Avoidance responses of single and double mutants. N2 is the wild-type control, egl-10 is egl-10(md176), egl-30 is egl-30(n686), eat-16 is eat-16(ad702), goa-1 is goa-1(n363) and dgk-1 is dgk-1(nu62). The transgene psra-6::PTX is described in the text, in the Results section and represents an ASH-specific goa-1 loss of function. For each genetic background, ≥50 animals were tested in at least three independent assays, and each animal was subjected to three trials. The avoidance index is the number of positive responses divided by the total number of trials. In all panels, each bar represents the mean ± SEM. In (b), different concentrations of glycerol were used to detect the hypersensitivity of the wild type and of the eat-16, goa-1 and dgk-1 mutants. *Difference from N2, P < 0.01; **difference from egl-10(md176), P < 0.01; ***difference from egl-30(n686), P < 0.01.