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Table 3 Divergence times between Arthropoda and Deuterostomia. Times of divergence for deuterostomes and arthropods using one or both calibrations from the arthropod fossil record. Abbreviations: CD= Chilopoda-Diplopoda calibration (423 Ma); XA= Xiphosura-Arachnida calibration (480 Ma).

From: The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods

   Number of proteins Divergence times (Ma) and standard errors (if available)
Deuterostome representative Calibration point Total Rate constant MGGLS SGGLS SGLDT SGLMDT SGLPL
Vertebrata CD 5 5 999 ± 96 969 ± 96 1080 ± 147 913 ± 83 1395
  XA 5 4 966 ± 130 931 ± 130 1243 ± 170 1022 ± 92 1554
  CD & XA 5 4 935 ± 69 999 ± 69 1170 ± 147 978 ± 80 1416
Tunicata CD 5 4 1189 ± 123 1104 ± 123 988 ± 154 918 ± 93 1127
  XA 5 4 1205 ± 165 1151 ± 165 1320 ± 165 1041 ± 103 1362
  CD & XA 5 4 1185 ± 128 1130 ± 128 1236 ± 133 1018 ± 95 1362
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