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  1. Yeasts of the CTG-clade lineage, which includes the human-infecting Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis species, are characterized by an altered genetic code. Instead of translating CUG ...

    Authors: Stefanie Mühlhausen, Hans Dieter Schmitt, Uwe Plessmann, Peter Mienkus, Pia Sternisek, Thorsten Perl, Michael Weig, Henning Urlaub, Oliver Bader and Martin Kollmar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The evolutionary history of cell types provides insights into how morphological and functional complexity arose during animal evolution. Photoreceptor cell types are particularly broadly distributed throughout...

    Authors: Jonathan E. Valencia, Roberto Feuda, Dan O. Mellott, Robert D. Burke and Isabelle S. Peter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:257

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The consequences of the earth’s daily rotation have led to 24-h biological rhythms in most organisms. Even some parasites are known to have daily rhythms, which, when in synchrony with host rhythms, can optimi...

    Authors: Kate A. Rawlinson, Adam J. Reid, Zhigang Lu, Patrick Driguez, Anna Wawer, Avril Coghlan, Geetha Sankaranarayanan, Sarah K. Buddenborg, Carmen Diaz Soria, Catherine McCarthy, Nancy Holroyd, Mandy Sanders, Karl F. Hoffmann, David Wilcockson, Gabriel Rinaldi and Matthew Berriman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:255

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Functional genomic analyses rely on high-quality genome assemblies and annotations. Highly contiguous genome assemblies have become available for a variety of species, but accurate and complete annotation of g...

    Authors: Emily J. Shields, Masato Sorida, Lihong Sheng, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Long Ding and Roberto Bonasio

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:254

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Snakes and primates have a multi-layered coevolutionary history as predators, prey, and competitors with each other. Previous work has explored the Snake Detection Theory (SDT), which focuses on the role of sn...

    Authors: Richard J. Harris, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris and Bryan G. Fry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:253

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Although electrical stimulation of the peripheral and central nervous systems has attracted much attention owing to its potential therapeutic effects on neuropsychiatric diseases, its non-cell-type-specific ac...

    Authors: Yi Cao, Suwan Pan, Mengying Yan, Chongyang Sun, Jianyu Huang, Cheng Zhong, Liping Wang and Lu Yi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:252

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The phylum Euglenozoa is a group of flagellated protists comprising the diplonemids, euglenids, symbiontids, and kinetoplastids. The diplonemids are highly abundant and speciose, and recent tools have rendered...

    Authors: Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Kristína Záhonová, Valéria Juricová, Maksym Danchenko, Martin Moos, Peter Baráth, Galina Prokopchuk, Anzhelika Butenko, Veronika Lukáčová, Lenka Kohútová, Barbora Bučková, Aleš Horák, Drahomíra Faktorová, Anton Horváth, Petr Šimek and Julius Lukeš

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:251

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Diatoms usually dominate phytoplankton blooms in open oceans, exhibiting extremely high population densities. Although the iron uptake rate of diatoms largely determines the magnitude and longevity of diatom b...

    Authors: Xuehua Liu, Xiujun Xie, Shan Gao, Lepu Wang, Lu Zhou, Yao Liu, Qiang Hu, Wenhui Gu and Guangce Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:249

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Lipid species are accurately distributed in the eukaryotic cell so that organelle and plasma membranes have an adequate lipid composition to support numerous cellular functions. In the plasma membrane, a preci...

    Authors: Souade Ikhlef, Nicolas-Frédéric Lipp, Vanessa Delfosse, Nicolas Fuggetta, William Bourguet, Maud Magdeleine and Guillaume Drin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:248

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The main function of telomerase is at the telomeres but under adverse conditions telomerase can bind to internal regions causing deleterious effects as observed in cancer cells.

    Authors: Satyaprakash Pandey, Mona Hajikazemi, Theresa Zacheja, Stephanie Schalbetter, Jonathan Baxter, Victor Guryev, Andreas Hofmann, Dieter W. Heermann, Stefan A. Juranek and Katrin Paeschke

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:247

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cell membrane fusion and multinucleation in macrophages are associated with physiologic homeostasis as well as disease. Osteoclasts are multinucleated macrophages that resorb bone through increased metabolic a...

    Authors: Antoni Olona, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Charlotte Hateley, Fernando O. Martinez, Siamon Gordon and Jacques Behmoaras

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:246

    Content type: Review

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  12. The Mediator complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex that plays major roles in transcriptional activation and is essential for cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Rece...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Shi, Jian Chen, Wei-Jie Zeng, Miao Li, Wenxue Zhao, Xing-Ding Zhang and Jie Yao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:245

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Mammals possess unique hearing capacities that differ significantly from those of the rest of the amniotes. In order to gain insights into the evolution of the mammalian inner ear, we aim to identify the set o...

    Authors: Anabella P. Trigila, Francisco Pisciottano and Lucía F. Franchini

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:244

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) are found in most, if not all, biological fluids and are becoming well-established non-invasive biomarkers of many human pathologies. However, their features in non-pathological c...

    Authors: Emilie Cardona, Cervin Guyomar, Thomas Desvignes, Jérôme Montfort, Samia Guendouz, John H. Postlethwait, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy and Julien Bobe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:235

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae is one of the most important agricultural pests, causing extensive damage to cereal in fields and to stored grains. S. oryzae has an intracellular symbiotic relationship (endosym...

    Authors: Nicolas Parisot, Carlos Vargas-Chávez, Clément Goubert, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Séverine Balmand, Louis Beranger, Caroline Blanc, Aymeric Bonnamour, Matthieu Boulesteix, Nelly Burlet, Federica Calevro, Patrick Callaerts, Théo Chancy, Hubert Charles, Stefano Colella, André Da Silva Barbosa…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:241

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Oral microbiome dysbiosis is linked to overt inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues, leading to periodontitis, an oral condition that can cause tooth and bone loss. Microbiome dysbiosis has been described as...

    Authors: Ana Duran-Pinedo, Jose Solbiati, Flavia Teles, Ricardo Teles, Yanping Zang and Jorge Frias-Lopez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:240

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that plays roles in movement, cognition, attention, and reward responses, and deficient DA signaling is associated with the progression of a number of neurological diseases,...

    Authors: Guiran Xiao, Mengran Zhao, Zhihua Liu, Fan Du and Bing Zhou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:236

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Shipworms are marine xylophagus bivalve molluscs, which can live on a diet solely of wood due to their ability to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), syn...

    Authors: Giovanna Pesante, Federico Sabbadin, Luisa Elias, Clare Steele-King, J. Reuben Shipway, Adam A. Dowle, Yi Li, Marta Busse-Wicher, Paul Dupree, Katrin Besser, Simon M. Cragg, Neil C. Bruce and Simon J. McQueen-Mason

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:233

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Flowering plants (angiosperms) are dominant components of global terrestrial ecosystems, but phylogenetic relationships at the familial level and above remain only partially resolved, greatly impeding our full...

    Authors: Hong-Tao Li, Yang Luo, Lu Gan, Peng-Fei Ma, Lian-Ming Gao, Jun-Bo Yang, Jie Cai, Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Peter W. Fritsch, Ting Zhang, Jian-Jun Jin, Chun-Xia Zeng, Hong Wang, Wen-Bin Yu, Rong Zhang, Michelle van der Bank…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:232

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The detection of environmental cues and signals via the sensory system directs behavioral choices in diverse organisms. Insect larvae rely on input from the chemosensory system, mainly olfaction, for locating ...

    Authors: Santosh V. Revadi, Vito Antonio Giannuzzi, Valeria Rossi, Gert Martin Hunger, Lucie Conchou, Gabriele Rondoni, Eric Conti, Peter Anderson, William B. Walker, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Fotini Koutroumpa and Paul G. Becher

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:231

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Blowflies are ubiquitous insects, often shiny and metallic, and the larvae of many species provide important ecosystem services (e.g., recycling carrion) and are used in forensics and debridement therapy. Yet,...

    Authors: Liping Yan, Thomas Pape, Karen Meusemann, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Rudolf Meier, Keith M. Bayless and Dong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:230

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Mitochondrial dynamics is the result of a dynamic balance between fusion and fission events, which are driven via a set of mitochondria-shaping proteins. These proteins are generally considered to be binary co...

    Authors: Rong Yu, Tong Liu, Shao-Bo Jin, Maria Ankarcrona, Urban Lendahl, Monica Nistér and Jian Zhao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:229

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK-D, NME4, NM23-H4) is a multifunctional enzyme mainly localized in the intermembrane space, bound to the inner membrane.

    Authors: Marie-Lise Lacombe, Frederic Lamarche, Olivier De Wever, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Alyssa Carlson, Imran Khan, Anda Huna, Sophie Vacher, Claire Calmel, Céline Desbourdes, Cécile Cottet-Rousselle, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Stéphane Attia, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Joël Raingeaud, Christelle Machon…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:228

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Female reproductive behaviors and physiology change profoundly after mating. The control of pregnancy-associated changes in physiology and behaviors are largely hard-wired into the brain to guarantee reproduct...

    Authors: Mohanakarthik P. Nallasivan, Irmgard U. Haussmann, Alberto Civetta and Matthias Soller

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:226

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transduces extracellular signals in virtually all eukaryotic cells. The soluble Beggiatoa photoactivatable adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) rapid...

    Authors: Shang Yang, Oana M. Constantin, Divya Sachidanandan, Hannes Hofmann, Tobias C. Kunz, Vera Kozjak-Pavlovic, Thomas G. Oertner, Georg Nagel, Robert J. Kittel, Christine E. Gee and Shiqiang Gao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:227

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The human foetus typically needs to rotate when passing through the tight birth canal because of the complex shape of the pelvis. In most women, the upper part, or inlet, of the birth canal has a round or medi...

    Authors: Ekaterina Stansfield, Barbara Fischer, Nicole D. S. Grunstra, Maria Villa Pouca and Philipp Mitteroecker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:224

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The zinc-finger transcription factor Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) exerts a dual regulatory role during insect development by preventing precocious larval/nymphal metamorphosis and in stimulating aspects of adult ...

    Authors: Zhongxia Wu, Libin Yang, Huihui Li and Shutang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:222

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Skin-penetrating nematodes of the genus Strongyloides infect over 600 million people, posing a major global health burden. Their life cycle includes both a parasitic and free-living generation. During the parasit...

    Authors: Ivan N. Chavez, Taylor M. Brown, Adrien Assié, Astra S. Bryant, Buck S. Samuel and Elissa A. Hallem

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:221

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Hansen’s disease (leprosy), widespread in medieval Europe, is today mainly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with around 200,000 new cases reported annually. Despite its long history and appearance...

    Authors: Saskia Pfrengle, Judith Neukamm, Meriam Guellil, Marcel Keller, Martyna Molak, Charlotte Avanzi, Alena Kushniarevich, Núria Montes, Gunnar U. Neumann, Ella Reiter, Rezeda I. Tukhbatova, Nataliya Y. Berezina, Alexandra P. Buzhilova, Dmitry S. Korobov, Stian Suppersberger Hamre, Vitor M. J. Matos…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:220

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Plasmodium simium, a malaria parasite of non-human primates (NHP), was recently shown to cause zoonotic infections in humans in Brazil. We sequenced the P. simium genome to investigate its evolutionary history an...

    Authors: Tobias Mourier, Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Abhinav Kaushik, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Olga Douvropoulou, Qingtian Guan, Francisco J. Guzmán-Vega, Sarah Forrester, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Cesare Bianco Júnior, Julio Cesar de Souza Junior, Silvia Bahadian Moreira, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:219

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is a childhood-onset, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes NPC1 or NPC2 and characterized by impaired cholesterol homeostasis,...

    Authors: Anika V. Prabhu, Insung Kang, Raffaella De Pace, Christopher A. Wassif, Hideji Fujiwara, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S. Ory, Juan S. Bonifacino, Michael E. Ward and Forbes D. Porter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:218

    Content type: Research article

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  32. DNA barcodes are a useful tool for discovering, understanding, and monitoring biodiversity which are critical tasks at a time of rapid biodiversity loss. However, widespread adoption of barcodes requires cost-...

    Authors: Amrita Srivathsan, Leshon Lee, Kazutaka Katoh, Emily Hartop, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Johnathan Wong, Darren Yeo and Rudolf Meier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:217

    Content type: Methodology article

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  33. Maturation is a process that allows synapses to acquire full functionality, optimizing their activity to diverse neural circuits, and defects in synaptic maturation may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorde...

    Authors: Andonia Petkova-Tuffy, Nina Gödecke, Julio Viotti, Martin Korte and Thomas Dresbach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:215

    Content type: Research article

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  34. How microbes affect host fitness and environmental adaptation has become a fundamental research question in evolutionary biology. To better understand the role of microbial genomic variation for host fitness, ...

    Authors: Yun Wang, Franz Baumdicker, Paul Schweiger, Sven Kuenzel and Fabian Staubach

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:187

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) is a common technique for identifying DNA-protein interactions, and robotic platforms have been developed for high-throughput analyses to unravel the gene regulatory networks in many org...

    Authors: Ni-Chiao Tsai, Tzu-Shu Hsu, Shang-Che Kuo, Chung-Ting Kao, Tzu-Huan Hung, Da-Gin Lin, Chung-Shu Yeh, Chia-Chen Chu, Jeng-Shane Lin, Hsin-Hung Lin, Chia-Ying Ko, Tien-Hsien Chang, Jung-Chen Su and Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:214

    Content type: Software

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  36. Activation of gene expression in striped domains is a key building block of biological patterning, from the recursive formation of veins in plant leaves to that of ribs and vertebrae in our bodies. In animals,...

    Authors: Anmol Krishna, Jason Gardiner, Tyler J. Donner and Enrico Scarpella

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:213

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Advances in three-dimensional culture technologies have led to progression in systems used to model the gonadal microenvironment in vitro. Despite demonstrating basic functionality, tissue organisation is ofte...

    Authors: Elizabeth Oliver, João Pedro Alves-Lopes, Femke Harteveld, Rod T. Mitchell, Elisabet Åkesson, Olle Söder and Jan-Bernd Stukenborg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:212

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Glossina species (tsetse flies), the sole vectors of African trypanosomes, maintained along their long evolutionary history a unique reproductive strategy, adenotrophic viviparity. Viviparity reduces their reprod...

    Authors: Grazia Savini, Francesca Scolari, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Davide Carraretto, Ludvik M. Gomulski, Giuliano Gasperi, Adly M. M. Abd-Alla, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo and Anna R. Malacrida

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:211

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Species co-occurrences can have profound effects on the habitat use of species, and therefore habitat structure alone cannot fully explain observed abundances. To account for this aspect of community organizat...

    Authors: Marco Basile, Thomas Asbeck, João M. Cordeiro Pereira, Grzegorz Mikusiński and Ilse Storch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:210

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Authors: Sarah Farhat, Phuong Le, Ehsan Kayal, Benjamin Noel, Estelle Bigeard, Erwan Corre, Florian Maumus, Isabelle Florent, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Tristan Barbeyron, Ruibo Cai, Corinne Da Silva, Benjamin Istace, Karine Labadie, Dominique Marie…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:209

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:1