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  1. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a critical transcription factor for juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, known to play a key role in regulating metamorphosis and adult reproduction in insects. Kr-h1 can also be induc...

    Authors: Zidan Zhu, Chunmei Tong, Binbin Qiu, Hongguang Yang, Jiahui Xu, Sichun Zheng, Qisheng Song, Qili Feng and Huimin Deng

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:39

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Cell type-specific transcriptional programming results from the combinatorial interplay between the repertoire of active regulatory elements. Disease-associated variants disrupt such programming, leading to al...

    Authors: Aiping Duan, Hong Wang, Yan Zhu, Qi Wang, Jing Zhang, Qing Hou, Yuexian Xing, Jinsong Shi, Jinhua Hou, Zhaohui Qin, Zhaohong Chen, Zhihong Liu and Jingping Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Organoids are morphologically heterogeneous three-dimensional cell culture systems and serve as an ideal model for understanding the principles of collective cell behaviour in mammalian organs during developme...

    Authors: Lotta Hof, Till Moreth, Michael Koch, Tim Liebisch, Marina Kurtz, Julia Tarnick, Susanna M. Lissek, Monique M. A. Verstegen, Luc J. W. van der Laan, Meritxell Huch, Franziska Matthäus, Ernst H. K. Stelzer and Francesco Pampaloni

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:37

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Custom genes have become a common resource in recombinant biology over the last 20 years due to the plummeting cost of DNA synthesis. These genes are often “optimized” to non-native sequences for overexpressio...

    Authors: Matthew J. Ranaghan, Jeffrey J. Li, Dylan M. Laprise and Colin W. Garvie

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:36

    Content type: Methodology article

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  5. The G1 checkpoint is a critical regulator of genomic stability in untransformed cells, preventing cell cycle progression after DNA damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) recruit and activate ATM, a kinase whi...

    Authors: Iraia García-Santisteban, Alba Llopis, Lenno Krenning, Jon Vallejo-Rodríguez, Bram van den Broek, Ana M. Zubiaga and René H. Medema

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:35

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Site-specific C>T DNA base editing has been achieved by recruiting cytidine deaminases to the target C using catalytically impaired Cas proteins; the target C is typically located within 5-nt editing window sp...

    Authors: Wenxia Yu, Jianan Li, Shisheng Huang, Xiangyang Li, Ping Li, Guanglei Li, Aibin Liang, Tian Chi and Xingxu Huang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:34

    Content type: Methodology article

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  7. Meta-analysis is often used to make generalisations across all available evidence at the global scale. But how can these global generalisations be used for evidence-based decision making at the local scale, if...

    Authors: Gorm E. Shackelford, Philip A. Martin, Amelia S. C. Hood, Alec P. Christie, Elena Kulinskaya and William J. Sutherland

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:33

    Content type: Methodology article

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  8. The genealogical histories of individuals within populations are of interest to studies aiming both to uncover detailed pedigree information and overall quantitative population demographic histories. However, ...

    Authors: Ardalan Naseri, Kecong Tang, Xin Geng, Junjie Shi, Jing Zhang, Pramesh Shakya, Xiaoming Liu, Shaojie Zhang and Degui Zhi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:32

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Proper regulation of feeding is important for an organism’s well-being and survival and involves a motivational component directing the search for food. Dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of motiva...

    Authors: Puskar Mishra, Shany E. Yang, Austin B. Montgomery, Addison R. Reed, Aylin R. Rodan and Adrian Rothenfluh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:31

    Content type: Methodology article

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  10. The concentrations of distinct types of RNA in cells result from a dynamic equilibrium between RNA synthesis and decay. Despite the critical importance of RNA decay rates, current approaches for measuring them...

    Authors: Amit Blumberg, Yixin Zhao, Yi-Fei Huang, Noah Dukler, Edward J. Rice, Alexandra G. Chivu, Katie Krumholz, Charles G. Danko and Adam Siepel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:30

    Content type: Methodology article

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  11. The mosquito Anopheles stephensi is a vector of urban malaria in Asia that recently invaded Africa. Studying the genetic basis of vectorial capacity and engineering genetic interventions are both impeded by limit...

    Authors: Mahul Chakraborty, Arunachalam Ramaiah, Adriana Adolfi, Paige Halas, Bhagyashree Kaduskar, Luna Thanh Ngo, Suvratha Jayaprasad, Kiran Paul, Saurabh Whadgar, Subhashini Srinivasan, Suresh Subramani, Ethan Bier, Anthony A. James and J. J. Emerson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:28

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Recognition of stress and mobilization of adequate “fight-or-flight” responses is key for survival and health. Previous studies have shown that exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to pathogens or toxins simultaneo...

    Authors: Gábor Hajdú, Eszter Gecse, István Taisz, István Móra and Csaba Sőti

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:26

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Biomarker discovery remains a major challenge for predictive medicine, in particular, in the context of chronic diseases. This is true for the widespread protozoan Toxoplasma gondii which establishes long-lasting...

    Authors: Céline Dard, Christopher Swale, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Dayana C. Farhat, Valeria Bellini, Marie Gladys Robert, Dominique Cannella, Hervé Pelloux, Isabelle Tardieux and Mohamed-Ali Hakimi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:25

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Communication between brain areas has been implicated in a wide range of cognitive and emotive functions and is impaired in numerous mental disorders. In rodent models, various metrics have been used to quanti...

    Authors: Daniel Strahnen, Sampath K. T. Kapanaiah, Alexei M. Bygrave and Dennis Kätzel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:24

    Content type: Methodology article

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  15. The most species-rich radiation of animal life in the 66 million years following the Cretaceous extinction event is that of schizophoran flies: a third of fly diversity including Drosophila fruit fly model organi...

    Authors: Keith M. Bayless, Michelle D. Trautwein, Karen Meusemann, Seunggwan Shin, Malte Petersen, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S. Peters, Rudolf Meier, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, David K. Yeates…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:23

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Insects and other arthropods utilise external sensory structures for mechanosensory, olfactory, and gustatory reception. These sense organs have characteristic shapes related to their function, and in many cas...

    Authors: Marleen Klann, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Matthew Alan Benton and Angelika Stollewerk

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:22

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Olfactory receptors (ORs) constitute a large family of sensory proteins that enable us to recognize a wide range of chemical volatiles in the environment. By contrast to the extensive information about human o...

    Authors: Ramón Cierco Jimenez, Nil Casajuana-Martin, Adrián García-Recio, Lidia Alcántara, Leonardo Pardo, Mercedes Campillo and Angel Gonzalez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:21

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Microbial evolution experiments can be used to study the tempo and dynamics of evolutionary change in asexual populations, founded from single clones and growing into large populations with multiple clonal lin...

    Authors: Margie Kinnersley, Katja Schwartz, Dong-Dong Yang, Gavin Sherlock and Frank Rosenzweig

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:20

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the guarantor of the proper functioning of hematopoiesis due to their incredible diversity of potential. During aging, heterogeneity of HSCs changes, contributing to the det...

    Authors: Léonard Hérault, Mathilde Poplineau, Adrien Mazuel, Nadine Platet, Élisabeth Remy and Estelle Duprez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is the most common sensory impairment seen in elderly people. However, the cochlear aging process does not affect people uniformly, suggesting that b...

    Authors: Corentin Affortit, François Casas, Sabine Ladrech, Jean-Charles Ceccato, Jérôme Bourien, Carolanne Coyat, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir and Jing Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:18

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Bark beetles are major pests of conifer forests, and their behavior is primarily mediated via olfaction. Targeting the odorant receptors (ORs) may thus provide avenues towards improved pest control. Such an ap...

    Authors: Jothi K. Yuvaraj, Rebecca E. Roberts, Yonathan Sonntag, Xiao-Qing Hou, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Aleš Machara, Dan-Dan Zhang, Bill S. Hansson, Urban Johanson, Christer Löfstedt and Martin N. Andersson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:16

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are critical regulators of programmed cell death that are essential for development, oncogenesis, and immune and stress responses. However, available knowledge regarding IAP is l...

    Authors: Hao Song, Ximing Guo, Lina Sun, Qianghui Wang, Fengming Han, Haiyan Wang, Gregory A. Wray, Phillip Davidson, Qing Wang, Zhi Hu, Cong Zhou, Zhenglin Yu, Meijie Yang, Jie Feng, Pu Shi, Yi Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:15

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Lipoylation of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases is essential for mitochondrial function in eukaryotes. While the basic principles of the lipoylation processes have been worked out, we still lack a thorough understand...

    Authors: Laura P. Pietikäinen, M. Tanvir Rahman, J. Kalervo Hiltunen, Carol L. Dieckmann and Alexander J. Kastaniotis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:14

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Traditional laboratory model organisms represent a small fraction of the diversity of multicellular life, and findings in any given experimental model often do not translate to other species. Immunology resear...

    Authors: Roosheel S. Patel, Joy E. Tomlinson, Thomas J. Divers, Gerlinde R. Van de Walle and Brad R. Rosenberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:13

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Pandemics, even more than other medical problems, require swift integration of knowledge. When caused by a new virus, understanding the underlying biology may help finding solutions. In a setting where there a...

    Authors: Andra Waagmeester, Egon L. Willighagen, Andrew I. Su, Martina Kutmon, Jose Emilio Labra Gayo, Daniel Fernández-Álvarez, Quentin Groom, Peter J. Schaap, Lisa M. Verhagen and Jasper J. Koehorst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:12

    Content type: Methodology article

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  26. Thermal plasticity is pivotal for evolution in changing climates and in mediating resilience to its potentially negative effects. The efficacy to respond to environmental change depends on underlying mechanism...

    Authors: Isabella Loughland, Alexander Little and Frank Seebacher

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:11

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides high-dimensional measurements of transcript counts in individual cells. However, high assay costs and artifacts associated with analyzing samples across multiple...

    Authors: Christopher S. McGinnis, David A. Siegel, Guorui Xie, George Hartoularos, Mars Stone, Chun J. Ye, Zev J. Gartner, Nadia R. Roan and Sulggi A. Lee

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:10

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The two main primate groups recorded throughout the European Miocene, hominoids and pliopithecoids, seldom co-occur. Due to both their rarity and insufficiently understood palaeoecology, it is currently unclea...

    Authors: Daniel DeMiguel, Laura Domingo, Israel M. Sánchez, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Josep M. Robles and David M. Alba

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:6

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Regeneration is the ability to re-grow body parts or tissues after trauma, and it is widespread across metazoans. Cells involved in regeneration can arise from a pool of undifferentiated proliferative cells or...

    Authors: Laura Piovani, Anna Czarkwiani, Cinzia Ferrario, Michela Sugni and Paola Oliveri

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:9

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Numerous deep-sea invertebrates, at both hydrothermal vents and methane seeps, have formed symbiotic associations with internal chemosynthetic bacteria in order to harness inorganic energy sources typically un...

    Authors: Shana K. Goffredi, Cambrie Motooka, David A. Fike, Luciana C. Gusmão, Ekin Tilic, Greg W. Rouse and Estefanía Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:8

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been documented in many herbivorous insects, conferring the ability to digest plant material and promoting their remarkable ecological diversification. Previous reports sugge...

    Authors: Hao-Sen Li, Xue-Fei Tang, Yu-Hao Huang, Ze-Yu Xu, Mei-Lan Chen, Xue-Yong Du, Bo-Yuan Qiu, Pei-Tao Chen, Wei Zhang, Adam Ślipiński, Hermes E. Escalona, Robert M. Waterhouse, Andreas Zwick and Hong Pang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:7

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Viruses are ubiquitous biological entities, estimated to be the largest reservoirs of unexplored genetic diversity on Earth. Full functional characterization and annotation of newly discovered viruses requires...

    Authors: Congyu Lu, Zheng Zhang, Zena Cai, Zhaozhong Zhu, Ye Qiu, Aiping Wu, Taijiao Jiang, Heping Zheng and Yousong Peng

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:5

    Content type: Methodology article

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  33. Identifying variants that drive tumor progression (driver variants) and distinguishing these from variants that are a byproduct of the uncontrolled cell growth in cancer (passenger variants) is a crucial step ...

    Authors: Daniele Raimondi, Antoine Passemiers, Piero Fariselli and Yves Moreau

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:3

    Content type: Research article

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  34. A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. A...

    Authors: Fei Zhao, Ya-Ping Chen, Yasaman Salmaki, Bryan T. Drew, Trevor C. Wilson, Anne-Cathrine Scheen, Ferhat Celep, Christian Bräuchler, Mika Bendiksby, Qiang Wang, Dao-Zhang Min, Hua Peng, Richard G. Olmstead, Bo Li and Chun-Lei Xiang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:2

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dinoflagellates are aquatic protists particularly widespread in the oceans worldwide. Some are responsible for toxic blooms while others live in symbiotic relationships, either as mutualistic symbionts in cora...

    Authors: Sarah Farhat, Phuong Le, Ehsan Kayal, Benjamin Noel, Estelle Bigeard, Erwan Corre, Florian Maumus, Isabelle Florent, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Tristan Barbeyron, Ruibo Cai, Corinne Da Silva, Benjamin Istace, Karine Labadie, Dominique Marie…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:1

    Content type: Research article

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  36. A major task of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is the pinching off of cargo-loaded intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) into the lumen of maturing endosomes (MEs), which is esse...

    Authors: Miriam Baeumers, Kristina Ruhnau, Thomas Breuer, Hendrik Pannen, Bastian Goerlich, Anna Kniebel, Sebastian Haensch, Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters, Lutz Schmitt and Thomas Klein

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:200

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Repetitive DNA sequences, including transposable elements (TEs) and tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNAs), collectively called the “repeatome”, are found in high proportion in organisms across the Tree of ...

    Authors: Octavio M. Palacios-Gimenez, Julia Koelman, Marc Palmada-Flores, Tessa M. Bradford, Karl K. Jones, Steven J. B. Cooper, Takeshi Kawakami and Alexander Suh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:199

    Content type: Research article

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  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lee Shaashua, Anabel Eckerling, Boaz Israeli, Gali Yanovich, Ella Rosenne, Suzana Fichman-Horn, Ido Ben Zvi, Liat Sorski, Rita Haldar, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Tamar Geiger, Erica K. Sloan and Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:198

    Content type: Publisher Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2020 18:163

  39. The mechanism underlying the pain symptoms associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), T...

    Authors: Francesco De Logu, Gabriela Trevisan, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Diéssica Padilha Dalenogare, Mustafa Titiz, Matilde Marini, Lorenzo Landini, Daniel Souza Monteiro de Araujo, Simone Li Puma, Serena Materazzi, Gaetano De Siena, Pierangelo Geppetti and Romina Nassini

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:197

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Ammonium (NH4+), a key nitrogen form, becomes toxic when it accumulates to high levels. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are the key transporters responsible for NH4+ uptake. AMT activity is under allosteric feedback...

    Authors: Hui-Yu Chen, Yen-Ning Chen, Hung-Yu Wang, Zong-Ta Liu, Wolf B. Frommer and Cheng-Hsun Ho

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:196

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Elasticity prevents fatigue of tissues that are extensively and repeatedly deformed. Resilin is a resilient and elastic extracellular protein matrix in joints and hinges of insects. For its mechanical properti...

    Authors: Steven Lerch, Renata Zuber, Nicole Gehring, Yiwen Wang, Barbara Eckel, Klaus-Dieter Klass, Fritz-Olaf Lehmann and Bernard Moussian

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:195

    Content type: Research article

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  42. It is widely assumed that all mutant microorganisms present in a culture are able to grow and form colonies, provided that they express the features required for selection. Unlike wild-type Escherichia coli, PHO-...

    Authors: Henrique Iglesias Neves, Gabriella Trombini Machado, Taíssa Cristina dos Santos Ramos, Hyun Mo Yang, Ezra Yagil and Beny Spira

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:194

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Adenine base editors (ABE) enable single nucleotide modifications without the need for double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) induced by conventional CRIPSR/Cas9-based approaches. However, most approaches that empl...

    Authors: Nicholas Brookhouser, Toan Nguyen, Stefan J. Tekel, Kylie Standage-Beier, Xiao Wang and David A. Brafman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:193

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Subclinical atherosclerosis may result in fatal cardiovascular (CV) events, but the underlying mechanisms and molecular players leading to disease are not entirely understood. Thus, novel approaches capable of...

    Authors: Marta Agudiez, Paula J. Martinez, Marta Martin-Lorenzo, Angeles Heredero, Aranzazu Santiago-Hernandez, Dolores Molero, Juan Manuel Garcia-Segura, Gonzalo Aldamiz-Echevarria and Gloria Alvarez-Llamas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:192

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The vast majority of all life that ever existed on earth is now extinct and several aspects of their evolutionary history can only be assessed by using morphological data from the fossil record. Sphenodontian ...

    Authors: Tiago R. Simões, Michael W. Caldwell and Stephanie E. Pierce

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:191

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: