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  1. Content type: Comment

    Protein X is a signalling molecule that stimulates apoptosis. Treatment of cells with Protein X results in five times higher levels of cell death than those seen in untreated cells (wild type), as measured by ...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:42

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the adaptation of lineages to changing environments. The extent of this process in eukaryotes, however, remains controversial. The most well-known and ...

    Authors: Huan Qiu, Guohong Cai, Jing Luo, Debashish Bhattacharya and Ning Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:41

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  3. Content type: Forum

    The mechanism of memory remains one of the great unsolved problems of biology. Grappling with the question more than a hundred years ago, the German zoologist Richard Semon formulated the concept of the engram...

    Authors: Mu-ming Poo, Michele Pignatelli, Tomás J. Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Kelsey C. Martin, Andrii Rudenko, Li-Huei Tsai, Richard W. Tsien, Gord Fishell, Caitlin Mullins, J. Tiago Gonçalves, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T. Johnston, Fred H. Gage, Yang Dan…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:40

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Host-microbe associations underlie many key processes of host development, immunity, and life history. Yet, none of the current research on the central model species Caenorhabditis elegans considers the worm’s na...

    Authors: Philipp Dirksen, Sarah Arnaud Marsh, Ines Braker, Nele Heitland, Sophia Wagner, Rania Nakad, Sebastian Mader, Carola Petersen, Vienna Kowallik, Philip Rosenstiel, Marie-Anne Félix and Hinrich Schulenburg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:38

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    Until recently, almost nothing has been known about the natural microbiota of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Reporting their research in BMC Biology, Dirksen and colleagues describe the first sequenci...

    Authors: Laura C. Clark and Jonathan Hodgkin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:37

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged over the last decade as a useful model for the study of innate immunity. Its infection with the pathogenic fungus Drechmeria coniospora leads to the ...

    Authors: Olivier Zugasti, Nishant Thakur, Jérôme Belougne, Barbara Squiban, C. Léopold Kurz, Julien Soulé, Shizue Omi, Laurent Tichit, Nathalie Pujol and Jonathan J. Ewbank

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:35

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity maintains the balance between differentiated SMCs and proliferative mesenchymal progenitors, crucial for muscular tissue homeostasis. Studies on the development of mesenchym...

    Authors: Jennifer McKey, Delphine Martire, Pascal de Santa Barbara and Sandrine Faure

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:34

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes ...

    Authors: Jelena Maric-Biresev, Julia P. Hunn, Oleg Krut, J. Bernd Helms, Sascha Martens and Jonathan C. Howard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:33

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Cell polarity, essential for cell physiology and tissue coherence, emerges as a consequence of asymmetric localization of protein complexes and directional trafficking of cellular components. Although molecule...

    Authors: Francisco J. Calero-Cuenca, José Manuel Espinosa-Vázquez, Miguel Reina-Campos, María T. Díaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat and Sol Sotillos

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:32

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is an S/T kinase with more than 200 known substrates, and with critical roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation and currently no membrane proteins ...

    Authors: Ruth Hendus-Altenburger, Elena Pedraz-Cuesta, Christina W. Olesen, Elena Papaleo, Jeff A. Schnell, Jonathan T. S. Hopper, Carol V. Robinson, Stine F. Pedersen and Birthe B. Kragelund

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:31

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Skeletal muscle stem cells enable the formation, growth, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscle throughout life. The regeneration process is compromised in several pathological conditions, and muscle...

    Authors: Elvira Carrió, Alessandro Magli, Mar Muñoz, Miguel A. Peinado, Rita Perlingeiro and Mònica Suelves

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:30

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Regenerating damaged tissue is a complex process, requiring progenitor cells that must be stimulated to undergo proliferation, differentiation and, often, migratory behaviors and morphological changes. Multipl...

    Authors: Mario Sánchez, Maria Laura Ceci, Daniela Gutiérrez, Consuelo Anguita-Salinas and Miguel L. Allende

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:27

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  13. Content type: Comment

    The authors of this paper were interested to see whether the expression of three proteins (A, B and C) was altered in a knockout mouse model of a gene encoding Protein X. Each experiment measured the expressio...

    Authors: Graham Bell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:28

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  14. Content type: Research article

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in the form of monomers or homodimers that bind heterotrimeric G proteins, are fundamental in the transfer of extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways. Dif...

    Authors: Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Monika Zelman-Femiak, Marc Brugarolas, Estefania Moreno, David Aguinaga, Laura Perez-Benito, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó, Josefa Mallol, Enric I. Canela, Carme Lluís, Leonardo Pardo, Ana J. García-Sáez, Peter J. McCormick and Rafael Franco

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:26

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  15. Content type: Research article

    A crucial event in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the exit from the pluripotent ground state that leads to the acquisition of the ‘primed’ pluripotent phenotype, characteristic of ...

    Authors: Angelica Navarra, Anna Musto, Anna Gargiulo, Giuseppe Petrosino, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni, Alfredo Fusco, Tommaso Russo and Silvia Parisi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:24

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Synaptic loss strongly correlates with memory deterioration. Local accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, and neurotoxic Aβ42 in particular, due to abnormal neuronal activity may underlie synaptic dysfunction...

    Authors: Akira Kuzuya, Katarzyna M. Zoltowska, Kathryn L. Post, Muriel Arimon, Xuejing Li, Sarah Svirsky, Masato Maesako, Alona Muzikansky, Vivek Gautam, Dora Kovacs, Bradley T. Hyman and Oksana Berezovska

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:25

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The dorsal midline region of the neural tube that results from closure of the neural folds is generally termed the roof plate (RP). However, this domain is highly dynamic and complex, and is first transiently ...

    Authors: Erez Nitzan, Oshri Avraham, Nitza Kahane, Shai Ofek, Deepak Kumar and Chaya Kalcheim

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:23

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  18. Content type: Review

    In his splendid article “Can a biologist fix a radio? — or, what I learned while studying apoptosis,” Y. Lazebnik argues that when one uses the right tools, similarity between a biological system, like a signa...

    Authors: Mustafa Khammash

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:22

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Resident fibroblasts synthesize the cardiac extracellular matrix, and can undergo phenotype conversion to myofibroblasts to augment matrix production, impairing function and contributing to organ failure. A si...

    Authors: Rushita A. Bagchi, Patricia Roche, Nina Aroutiounova, Leon Espira, Bernard Abrenica, Ronen Schweitzer and Michael P. Czubryt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:21

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Self-renewing, chemoresistant breast cancer stem cells are believed to contribute significantly to cancer invasion, migration and patient relapse. Therefore, the identification of signaling pathways that regul...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Stanford, Zhongyan Wang, Olga Novikov, Francesca Mulas, Esther Landesman-Bollag, Stefano Monti, Brenden W. Smith, David C. Seldin, George J. Murphy and David H. Sherr

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:20

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk is centerpiece in the development of many branched organs, including the lungs. The embryonic lung mesoderm provides instructional information not only for lung architectural ...

    Authors: Aimin Li, Shudong Ma, Susan M. Smith, Matt K. Lee, Ashley Fischer, Zea Borok, Saverio Bellusci, Changgong Li and Parviz Minoo

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:19

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Understanding how embryos specify asymmetric axes is a major focus of biology. While much has been done to discover signaling pathways and transcription factors important for axis specification, comparatively ...

    Authors: Zhijun Qiu, Zeinab Elsayed, Veronica Peterkin, Suehyb Alkatib, Dorothy Bennett and Joseph W. Landry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:18

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  23. Content type: Commentary

    Because of their sessile lifestyle and the lack of the sensory and feeding structures usually associated with the cephalic end, fixing the antero-posterior (AP) polarity of tapeworms is somewhat equivocal and ...

    Authors: Alessandro Minelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:17

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Early developmental patterns of flatworms are extremely diverse and difficult to compare between distant groups. In parasitic flatworms, such as tapeworms, this is confounded by highly derived life cycles invo...

    Authors: Uriel Koziol, Francesca Jarero, Peter D. Olson and Klaus Brehm

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:10

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  25. Content type: Research article

    In eukaryotes, tRNA trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm is a complex process connected with cell cycle regulation. Such trafficking is therefore of fundamental importance in cell biology, and disrupt...

    Authors: Dian-Fu Chen, Cheng Lin, Hong-Liang Wang, Li Zhang, Li Dai, Sheng-Nan Jia, Rong Zhou, Ran Li, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, James S. Clegg, Hiromichi Nagasawa and Wei-Jun Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:16

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Adaptation of the cellular metabolism to varying external conditions is brought about by regulated changes in the activity of enzymes and transporters. Hormone-dependent reversible enzyme phosphorylation and c...

    Authors: Sascha Bulik, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter and Nikolaus Berndt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:15

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) constitute a powerful cell-autonomous resistance system against several intracellular pathogens. Irga6 is a dynamin-like protein that oligomerizes at the parasitophorous vac...

    Authors: Kathrin Schulte, Nikolaus Pawlowski, Katja Faelber, Chris Fröhlich, Jonathan Howard and Oliver Daumke

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:14

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Plants deploy immune receptors to detect pathogen-derived molecules and initiate defense responses. Intracellular plant immune receptors called nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins contain a c...

    Authors: Panagiotis F. Sarris, Volkan Cevik, Gulay Dagdas, Jonathan D. G. Jones and Ksenia V. Krasileva

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:8

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Olfaction is a fundamental sense through which most animals perceive the external world. The olfactory system detects odors via specialized sensory organs such as the main olfactory epithelium and the vomerona...

    Authors: Thiago S. Nakahara, Leonardo M. Cardozo, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Andrew D. Bard, Vinicius M. A. Carvalho, Guilherme Z. Trintinalia, Darren W. Logan and Fabio Papes

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:12

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Fast responses can provide a competitive advantage when resources are inhomogeneously distributed. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was shown to modulate locomotion on a lawn of bacterial food in serotonin (5-...

    Authors: Shachar Iwanir, Adam S. Brown, Stanislav Nagy, Dana Najjar, Alexander Kazakov, Kyung Suk Lee, Alon Zaslaver, Erel Levine and David Biron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:9

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Most mammalian genes display alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA). Previous studies have indicated preferential expression of APA isoforms with short 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTRs) in testes.

    Authors: Wencheng Li, Ji Yeon Park, Dinghai Zheng, Mainul Hoque, Ghassan Yehia and Bin Tian

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:6

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Tankyrases are poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerases that contribute to biological processes as diverse as modulation of Wnt signaling, telomere maintenance, vesicle trafficking, and microtubule-depen...

    Authors: Barbara Lupo, Jorge Vialard, Francesco Sassi, Patrick Angibaud, Alberto Puliafito, Emanuela Pupo, Letizia Lanzetti, Paolo M. Comoglio, Andrea Bertotti and Livio Trusolino

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:5

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  33. Content type: Comment

    Male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) establish dominance hierarchies within a population by fighting with one another. Larger males win fights more frequently than their smaller counterparts, and a previous study ...

    Authors: Emma Saxon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:4

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Dietary intake of specific non-digestible carbohydrates (including prebiotics) is increasingly seen as a highly effective approach for manipulating the composition and activities of the human gut microbiota to...

    Authors: Wing Sun Faith Chung, Alan W. Walker, Petra Louis, Julian Parkhill, Joan Vermeiren, Douwina Bosscher, Sylvia H. Duncan and Harry J. Flint

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:3

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Phenoloxidase (PO)-catalyzed melanization is a universal defense mechanism of insects against pathogenic and parasitic infections. In mosquitos such as Anopheles gambiae, melanotic encapsulation is a resistance m...

    Authors: Yingxia Hu, Yang Wang, Junpeng Deng and Haobo Jiang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:2

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  36. Content type: Research article

    An emerging cavefish model, the cyprinid genus Sinocyclocheilus, is endemic to the massive southwestern karst area adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China. In order to understand whether orogeny influenc...

    Authors: Junxing Yang, Xiaoli Chen, Jie Bai, Dongming Fang, Ying Qiu, Wansheng Jiang, Hui Yuan, Chao Bian, Jiang Lu, Shiyang He, Xiaofu Pan, Yaolei Zhang, Xiaoai Wang, Xinxin You, Yongsi Wang, Ying Sun…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2016 14:1

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the evolution of divergent developmental trajectories requires detailed comparisons of embryologies at appropriate levels. Cell lineages, the accurate visualization of cleavage patterns, tissue f...

    Authors: Thomas Stach and Chiara Anselmi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:113

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Genetic interactions, or non-additive effects between genes, play a crucial role in many cellular processes and disease. Which mechanisms underlie these genetic interactions has hardly been characterized. Unde...

    Authors: Katrin Sameith, Saman Amini, Marian J. A. Groot Koerkamp, Dik van Leenen, Mariel Brok, Nathalie Brabers, Philip Lijnzaad, Sander R. van Hooff, Joris J. Benschop, Tineke L. Lenstra, Eva Apweiler, Sake van Wageningen, Berend Snel, Frank C. P. Holstege and Patrick Kemmeren

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:112

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle is associated with metabolic flexibility, including a high capacity to increase fatty acid (FA) oxidation in response to increased lipid supply. Lipid overload, however, ...

    Authors: Tom Ashmore, Lee D. Roberts, Andrea J. Morash, Aleksandra O. Kotwica, John Finnerty, James A. West, Steven A. Murfitt, Bernadette O. Fernandez, Cristina Branco, Andrew S. Cowburn, Kieran Clarke, Randall S. Johnson, Martin Feelisch, Julian L. Griffin and Andrew J. Murray

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:110

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  40. Content type: Research article

    SAFB1 is a RNA binding protein implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as the regulation of transcription, stress response, DNA repair and RNA processing. To gain further insight into ...

    Authors: Caroline Rivers, Jalilah Idris, Helen Scott, Mark Rogers, Youn-Bok Lee, Jessica Gaunt, Leonidas Phylactou, Tomaz Curk, Colin Campbell, Jernej Ule, Michael Norman and James B. Uney

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:111

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  41. Content type: Comment

    Zebrafish are able to regenerate various organs and tissues after damage or amputation. To understand better the genetic controls of this process, the authors of this study investigated the expression of two g...

    Authors: Emma Saxon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:109

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  42. Content type: Question and Answer

    Karrikins are a family of compounds produced by wildfires that can stimulate the germination of dormant seeds of plants from numerous families. Seed plants could have ‘discovered’ karrikins during fire-prone t...

    Authors: Gavin R. Flematti, Kingsley W Dixon and Steven M. Smith

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:108

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  43. Content type: Methodology article

    Membrane proteins regulate a diversity of physiological processes and are the most successful class of targets in drug discovery. However, the number of targets adequately explored in chemical space and the li...

    Authors: Joshua C. Snyder, Thomas F. Pack, Lauren K. Rochelle, Subhasish K. Chakraborty, Ming Zhang, Andrew W. Eaton, Yushi Bai, Lauren A. Ernst, Larry S. Barak, Alan S. Waggoner and Marc G. Caron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:107

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