Ethylene signal transduction and the control of juvenile to adult phase transitions in the leaf. The pathway for ethylene signal transduction involves positive and negative regulators that culminate in transcriptional regulation by the EIN3-like family of transcription factors. Among the ethylene-responsive genes are some that encode additional transcription factors such as those of the ethylene response factor (ERF) and ethylene response DNA-binding factor (EDF) families. The pharmacological agents aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and silver can be used to inhibit ethylene responses through their ability to target ethylene biosynthesis or the receptors, respectively. One effect of ethylene is to stimulate the juvenile to adult phase transition of leaves. The transcription factor FUS3 negatively regulates the effects of ethylene on this developmental process. The juvenile to adult leaf morphology series shown is from Figure 3A in Lumba et al. .