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Table 1 Examples of synchrotron and XFEL sources for serial crystallography methods

From: Entering an era of dynamic structural biology

  Diamond light source XFELs (~ 50 fs pulse duration)
Beamline I04 I24 VMXi Eu.XFEL LCLS-II SACLA SwissFEL PAL XFEL
Photons/time 5 × 1011
(s−1)
3 × 1012
(s− 1)
> 1014 a
(s− 1)
~ 1012
(pulse− 1)
≥ 1012
(pulse− 1)
2 × 1011
(pulse− 1)
~ 7 × 1011
(pulse− 1)
2 × 1011
(pulse− 1)
Beam size (μm2) ~ 10 × 5 ~ 5 × 5 ≤ 5 × 5 < 1–10 × 10 < 1–3 × 3 1.3 × 1.3 < 3 × 3 < 3 × 3
Detector/pulse (Hz) 25–100 (750) b 25–100 750 b 27,000 c 120– 10 6 d 60 100 60
  1. aUsing a double multilayer monochromator (double crystal monochromator DCM > 2 × 1012 ph/s)
  2. bDectris Eiger 4 M or region of interest within Eiger 16 M
  3. c2700 pulses in a 600-μs train (4.5 MHz) at 10 Hz
  4. dLCLS-II (~ 2020, soft X-rays at 106, hard at 120 Hz) and LCLS-II-HE (~ 2022, soft and hard X-rays at 106 Hz)