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Table 5 Function of Replicated Candidate Gene Products

From: Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

Correlation with Alcohol Consumption Gene Symbol Gene Name and Description
+ Mc4r Melanocortin 4 receptor; activation by melanocortin (MSH) decreases caloric intake. Mc4r localized on GABA neurons. Mc4r agonist reduced ethanol consumption in association with food consumption [45, 65, 116].
+ Cckbr Cholecystokinin 2 receptor; Cholecystokinin (CCK) is localized in some GABA interneurons, and activation of Cck2r can facilitate GABA release. CCK is a satiety hormone. Cck2r null mutants show low alcohol consumption [60, 95, 117].
- Mogat2
Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2; esterase affecting mono- and di-acylglycerol.
- Abat 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA aminotransferase); GABA degrading enzyme.
- P2rx4 P2x purinoceptor 4; located on GABA neuron terminals in VTA and is a cation channel for Ca2+. Enhances GABA release by presynaptic action. Inhibited by ethanol [118].
- Ptpre Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon; inhibits voltage-gated K+ channels on GABA interneurons [62].
+ Afap1l1 Actin filament associated protein; interacts with dynamin, involved in endocytosis.
+ Tubb6 Tubulin B6; cytoplasmic dynein interacts with tubulin, involved in microtubule movement [79].
- Tnk2 Protein tyrosine kinase Ack; Cdc42-associated kinase, located pre and post synaptically; influences endocytosis [72].
+ F2rl1 Protease-activated receptor 2(PAR2); activates PI3-kinase, activation of Cdc42 required. Increases Ca2+ signaling. In Glu and GABA neurons [75, 76].