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Table 1 Effects of gall type and sample size (= number of galls collected) on the number of parasitoid species observed attacking each galler species

From: Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web

Source Type III sum of squares df Mean square F p Value
Corrected model 592.188* 6 98.698 10.360 <0.001
Intercept 64.579 1 64.579 6.779 0.013
Number of galls 166.368 1 166.368 17.464 <0.001
Gall type 382.832 5 76.566 8.037 <0.001
Error 333.431 35 9.527   
Total 5046.000 42    
Corrected total 925.619 41    
  1. df, degrees of freedom
  2. Gall type was included as a fixed factor and sample size as a covariate in the ANCOVA model. Sample sizes were ln-transformed prior to the analysis, because logarithmic regressions produced more biologically realistic results and a better fit to the observed data (Figure 5A) than did linear regressions with untransformed sample sizes.
  3. *R2 = 0.640 (adjusted R2 = 0.578).