to overcome morpho-mechanical limitations of laryngeal sound production, where body size and the related vocal apparatus dimensions determine the fundamental frequency, inc...

    Authors: Veronika C. Beeck, Gunnar Heilmann, Michael Kerscher and Angela S. Stoeger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:121

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anti-cancer anthracycline drug that causes double-stranded DNA breaks. It is highly effective against several types of tumours; however, it also has adverse effects on regenerative popu...

    Authors: Sara Beji, Marco D’Agostino, Elisa Gambini, Sara Sileno, Alessandro Scopece, Maria Cristina Vinci, Giuseppina Milano, Guido Melillo, Monica Napolitano, Giulio Pompilio, Maurizio C. Capogrossi, Daniele Avitabile and Alessandra Magenta

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:124

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Urbanization is one of the most influential processes on our globe, putting a great number of species under threat. Some species learn to cope with urbanization, and a few even benefit from it, but we are only...

    Authors: Katya Egert-Berg, Michal Handel, Aya Goldshtein, Ofri Eitan, Ivailo Borissov and Yossi Yovel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:123

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT), first isolated from Camptotheca acuminata, was subsequently discovered in unrelated plants, including Ophiorrhiza pumila. Unlike known monoterpene indole alkaloids, CPT in

    Authors: Mengquan Yang, Qiang Wang, Yining Liu, Xiaolong Hao, Can Wang, Yuchen Liang, Jianbo Chen, Youli Xiao and Guoyin Kai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:122

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Species domestication is generally characterized by the exploitation of high-impact mutations through processes that involve complex shifting demographics of domesticated species. These include not only inbree...

    Authors: Ming-Shan Wang, Jin-Jin Zhang, Xing Guo, Ming Li, Rachel Meyer, Hidayat Ashari, Zhu-Qing Zheng, Sheng Wang, Min-Sheng Peng, Yu Jiang, Mukesh Thakur, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Ali Esmailizadeh, Nalini Yasoda Hirimuthugoda, Moch Syamsul Arifin Zein, Szilvia Kusza…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:118

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The Hydra head organizer acts as a signaling center that initiates and maintains the primary body axis in steady state polyps and during budding or regeneration. Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling functions as a primary ...

    Authors: Berenice Ziegler, Irene Yiallouros, Benjamin Trageser, Sumit Kumar, Moritz Mercker, Svenja Kling, Maike Fath, Uwe Warnken, Martina Schnölzer, Thomas W. Holstein, Markus Hartl, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Jörg Stetefeld, Walter Stöcker and Suat Özbek

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:120

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The vacuole/lysosome is the final destination of autophagic pathways, but can also itself be degraded in whole or in part by selective macroautophagic or microautophagic processes. Diverse molecular mechanisms...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen He, Xue-Fei Cui, Shao-Jie Ma, Qin Xu, Yan-Peng Ran, Wei-Zhi Chen, Jun-Xi Mu, Hui Li, Jing Zhu, Qingqiu Gong and Zhiping Xie

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:117

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Sensorimotor gating is a fundamental pre-attentive process that is defined as the inhibition of a motor response by a sensory event. Sensorimotor gating, commonly measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) o...

    Authors: Jose Carlos Cano, Wanyun Huang and Karine Fénelon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:116

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Many of genome features which could help unravel the often complex post-speciation evolution of closely related species are obscured because of their location in chromosomal regions difficult to accurately cha...

    Authors: Zhaoen Yang, Xiaoyang Ge, Weinan Li, Yuying Jin, Lisen Liu, Wei Hu, Fuyan Liu, Yanli Chen, Shaoliang Peng and Fuguang Li

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:115

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Sexual dimorphism in immunity is believed to reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies and trade-offs between competing life history demands. Sexual selection can have major effects on mating rates an...

    Authors: Basabi Bagchi, Quentin Corbel, Imroze Khan, Ellen Payne, Devshuvam Banerji, Johanna Liljestrand-Rönn, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Julian Baur, Ahmed Sayadi, Elina Immonen, Göran Arnqvist, Irene Söderhäll and David Berger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:114

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Epigenetic memory plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of cell identities in multicellular organisms. Polycomb and trithorax group (PcG and TrxG) proteins are responsible for epigenetic m...

    Authors: Maksim Erokhin, Fedor Gorbenko, Dmitry Lomaev, Marina Yu Mazina, Anna Mikhailova, Azat K. Garaev, Aleksander Parshikov, Nadezhda E. Vorobyeva, Pavel Georgiev, Paul Schedl and Darya Chetverina

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:113

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The anti-tumor activity of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies correlates with T cell infiltration in tumors. Thus, a major goal in oncology is to find strategies that enhance T cell infiltration and efficacy of anti-PD...

    Authors: Yoong Wearn Lim, Garry L. Coles, Savreet K. Sandhu, David S. Johnson, Adam S. Adler and Erica L. Stone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:107

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Social insect colonies routinely face large vertebrate predators, against which they need to mount a collective defence. To do so, honeybees use an alarm pheromone that recruits nearby bees into mass stinging ...

    Authors: Andrea López-Incera, Morgane Nouvian, Katja Ried, Thomas Müller and Hans J. Briegel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:106

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Resistance and tolerance are two coexisting defense strategies for fighting infections. Resistance is mediated by signaling pathways that induce transcriptional activation of resistance factors that directly e...

    Authors: Human Riahi, Michaela Fenckova, Kayla J. Goruk, Annette Schenck and Jamie M. Kramer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:112

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The evolutionary origin of the telencephalon, the most anterior part of the vertebrate brain, remains obscure. Since no obvious counterpart to the telencephalon has yet been identified in invertebrate chordate...

    Authors: Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez, Giacomo Gattoni, Manuel Stemmer, Silvia D. Rohr, Laura N. Schuhmacher, Jocelyn Tang, Aleksandra Marconi, Gáspár Jékely and Detlev Arendt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The amino acid sequence of proteins generally carries all the necessary information for acquisition of native conformations, but the vectorial nature of translation can additionally determine the folding outco...

    Authors: Janire Urrutia, Alejandra Aguado, Carolina Gomis-Perez, Arantza Muguruza-Montero, Oscar R. Ballesteros, Jiaren Zhang, Eider Nuñez, Covadonga Malo, Hee Jung Chung, Aritz Leonardo, Aitor Bergara and Alvaro Villarroel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:109

    Content type: Research article

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