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Fig. 5 | BMC Biology

Fig. 5

From: Transcription initiation of distant core promoters in a large-sized genome of an insect

Fig. 5

Distant core promoter emergence in the context of genome size evolution in insects. a Density distribution of distances from the annotated start codon of protein-coding genes to its farthest core promoters upstream. b Correlation between the genome size and the number ratio of distant core promoters to adjacent core promoters. c Insertion of TEs in the upstream region from the start codon to core promoter. Top panel: average TE coverage and its standard deviation in the upstream region from the start codon to distant core promoter. Bottom panel: percentage of core promoters that do not contain TEs in the upstream region from the start codon to the distant core promoter. A, adjacent core promoter; D, distant core promoter. d TFBS abundance between distant and adjacent core promoters using the number of TFBSs per core promoter per TF. The heatmap was constructed using the log2 transformed ratios of the TFBS abundances between distant and adjacent core promoters. The TFBSs showing significant changes (chi-squared tests with Yates’ correction) in at least one comparison were included in this analysis. Statistical significances were adjusted by BenjaminiHochberg FDR multiple-testing correction. The asterisk indicates a significant difference in the TFBS abundance between adjacent and distant core promoters at a threshold of FDR < 0.01. e Estimation of TFBS divergence between distant and adjacent core promoters using normalized SE. The asterisk (P < 0.05) indicates a significant difference in the SE value between adjacent and distant core promoters according to the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Aedes aegypti, AAEGY; Acyrthosiphon pisum, APISU; Bombus terrestris, BTERR; Helicoverpa armigera, HARMI; Laodelphax striatellus, LSTRI; Tribolium castaneum, TCAST; Tetranychus urticae, TURTI

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