Domestication of cotton. Bottom row: domestication by humans. Wild cotton is a sprawling shrub growing in negative association with humans, integrated into native, coastal vegetation (shown bottom left is var. yucatanense, image courtesy of J McD Stewart). Domestication has led to a ~7000 year history of the development of perennial dooryard forms, landraces and annualized forms, the latter providing the foundation for modern improvement programmes. Middle row: comparison of a single seed from wild G. hirsutum with one from domesticated cotton. Top row: scanning electron microscopy images of cotton ovules at 2 days post anthesis, illustrating differences in the pattern of fibre initials.