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Fig. 1 | BMC Biology

Fig. 1

From: Genome-enabled insights into the biology of thrips as crop pests

Fig. 1

Illustration of how curated gene sets intertwine with understanding of biological processes of Frankliniella occidentalis. a Developmental stages. Vertical bars: (left) embryonic and postembryonic stages associated with developmental and sex-specific expression analyses of genes underlying molting and metamorphosis through neometaboly; (right) larval and adult stages feed and are associated with divergent clades and expansions in gene families related to host selection and feeding (vision, chemosensation) and detoxification of xenobiotics; propupal and pupal stages do not feed; adults reproduce by arrhenotokous parthenogenesis. Modified from [2], permission of CAB International through PLSclear. b Cartoon depicting principal and tubular salivary glands (PSG, TSG) associated with enriched expression of specific genes, and the midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), Malpighian tubules (MPT), and fat body (FB), important sites for detoxification and innate immunity gene sets along with the hemolymph and cuticle. Modified from [3], permission by Elsevier. c Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of adult pre-probing behavior highlights compound eyes used in visual aspects of host finding (associated with opsin genes); external antennal and mouthcone sensory structures essential to host finding, choice, and feeding; likely associated with expanded gene families underlying chemosensation. Internal leaf anatomy shows cells most commonly fed on. Modified from [4], permission from Springer-Verlag. d SEM showing the tips of the single mandible (Md) and paired maxillae (Mx) forming the feeding tube. Modified from [5], permission of Elsevier. e Mouthcone paraglossal sensory pegs (numbered, left paraglossa)—pegs 1–5, 7–10, are dual function (mechano- and chemosensory), peg 6 is mechanosensory; their location suggests importance in detecting plant surface microtopography and chemistry during host and feeding-site selection and association with divergent and expanded gene families related to environmental sensing. Modified from [5], permission of Elsevier

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