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  1. Medicago ruthenica, a wild and perennial legume forage widely distributed in semi-arid grasslands, is distinguished by its outstanding tolerance to environmental stress. It is a close relative of commonly cultiva...

    Authors: Tianzuo Wang, Lifei Ren, Caihong Li, Di Zhang, Xiuxiu Zhang, Gang Zhou, Dan Gao, Rujin Chen, Yuhui Chen, Zhaolan Wang, Fengling Shi, Andrew D. Farmer, Yansu Li, Mengyan Zhou, Nevin D. Young and Wen-Hao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:96

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex that couples the presence of growth factors and nutrients in the environment with cellular proliferation. TORC1 is primari...

    Authors: Mohammad Alfatah, Jin Huei Wong, Vidhya Gomathi Krishnan, Yong Cheow Lee, Quan Feng Sin, Corinna Jie Hui Goh, Kiat Whye Kong, Wei Ting Lee, Jacqueline Lewis, Shawn Hoon and Prakash Arumugam

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:95

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is the most promising insect candidate for nutrient-recycling through bioconversion of organic waste into biomass, thereby improving sustainability of protein supplies fo...

    Authors: Cengiz Kaya, Tomas N. Generalovic, Gunilla Ståhls, Martin Hauser, Ana C. Samayoa, Carlos G. Nunes-Silva, Heather Roxburgh, Jens Wohlfahrt, Ebenezer A. Ewusie, Marc Kenis, Yupa Hanboonsong, Jesus Orozco, Nancy Carrejo, Satoshi Nakamura, Laura Gasco, Santos Rojo…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:94

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Brassica oleracea includes several morphologically diverse, economically important vegetable crops, such as the cauliflower and cabbage. However, genetic variants, especially large structural variants (SVs), that...

    Authors: Ning Guo, Shenyun Wang, Lei Gao, Yongming Liu, Xin Wang, Enhui Lai, Mengmeng Duan, Guixiang Wang, Jingjing Li, Meng Yang, Mei Zong, Shuo Han, Yanzheng Pei, Theo Borm, Honghe Sun, Liming Miao…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:93

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Infections with influenza A virus (IAV) cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Additional to vaccination, antiviral drugs are a treatment option. Besides FDA-approved drugs such as oseltamivir or zanami...

    Authors: Marc D. Hein, Prerna Arora, Pavel Marichal-Gallardo, Michael Winkler, Yvonne Genzel, Stefan Pöhlmann, Klaus Schughart, Sascha Y. Kupke and Udo Reichl

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Exaggerated secondary sexual traits are widespread in nature and often evolve under strong directional sexual selection. Although heavily studied from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints, we have little ...

    Authors: William Toubiana, David Armisén, Corentin Dechaud, Roberto Arbore and Abderrahman Khila

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:89

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Vertebrate meiotic recombination events are concentrated in regions (hotspots) that display open chromatin marks, such as trimethylation of lysines 4 and 36 of histone 3 (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3). Mouse and human...

    Authors: Ondrej Mihola, Vladimir Landa, Florencia Pratto, Kevin Brick, Tatyana Kobets, Fitore Kusari, Srdjan Gasic, Fatima Smagulova, Corinne Grey, Petr Flachs, Vaclav Gergelits, Karel Tresnak, Jan Silhavy, Petr Mlejnek, R. Daniel Camerini-Otero, Michal Pravenec…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:86

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The dorsal domain of the neural tube is an excellent model to investigate the generation of complexity during embryonic development. It is a highly dynamic and multifaceted region being first transiently popul...

    Authors: Shai Ofek, Sophie Wiszniak, Sarah Kagan, Markus Tondl, Quenten Schwarz and Chaya Kalcheim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:84

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) serve as tractable tools to study malaria parasite biology and host-parasite-vector interactions. Among the four RMPs originally collected from wild thicket rats in sub-Saharan ...

    Authors: Abhinay Ramaprasad, Severina Klaus, Olga Douvropoulou, Richard Culleton and Arnab Pain

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:69

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:82

  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Léonard Hérault, Mathilde Poplineau, Adrien Mazuel, Nadine Platet, Élisabeth Remy and Estelle Duprez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:80

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:19

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that involves a variety of cell types. However, how the epigenetic dysregulations of peripheral immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis o...

    Authors: Dandan Zong, Beibei Huang, Young Li, Yichen Lu, Nan Xiang, Chuang Guo, Qian Liu, Qing Sha, Pengcheng Du, Qiaoni Yu, Wen Zhang, Pengfei Cai, Yanping Sun, Jinhui Tao, Xiaomei Li, Shanbao Cai…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Genetic sex ratio distorters are systems aimed at effecting a bias in the reproductive sex ratio of a population and could be applied for the area-wide control of sexually reproducing insects that vector disea...

    Authors: Angela Meccariello, Flavia Krsticevic, Rita Colonna, Giuseppe Del Corsano, Barbara Fasulo, Philippos Aris Papathanos and Nikolai Windbichler

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:78

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Apicomplexa is a diverse phylum comprising unicellular endobiotic animal parasites and contains some of the most well-studied microbial eukaryotes including the devastating human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum a...

    Authors: Eric D. Salomaki, Kristina X. Terpis, Sonja Rueckert, Michael Kotyk, Zuzana Kotyková Varadínová, Ivan Čepička, Christopher E. Lane and Martin Kolisko

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:77

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ containing diverse cell types specialized in secreting hormones that regulate physiology. Pituitary thyrotropes produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a critic...

    Authors: Alexandre Z. Daly, Lindsey A. Dudley, Michael T. Peel, Stephen A. Liebhaber, Stephen C. J. Parker and Sally A. Camper

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:76

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Temperature influences biology at all levels, from altering rates of biochemical reactions to determining sustainability of entire ecosystems. Although extended exposure to elevated temperatures influences org...

    Authors: Rosemary N. Plagens, Isiah Mossiah, Karen S. Kim Guisbert and Eric Guisbert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:75

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Helminth-associated changes in gut microbiota composition have been hypothesised to contribute to the immune-suppressive properties of parasitic worms. Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated autoimmune disea...

    Authors: Timothy P. Jenkins, David I. Pritchard, Radu Tanasescu, Gary Telford, Marina Papaiakovou, Riccardo Scotti, Alba Cortés, Cris S. Constantinescu and Cinzia Cantacessi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:74

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae are important photosynthetic symbionts in cnidarians (such as corals) and other coral reef organisms. Breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to enviro...

    Authors: Raúl A. González-Pech, Timothy G. Stephens, Yibi Chen, Amin R. Mohamed, Yuanyuan Cheng, Sarah Shah, Katherine E. Dougan, Michael D. A. Fortuin, Rémi Lagorce, David W. Burt, Debashish Bhattacharya, Mark A. Ragan and Cheong Xin Chan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:73

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Membrane protrusions that occur on the dorsal surface of a cell are an excellent experimental system to study actin machinery at work in a living cell. Small GTPase Rac1 controls the membrane protrusions that ...

    Authors: F. Leyden, S. Uthishtran, U. K. Moorthi, H. M. York, A. Patil, H. Gandhi, E. P. Petrov, T. Bornschlögl and S. Arumugam

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:72

    Content type: Methodology article

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  19. Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cellular homeostasis. In vivo, cells experience plasma membrane damage from a multitude of stressors in the extra- and intra-cellular environment. To avoid lethal con...

    Authors: Dustin A. Ammendolia, William M. Bement and John H. Brumell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:71

    Content type: Review

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  20. Breast cancer is amongst the 10 first causes of death in women worldwide. Around 20% of patients are misdiagnosed leading to early metastasis, resistance to treatment and relapse. Many clinical and gene expres...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Villemin, Claudio Lorenzi, Marie-Sarah Cabrillac, Andrew Oldfield, William Ritchie and Reini F. Luco

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:70

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Unreliable research programmes waste funds, time, and even the lives of the organisms we seek to help and understand. Reducing this waste and increasing the value of scientific evidence require changing the ac...

    Authors: Rose E. O’Dea, Timothy H. Parker, Yung En Chee, Antica Culina, Szymon M. Drobniak, David H. Duncan, Fiona Fidler, Elliot Gould, Malika Ihle, Clint D. Kelly, Malgorzata Lagisz, Dominique G. Roche, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, David P. Wilkinson, Bonnie C. Wintle and Shinichi Nakagawa

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:68

    Content type: Comment

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  22. Trachypithecus leucocephalus, the white-headed langur, is a critically endangered primate that is endemic to the karst mountains in the southern Guangxi province of China. Studying the genomic and transcriptomic ...

    Authors: Tengcheng Que, Huifeng Wang, Weifei Yang, Jianbao Wu, Chenyang Hou, Surui Pei, Qunying Wu, Liu Ming Li, Shilu Wei, Xing Xie, Hongli Huang, Panyu Chen, Yiming Huang, Aiqiong Wu, Meihong He, Dengpan Nong…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:67

    Content type: Research article

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  23. ESCRT-III proteins are involved in many membrane remodeling processes including multivesicular body biogenesis as first discovered in yeast. In humans, ESCRT-III CHMP2 exists as two isoforms, CHMP2A and CHMP2B...

    Authors: Maryam Alqabandi, Nicola de Franceschi, Sourav Maity, Nolwenn Miguet, Marta Bally, Wouter H. Roos, Winfried Weissenhorn, Patricia Bassereau and Stéphanie Mangenot

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Homeostatic regulation of sleep is reflected in the maintenance of a daily balance between sleep and wakefulness. Although numerous internal and external factors can influence sleep, it is unclear whether and ...

    Authors: Linus Milinski, Simon P. Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Laura E. McKillop, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Gauri Ang, Tomoko Yamagata, David M. Bannerman and Vladyslav V. Vyazovskiy

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:65

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Wound healing is one of the defining features of life and is seen not only in tissues but also within individual cells. Understanding wound response at the single-cell level is critical for determining fundame...

    Authors: Kevin S. Zhang, Lucas R. Blauch, Wesley Huang, Wallace F. Marshall and Sindy K. Y. Tang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:63

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. IK is a splicing factor that promotes spliceosome activation and contributes to pre-mRNA splicing. Although the molecular mechanism of IK has been previously reported in vitro, the physiological role of IK has...

    Authors: Hye In Ka, Hyemin Seo, Youngsook Choi, Joohee Kim, Mina Cho, Seok-Yong Choi, Sujeong Park, Sora Han, Jinsu An, Hak Suk Chung, Young Yang and Min Jung Kim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:44

    Content type: Research article

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  27. A major goal of evolutionary developmental biology is to discover general models and mechanisms that create the phenotypes of organisms. However, universal models of such fundamental growth and form are rare, ...

    Authors: Alistair R. Evans, Tahlia I. Pollock, Silke G. C. Cleuren, William M. G. Parker, Hazel L. Richards, Kathleen L. S. Garland, Erich M. G. Fitzgerald, Tim E. Wilson, David P. Hocking and Justin W. Adams

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:58

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The demographic history of South and Southeast Asia (S&SEA) is complex and contentious, with multiple waves of human migration. Some of the earliest footfalls were of the ancestors of modern Austroasiatic (AA)...

    Authors: Debashree Tagore, Farhang Aghakhanian, Rakesh Naidu, Maude E. Phipps and Analabha Basu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:61

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Extensive molecular differences exist between proliferative and differentiated cells. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic datasets from preimplantation and differentiation sta...

    Authors: Aristeidis G. Telonis and Isidore Rigoutsos

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:60

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Evidence of global heterochromatin decay and aberrant gene expression in models of physiological and premature ageing have long supported the “heterochromatin loss theory of ageing”, which proposes that ageing...

    Authors: Abigail R. R. Guillermo, Karolina Chocian, Gavriil Gavriilidis, Julien Vandamme, Anna Elisabetta Salcini, Jane Mellor and Alison Woollard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:59

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of aging, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases. Hence, mitotherapeutics may be valuable disease modifiers for a large number of conditions. In this study, we ...

    Authors: Luana Naia, Catarina M. Pinho, Giacomo Dentoni, Jianping Liu, Nuno Santos Leal, Duarte M. S. Ferreira, Bernadette Schreiner, Riccardo Filadi, Lígia Fão, Niamh M. C. Connolly, Pontus Forsell, Gunnar Nordvall, Makoto Shimozawa, Elisa Greotti, Emy Basso, Pierre Theurey…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:57

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The preservative effects of low temperature on biological materials have been long recognised, and cryopreservation is now widely used in biomedicine, including in organ transplantation, regenerative medicine ...

    Authors: Sanja Bojic, Alex Murray, Barry L. Bentley, Ralf Spindler, Piotr Pawlik, José L. Cordeiro, Roman Bauer and João Pedro de Magalhães

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:56

    Content type: Review

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  33. The anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) is impacting carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland and other terrestrial biomes. Plant canopy stomatal conductance is a key playe...

    Authors: Juan C. Baca Cabrera, Regina T. Hirl, Rudi Schäufele, Andy Macdonald and Hans Schnyder

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The fungus Leptosphaeria maculans has an exceptionally long and complex relationship with its host plant, Brassica napus, during which it switches between different lifestyles, including asymptomatic, biotrophic,...

    Authors: Elise J. Gay, Jessica L. Soyer, Nicolas Lapalu, Juliette Linglin, Isabelle Fudal, Corinne Da Silva, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Cruaud, Anne Levrel, Jocelyne Lemoine, Regine Delourme, Thierry Rouxel and Marie-Hélène Balesdent

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:55

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The three-dimensional spatial organization of the genome plays important roles in chromatin accessibility and gene expression in multiple biological processes and has been reported to be altered in response to...

    Authors: Zhe Liang, Qian Zhang, Changmian Ji, Guihua Hu, Pingxian Zhang, Yifan Wang, Liwen Yang and Xiaofeng Gu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:53

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Eukaryote genomes frequently harbor supernumerary B chromosomes in addition to the “standard” A chromosome set. B chromosomes are thought to arise as byproducts of genome rearrangements and have mostly been co...

    Authors: Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade Silva, Francisco J. Ruiz-Ruano, Ricardo Utsunomia, María Martín-Peciña, Jonathan Pena Castro, Paula Paccielli Freire, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Diogo T. Hashimoto, Alexander Suh, Claudio Oliveira, Fábio Porto-Foresti, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Fausto Foresti and Juan Pedro M. Camacho

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:52

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Calorie restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF) can promote metabolic health through a process that is partially mediated by gut microbiota modulation. To compare the effects of CR and IF with different...

    Authors: Ziyi Zhang, Xiaoyu Chen, Yuh Jiun Loh, Xin Yang and Chenhong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:51

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A long-standing debate concerns where in the processing hierarchy of the central nervous system (CNS) selective attention takes effect. In the auditory system, cochlear processes can be influenced via direct a...

    Authors: Moritz Herbert Albrecht Köhler, Gianpaolo Demarchi and Nathan Weisz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuromodulator that is widely distributed in the brain and plays a key role in mediating stress responses and autonomic functions. While the distribution p...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Pu Hu, Qinghong Shan, Chuan Huang, Zhaohuan Huang, Peng Chen, Anan Li, Hui Gong and Jiang-Ning Zhou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Iron is essential for bacterial survival. Bacterial siderophores are small molecules with unmatched capacity to scavenge iron from proteins and the extracellular milieu, where it mostly occurs as insoluble Fe3+. ...

    Authors: Sara Cleto, Kristina Haslinger, Kristala L. J. Prather and Timothy K. Lu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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