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Table 1 Tissue-specific stressors of plasma membrane integrity

From: Plasma membrane integrity: implications for health and disease

Tissue Source Stressor Injury or disease Refs
Lung Mechanical Ventilation Ventilator-induced lung injury [199]
Chemical Tobacco COPD [200, 201]
Asbestos Asbestosis [202, 203]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin Bacterial pneumonia [204,205,206]
Oral cavity Mechanical Tooth movement, brushing [207, 208]
Chemical Tooth whitening agents
Oral lesions
[210, 211]
Esophagus Chemical Gastric acid Gastroesophageal reflux disease [212]
Intracellular ROS [213]
Stomach Chemical Gastric acid, NSAIDs, alcohol Peptic ulcers, gastritis [23, 214]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin, cholesterol transferase Helicobacter pylori infection [215]
Intestine Chemical Dietary lectins, iron [216, 217]
NSAIDs, bile Ulcers [69]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin Food-borne illness, IBD [13, 182]
Intracellular Oxidative stress Necrotizing enterocolitis, IBD [19, 218]
Skin Mechanical Locomotion [2]
Pruritus (itch) Inflammatory skin diseases [219]
Chemical Ultraviolet A radiation [220]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin Atopic dermatitis [221]
Vasculature Mechanical Cardiac output [197]
Chemical AGEs Type 1 and type 2 diabetes [222, 223]
β-amyloid Alzheimer’s disease [224]
Immune Complement Von Willebrand disease [225]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin Sepsis [226]
Bone Mechanical Physical loading [26, 179]
Liver Chemical Drugs, alcohol, lipid accumulation Acute liver failure, alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD [227]
Bile acids Cholestasis, familial intrahepatic cholestasis [228, 322]
Microbial Pore-forming toxin Listeriosis [70]
Pancreas Mechanical Amylin Type 2 diabetes [229]
Intracellular Zymogen activation Acute pancreatitis [230]
Nervous system Mechanical, Chemical Protein aggregates Neurodegenerative diseases [231]
Chemical I/R injury Stroke [232]
Immune Oxidative stress Multiple sclerosis, AE [27, 233]
Kidney Chemical I/R injury, nephrotoxins Acute kidney injury [234]
Muscle Mechanical Eccentric contraction Muscular dystrophies, Niemann-Pick type A/B disease [11, 235]
Chemical I/R injury Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy [236]
AGEs Type 1 and type 2 diabetes [237]
Cardiotoxin Snakebite [21]
Heart Mechanical Cardiac output Cardiomyopathies [238]
Microbial Viral protease Viral myocarditis [239]
  1. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ROS, reactive oxygen species; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; AGEs, advanced-glycation end products; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; I/R, ischemia-reperfusion; AE, autoimmune encephalomyelitis