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Table 3 Volumes of cerebral structures in E. rowelli relative to total brain volume (TBV) based on SRμCT (entire head scan), and light (LM; serial sections of entire head) and confocal microscopy (CLSM; whole-mount preparations of brains)

From: The velvet worm brain unveils homologies and evolutionary novelties across panarthropods

Structure Relative volume1 (%)
Ruthenium Red
(SRμCT)
Azan
(LM)
Synapsin
(CLSM)
Acetylated α-tubulin
(CLSM)
Brain (total) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Cell body rind 55.52 52.51 59.11 59.47
Brain neuropils 44.48 47.49 40.89 40.53
Brain commissures 1–3     –    –    – 0.60
Central body     – 3.02 2.447 2.50
Frontal body     –    – 3.277 4.13
Microglomeruli     –    – 0.027 0.01
Mushroom bodies     – 5.26 2.592 4.23
Olfactory glomeruli     –    – 0.567 0.51
Olfactory fascicles     –    – 1.187      –
Optic neuropils     – 0.18 0.187 0.22
Ponticulus     – 0.11    – 0.09
Other brain neuropils     – 35.83 30.64 28.24
  1. 1Total volumes of structures from both brain hemispheres were estimated using corresponding numbers of voxels
  2. 2Excluding mushroom body’s fascicles of globuli cells