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Table 2 Divergence times for the major groups of arthropods. Divergence times from least squares (LS) methods are means (<30 proteins) or modes of time estimates from individual proteins. Summary times are averages across methods for comparisons that maximize the calibrations and proteins used, indicated in bold. Abbreviations: CD= Chilopoda-Diplopoda calibration (423 Ma); DA= Deuterostomia-Arthropoda calibration (993 Ma); N/A = not applicable; XA= Xiphosura-Arachnida calibration (480 Ma).

From: The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods

   Number of proteins Divergence time (Ma) and standard error (if available)
Node Calibration point Total Rate constant MGGLS MGLLS SGGLS SGLLS SGLDT SGLMDT SGLPL Summary
Chilopoda-Diplopoda DA 5 5 433 ± 39 464 ± 68 433 ± 39 468 ± 68 389 ± 59 451 ± 45 381 442 ± 50
  XA 5 4 398 ± 79 N/A 357 ± 79 N/A 499 ± 57 474 ± 40 537  
  XA & DA 5 4 398 ± 38 425 ± 79 376 ± 38 384 ± 79 469 ± 44 469 ± 36 439  
  XA &/or DA 5 5 430 ± 43 457 ± 69 404 ± 39 426 ± 73 469 ± 44 469 ± 36 439  
Xiphosura-Arachnida DA 5 4 521 ± 71 534 ± 44 511 ± 71 526 ± 44 372 ± 58 448 ± 40 373 475 ± 53
  CD 5 4 563 ± 92 N/A 568 ± 92 N/A 403 ± 48 418 ± 36 467  
  CD & DA 5 4 526 ± 73 534 ± 48 519 ± 73 532 ± 48 394 ± 41 432 ± 35 394  
Branchiopoda-Malacostraca DA 9 3 625 ± 8 551 ± 19 640 ± 8 591 ± 19 670 ± 58 631 ± 37 655 614 ± 23
  XA 5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 680 ± 87 643 ± 56 806  
  XA & DA 5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 594 ± 50 638 ± 33 595  
  XA &/or DA 5 3 625 ± 8 551 ± 19 640 ± 8 591 ± 19 632 ± 54 638 ± 33 625  
  CD 5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 581 ± 75 561 ± 51 717  
  XA & D 5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 635 ± 74 608 ± 47 729  
  CD & DA 5 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 554 ± 51 616 ± 34 563  
Insecta-Crustacea DA 47 36 765 ± 74 700 ± 72 669 ± 34 643 ± 33 616 ± 53 788 ± 22 577 666 ± 58
  XA 5 4 619 ± 132 N/A 534 ± 132 N/A 744 ± 89 802 ± 69 875  
  XA & DA 5 4 617 ± 92 646 ± 99 562 ± 92 576 ± 99 647 ± 46 763 ± 17 645  
  XA &/or DA 47 36 741 ± 87 698 ± 70 615 ± 63 609 ± 66 631 ± 49 763 ± 17 611  
  CD 5 5 650 ± 98 N/A 568 ± 98 N/A 637 ± 77 687 ± 56 779  
  XA & D 5 4 612 ± 95 N/A 573 ± 93 N/A 695 ± 75 737 ± 48 729  
  CD & DA 5 5 641 ± 69 665 ± 70 578 ± 69 593 ± 70 605 ± 48 758 ± 18 611  
Myriapoda-Chelicerata DA 6 4 594 ± 51 664 ± 84 630 ± 51 716 ± 84 630 ± 62 664 ± 32 589 642 ± 63
  XA 5 2 674 ± 110 N/A 605 ± 110 N/A 751 ± 67 728 ± 49 847  
  XA & DA 5 2 582 ± 57 668 ± 166 576 ± 57 594 ± 166 675 ± 32 689 ± 26 669  
  XA &/or DA 6 4 602 ± 51 664 ± 80 603 ± 54 655 ± 125 652 ± 47 689 ± 26 629  
  CD 5 3 560 ± 18 N/A 544 ± 18 N/A 640 ± 56 647 ± 40 757  
  XA & D 5 2 594 ± 29 N/A 638 ± 29 N/A 700 ± 47 687 ± 34 772  
  CD & DA 5 3 608 ± 49 668 ± 83 558 ± 49 576 ± 83 618 ± 34 642 ± 25 621  
(Myriapoda-Chelicerata)-Pancrustacea DA 24 22 747 ± 40 731 ± 41 717 ± 40 692 ± 41 690 ± 61 727 ± 20 602 725 ± 46
  XA 5 4 783 ± 139 N/A 703 ± 139 N/A 892 ± 97 812 ± 59 1051  
  XA & DA 5 4 784 ± 65 826 ± 111 740 ± 65 758 ± 111 768 ± 35 738 ± 19 764  
  XA &/or DA 24 22 745 ± 41 729 ± 41 728 ± 52 725 ± 76 729 ± 48 738 ± 19 683  
  CD 5 5 791 ± 79 N/A 727 ± 79 N/A 767 ± 82 734 ± 56 940  
  XA & D 5 4 747 ± 86 N/A 754 ± 86 N/A 836 ± 77 769 ± 51 956  
  CD & DA 5 5 784 ± 42 815 ± 66 761 ± 42 780 ± 66 727 ± 38 721 ± 19 728  
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