Effects of EPO on hippocampus dependent memory. Percentage of freezing as a readout of memory function in fear conditioning shows significant effects upon EPO treatment in the contextual memory (context) task at 1 week (a) and 3 weeks (b), but no longer at 4 weeks (c) after the last EPO injection. Percentage of freezing measured during training (baseline), exposition to the new context (pre-cue), and testing for cued memory (cue) is not different between the groups. No differences are seen in EPM (d), OF (e), HB (f), and RR (g). Mean ± S.E.M. N = 28 for experiment in (a) and N = 14 for all other experiments (b-g).