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Table 2 Phenotype of monocyte-derived tissue macrophages in selected pathologies

From: Tissue macrophages: heterogeneity and functions

Disease process Monocytes/macrophage characteristics Comment Reference
Inflammation/infection Ly6C+, FcgammaRIII+. Distinct precursors give rise to iNOS+, CD209a-, MHC- microbicidal macrophages and CD209+ MHCII+ monocyte-derived DC GM-CSF induces differentiation of distinct GM and MDC progenitors [111]
Th1-mediated granuloma formation (e.g. Tuberculosis) Classic M1 activation (IFN gamma), epithelioid transformation (adhesion molecules), foam cells (lipid storage), Langhans giant cells (DC-STAMP fusion)
Cell necrosis, caseation, cavitation (metalloproteinases) and fibrosis
iNOS+ PMN-recruited and metabolic switch [116, 117]
TH2 cell-mediated granuloma formation (e.g. Schistosome eggs) Alternative M2 activation (IL-4/13), multinucleated giant cells (CD36-mediated) and fibrosis (TGF beta) TGM2+, arginase, upregulation of CR3 function. Metalloproteinases, metabolic switch, eosinophils and mast cells [118, 119]
Bleomycin-induced fibrosis Atypical fibrogenic monocytes (SatM) arise from Ceacam1+ SR-A+ Ly6C- F4/80- Mac1+ precursors Arise from Ly6C- Fc ϵ R1 granulocytic/macrophage progenitors, licensed by C/EBPbeta [18]
Atherosclerosis Monocyte and platelets adhere to altered endothelium, foamy macrophages (cholesterol and apolipoproteins) and migrating smooth muscle cells Macrophages promote plaque rupture, coagulation and embolism CSF-1 upregulates SR-A and metalloproteinases [120]
Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) Tumour attracts monocytes, macrophages contribute to tumour growth and angiogenesis CSF-1. F4/80 promotes immune tolerance [3]
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) Abnormal differentiation of monocytes and granulocytes. Immunosuppression Essential metabolite consumption. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen, display inhibitory surface molecules to alter T-cell trafficking and viability [24]
Metastasis-associated macrophages (MAM) Macrophages promote intra- and extravasation and survival of the tumour cells. Monocytes are Ly6C+ F4/80+ CD11b + CCR2+ Flt-1hi Tie2hi VEGF+ Flt-1 signalling, CSF-1 pathway, FAK(p), MAPK(p) [121]