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Table 5 Fossil calibrations. All internal calibrations for Neornithes are treated as minimum ages. External calibrations are treated as bounded (lower, upper) constraints. See [57] for fossil citations and details. See Figure 2 for placement of calibrations in the alternative trees.

From: Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern avian lineages

Fossil ID Calibration Age (MY) Source
1 Crown Pici 30 [57]
2 Stem Upupidae + Phoeniculidae 47.5 [57]
3 Stem Coraciidae + Brachypteraciidae 47.5 [57]
4 Stem Trogoniformes 53 [57]
5 Stem Coliiformes 55 [57]
6 Stem Strigiformes 55 [57]
7 Crown Pandionidae 37 [57]
8 Stem Anatidae 66 [10]
9 Crown Sulidae 33 [57]
10 Stem Fregatidae 53 [57]
11 Stem Sphenisciformes 62 [24]
12 Stem Jacanidae 30 [57]
13 Stem Apodiformes 53 [57]
14 Stem Trochilidae 30 [109]
15 Crown Pteroclididae 30 [57]
16 Stem Phoenicopteriformes 30 [57]
17 Stem Phaethontidae 55 [57]
18 Stem Gruidae 30 [57]
20 Alligator-caiman 66–71 [91]
21 Bird-crocodile 243–251 [91]