Mohawk JA, Green CB, Takahashi JS. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2012;35:445–62.
Ko CH, Takahashi JS. Molecular components of the mammalian circadian clock. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15 Spec No 2:R271–7.
Dibner C, Schibler U, Albrecht U. The mammalian circadian timing system: Organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:517–49.
Evans JA, Davidson AJ. Health consequences of circadian disruption in humans and animal models. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2013;119:283–323.
Abrahamson EE, Moore RY. Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the mouse: retinal innervation, intrinsic organization and efferent projections. Brain Res. 2001;916:172–91.
Antle MC, Foley DK, Foley NC, Silver R. Gates and oscillators: a network model of the brain clock. J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18:339–50.
Nagano M, Adachi A, Nakahama K, Nakamura T, Tamada M, Meyer-Bernstein E, et al. An abrupt shift in the day/night cycle causes desynchrony in the mammalian circadian center. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6141–51.
Sumova A, Illnerova H. Effect of photic stimuli disturbing overt circadian rhythms on the dorsomedial and ventrolateral SCN rhythmicity. Brain Res. 2005;1048:161–9.
Nakamura W, Yamazaki S, Takasu NN, Mishima K, Block GD. Differential response of Period 1 expression within the suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:5481–7.
Albus H, Vansteensel MJ, Michel S, Block GD, Meijer JH. A GABAergic mechanism is necessary for coupling dissociable ventral and dorsal regional oscillators within the circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2005;15:886–93.
Morin LP. SCN organization reconsidered. J Biol Rhythms. 2007;22:3–13.
Kriegsfeld LJ, Leak RK, Yackulic CB, LeSauter J, Silver R. Organization of suprachiasmatic nucleus projections in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus): an anterograde and retrograde analysis. J Comp Neurol. 2004;468:361–79.
Yan L, Foley NC, Bobula JM, Kriegsfeld LJ, Silver R. Two antiphase oscillations occur in each suprachiasmatic nucleus of behaviorally split hamsters. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9017–26.
de la Iglesia HO, Meyer J, Carpino Jr A, Schwartz WJ. Antiphase oscillation of the left and right suprachiasmatic nuclei. Science. 2000;290:799–801.
Ohta H, Yamazaki S, McMahon DG. Constant light desynchronizes mammalian clock neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:267–9.
Butler MP, Rainbow MN, Rodriguez E, Lyon SM, Silver R. Twelve-hour days in the brain and behavior of split hamsters. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2556–66.
Smarr BL, Morris E, de la Iglesia HO. The dorsomedial suprachiasmatic nucleus times circadian expression of Kiss1 and the luteinizing hormone surge. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2839–50.
Lee ML, Swanson BE, de la Iglesia HO. Circadian timing of REM sleep is coupled to an oscillator within the dorsomedial suprachiasmatic nucleus. Curr Biol. 2009;19:848–52.
Wotus C, Lilley TR, Neal AS, Suleiman NL, Schmuck SC, Smarr BL, et al. Forced desynchrony reveals independent contributions of suprachiasmatic oscillators to the daily plasma corticosterone rhythm in male rats. PLoS One. 2013;8:e68793.
Schwartz MD, Wotus C, Liu T, Friesen WO, Borjigin J, Oda GA, et al. Dissociation of circadian and light inhibition of melatonin release through forced desynchronization in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17540–5.
Evans JA, Leise TL, Castanon-Cervantes O, Davidson AJ. Dynamic interactions mediated by nonredundant signaling mechanisms couple circadian clock neurons. Neuron. 2013;80:973–83.
Inagaki N, Honma S, Ono D, Tanahashi Y, Honma K. Separate oscillating cell groups in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus couple photoperiodically to the onset and end of daily activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7664–9.
Naito E, Watanabe T, Tei H, Yoshimura T, Ebihara S. Reorganization of the suprachiasmatic nucleus coding for day length. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:140–9.
Yoo SH, Yamazaki S, Lowrey PL, Shimomura K, Ko CH, Buhr ED, et al. PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5339–46.
Yoshikawa T, Yamazaki S, Menaker M. Effects of preparation time on phase of cultured tissues reveal complexity of circadian organization. J Biol Rhythms. 2005;20:500–12.
Ishida A, Mutoh T, Ueyama T, Bando H, Masubuchi S, Nakahara D, et al. Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release. Cell Metab. 2005;2:297–307.
Redlin U, Mrosovsky N. Masking by light in hamsters with SCN lesions. J Comp Physiol A. 1999;184:439–48.
Husse J, Leliavski A, Tsang AH, Oster H, Eichele G. The light–dark cycle controls peripheral rhythmicity in mice with a genetically ablated suprachiasmatic nucleus clock. FASEB J. 2014;28:4950–60.
Son GH, Chung S, Choe HK, Kim HD, Baik SM, Lee H, et al. Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20970–5.
Kiessling S, Sollars PJ, Pickard GE. Light stimulates the mouse adrenal through a retinohypothalamic pathway independent of an effect on the clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. PLoS One. 2014;9:e92959.
Guilding C, Hughes AT, Brown TM, Namvar S, Piggins HD. A riot of rhythms: neuronal and glial circadian oscillators in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Mol Brain. 2009;2:28.
Guilding C, Hughes AT, Piggins HD. Circadian oscillators in the epithalamus. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1630–9.
Kalsbeek A, Fliers E, Hofman MA, Swaab DF, Buijs RM. Vasopressin and the output of the hypothalamic biological clock. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:362–72.
Weaver DR. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: a 25-year retrospective. J Biol Rhythms. 1998;13:100–12.
Leak RK, Moore RY. Topographic organization of suprachiasmatic nucleus projection neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2001;433:312–34.
Zhou QY, Cheng MY. Prokineticin 2 and circadian clock output. FEBS J. 2005;272:5703–9.
Li JD, Burton KJ, Zhang C, Hu SB, Zhou QY. Vasopressin receptor V1a regulates circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and expression of clock-controlled genes in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R824–30.
Kramer A, Yang FC, Snodgrass P, Li X, Scammell TE, Davis FC, et al. Regulation of daily locomotor activity and sleep by hypothalamic EGF receptor signaling. Science. 2001;294:2511–5.
Yoder JM, Brandeland M, Engeland WC. Phase-dependent resetting of the adrenal clock by ACTH in vitro. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;306:R387–93.
Wu C, Sui G, Archer SN, Sassone-Corsi P, Aitken K, Bagli D, et al. Local receptors as novel regulators for peripheral clock expression. FASEB J. 2014;28(11):4610–6.
de la Iglesia HO, Meyer J, Schwartz WJ. Lateralization of circadian pacemaker output: Activation of left- and right-sided luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons involves a neural rather than a humoral pathway. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7412–4.
Meyer-Bernstein EL, Jetton AE, Matsumoto SI, Markuns JF, Lehman MN, Bittman EL. Effects of suprachiasmatic transplants on circadian rhythms of neuroendocrine function in golden hamsters. Endocrinology. 1999;140:207–18.
Teclemariam-Mesbah R, Ter Horst GJ, Postema F, Wortel J, Buijs RM. Anatomical demonstration of the suprachiasmatic nucleus-pineal pathway. J Comp Neurol. 1999;406:171–82.
Lehman MN, Silver R, Gladstone WR, Kahn RM, Gibson M, Bittman EL. Circadian rhythmicity restored by neural transplant. Immunocytochemical characterization of the graft and its integration with the host brain. J Neurosci. 1987;7:1626–38.
Guo H, Brewer JM, Champhekar A, Harris RB, Bittman EL. Differential control of peripheral circadian rhythms by suprachiasmatic-dependent neural signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3111–6.
Ueyama T, Krout KE, Nguyen XV, Karpitskiy V, Kollert A, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Suprachiasmatic nucleus: a central autonomic clock. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:1051–3.
Hattar S, Kumar M, Park A, Tong P, Tung J, Yau KW, et al. Central projections of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2006;497:326–49.
Lamia KA, Storch KF, Weitz CJ. Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15172–7.
Kornmann B, Schaad O, Bujard H, Takahashi JS, Schibler U. System-driven and oscillator-dependent circadian transcription in mice with a conditionally active liver clock. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e34.
Kalsbeek A, van der Vliet J, Buijs RM. Decrease of endogenous vasopressin release necessary for expression of the circadian rise in plasma corticosterone: a reverse microdialysis study. J Neuroendocrinol. 1996;8:299–307.
Brown MH, Nunez AA. Vasopressin-deficient rats show a reduced amplitude of the circadian sleep rhythm. Physiol Behav. 1989;46:759–62.
Schroder H, Stehle J, Henschel M. Twenty-four-hour pineal melatonin synthesis in the vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat. Brain Res. 1988;459:328–32.
Aton SJ, Colwell CS, Harmar AJ, Waschek J, Herzog ED. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythmicity and synchrony in mammalian clock neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:476–83.
van der Beek EM, Wiegant VM, van der Donk HA, van den Hurk R, Buijs RM. Lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus indicate the presence of a direct vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing projection to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurons in the female rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 1993;5:137–44.
Sellix MT, Evans JA, Leise TL, Castanon-Cervantes O, Hill DD, DeLisser P, et al. Aging differentially affects the re-entrainment response of central and peripheral circadian oscillators. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16193–202.
Davidson AJ, Castanon-Cervantes O, Leise TL, Molyneux PC, Harrington ME. Visualizing jet lag in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral circadian timing system. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:171–80.
Yamazaki S, Numano R, Abe M, Hida A, Takahashi R, Ueda M, et al. Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats. Science. 2000;288:682–5.
Li JZ, Bunney BG, Meng F, Hagenauer MH, Walsh DM, Vawter MP, et al. Circadian patterns of gene expression in the human brain and disruption in major depressive disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9950–5.
Ehlen JC, Jefferson F, Brager AJ, Benveniste M, Paul KN. Period-amplitude analysis reveals wake-dependent changes in the electroencephalogram during sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2013;36:1723–35.
Oster H, Damerow S, Hut RA, Eichele G. Transcriptional profiling in the adrenal gland reveals circadian regulation of hormone biosynthesis genes and nucleosome assembly genes. J Biol Rhythms. 2006;21:350–61.