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  1. The deep-sea may be regarded as a hostile living environment, due to low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and limited food and light. Isopods, a species-rich group of crustaceans, are widely distributed...

    Authors: Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Qi Kou, Yamin Sun, Chengzhang Liu, Shihao Li, Yang Yu, Chengsong Zhang, Songjun Jin, Jianhai Xiang, Xinzheng Li and Fuhua Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:113
  2. Metazoan guts are in permanent contact with microbial communities. However, the host mechanisms that have developed to manage the dynamic changes of these microorganisms and maintain homeostasis remain largely...

    Authors: Tian Zeng, Hong-ai Su, Ya-lan Liu, Jian-fang Li, Ding-xin Jiang, Yong-yue Lu and Yi-xiang Qi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:105
  3. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is a region known to integrate somatosensory and auditory inputs and is identified as a potential key structure in the generation of phantom sound perception, especially noise...

    Authors: Thawann Malfatti, Barbara Ciralli, Markus M. Hilscher, Richardson N. Leao and Katarina E. Leao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:102
  4. Birds are key indicator species in extant ecosystems, and thus we would expect extinct birds to provide insights into the nature of ancient ecosystems. However, many aspects of extinct bird ecology, particular...

    Authors: Case Vincent Miller, Michael Pittman, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaoting Zheng and Jen A. Bright
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:101
  5. Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) form symbioses with diverse microbial communities that can be transmitted between generations through their developmental stages. Here, we integrate embryology and microbiology...

    Authors: Tyler J. Carrier, Manuel Maldonado, Lara Schmittmann, Lucía Pita, Thomas C. G. Bosch and Ute Hentschel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:100
  6. The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the genome has a highly ordered and hierarchical nature, which influences the regulation of essential nuclear processes at the basis of gene expression, such as gene ...

    Authors: Diyan Li, Mengnan He, Qianzi Tang, Shilin Tian, Jiaman Zhang, Yan Li, Danyang Wang, Long Jin, Chunyou Ning, Wei Zhu, Silu Hu, Keren Long, Jideng Ma, Jing Liu, Zhihua Zhang and Mingzhou Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:99
  7. Authors: Mahul Chakraborty, Arunachalam Ramaiah, Adriana Adolfi, Paige Halas, Bhagyashree Kaduskar, Luna Thanh Ngo, Suvratha Jayaprasad, Kiran Paul, Saurabh Whadgar, Subhashini Srinivasan, Suresh Subramani, Ethan Bier, Anthony A. James and J. J. Emerson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:96

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:28

  8. Beiging of white fat plays an important role in energy metabolism. Beige adipocytes contribute to the regulation of body weight and body temperature through expenditure of chemical energy to produce heat, and ...

    Authors: Chunling Xue, Xuechun Li, Li Ba, Yamei Shen, Zhao Sun, Junjie Gu, Ying Yang, Qin Han and Robert Chunhua Zhao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:95
  9. Estriol (E3) is a steroid hormone formed only during pregnancy in primates including humans. Although E3 is synthesized at large amounts through a complex pathway involving the fetus and placenta, it is not requi...

    Authors: Yuping Zhou, Baoxia Gu, Geraldine Brichant, Jay Prakash Singh, Huan Yang, Hao Chang, Yanding Zhao, Chao Cheng, Zhong-Wu Liu, Myles H. Alderman III, Lingeng Lu, Xiaoyong Yang, Xiao-Bing Gao and Hugh S. Taylor
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:93
  10. After embryonic development, Caenorhabditis elegans progress through for larval stages, each of them finishing with molting. The repetitive nature of C. elegans postembryonic development is considered an oscillat...

    Authors: Alejandro Mata-Cabana, Francisco Javier Romero-Expósito, Mirjam Geibel, Francine Amaral Piubeli, Martha Merrow and María Olmedo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:94
  11. Deep-branching phylogenetic relationships are often difficult to resolve because phylogenetic signals are obscured by the long history and complexity of evolutionary processes, such as ancient introgression/hy...

    Authors: Wenpan Dong, Enze Li, Yanlei Liu, Chao Xu, Yushuang Wang, Kangjia Liu, Xingyong Cui, Jiahui Sun, Zhili Suo, Zhixiang Zhang, Jun Wen and Shiliang Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:92
  12. The CRISPR-Cas12a (formerly Cpf1) system is a versatile gene-editing tool with properties distinct from the broadly used Cas9 system. Features such as recognition of T-rich protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) and...

    Authors: Hongxin Huang, Guanjie Huang, Zhihong Tan, Yongfei Hu, Lin Shan, Jiajian Zhou, Xin Zhang, Shufeng Ma, Weiqi Lv, Tao Huang, Yuchen Liu, Dong Wang, Xiaoyang Zhao, Ying Lin and Zhili Rong
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:91
  13. The dynamics of the actomyosin machinery is at the core of many important biological processes. Several relevant cellular responses such as the rhythmic compression of the cell cortex are governed, at a mesosc...

    Authors: Miguel Hernández-del-Valle, Andrea Valencia-Expósito, Antonio López-Izquierdo, Pau Casanova-Ferrer, Pedro Tarazona, Maria D. Martín-Bermudo and David G. Míguez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:90
  14. Medicinal plants have always played an important role in the history of human health. However, the populations and sustainable use of medicinal plants have been severely affected by human activities and climat...

    Authors: Changying Xia, Yunfeng Huang, Yaodong Qi, Xudong Yang, Tiantian Xue, Renchuan Hu, Hongping Deng, Rainer W. Bussmann and Shengxiang Yu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:89
  15. Despite the excellent fossil record of cephalopods, their early evolution is poorly understood. Different, partly incompatible phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed in the past, which reflected individual...

    Authors: Alexander Pohle, Björn Kröger, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Andy H. King, David H. Evans, Martina Aubrechtová, Marcela Cichowolski, Xiang Fang and Christian Klug
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:88
  16. In all living organisms, DNA replication is exquisitely regulated in a wide range of growth conditions to achieve timely and accurate genome duplication prior to cell division. Failures in this regulation caus...

    Authors: Steff Horemans, Matthaios Pitoulias, Alexandria Holland, Emilie Pateau, Christophe Lechaplais, Dariy Ekaterina, Alain Perret, Panos Soultanas and Laurent Janniere
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:87
  17. In inherited retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), rod photoreceptor-specific mutations cause primary rod degeneration that is followed by secondary cone death and loss of high-acuity vision. Me...

    Authors: Duygu Karademir, Vyara Todorova, Lynn J. A. Ebner, Marijana Samardzija and Christian Grimm
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:86
  18. To understand functional changes of complex biological networks, mathematical modeling of network topologies provides a quantitative measure of the way biological systems adapt to external stimuli. However, sy...

    Authors: Jun Xie, Lichun Zhang, Bodong Liu, Xiao Liang and Jue Shi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:85
  19. The structural connectivity of neurons in the brain allows active neurons to impact the physiology of target neuron types with which they are functionally connected. While the structural connectome is at the b...

    Authors: Mahdi Zarei, Dan Xie, Fei Jiang, Adil Bagirov, Bo Huang, Ashish Raj, Srikantan Nagarajan and Su Guo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:84
  20. Jasmonates (JAs) mediate trade-off between responses to both biotic and abiotic stress and growth in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 is part of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 receptor complex,...

    Authors: Stacey A. Vincent, Jong-Myong Kim, Imma Pérez-Salamó, Taiko Kim To, Chieko Torii, Junko Ishida, Maho Tanaka, Takaho A. Endo, Prajwal Bhat, Paul F. Devlin, Motoaki Seki and Alessandra Devoto
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:83
  21. Despite the morphological diversity of animals, their basic anatomical patterns—the body plans in each animal phylum—have remained highly conserved over hundreds of millions of evolutionary years. This is attr...

    Authors: Yui Uchida, Shuji Shigenobu, Hiroyuki Takeda, Chikara Furusawa and Naoki Irie
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:82
  22. The endostyle is an epithelial exocrine gland found in non-vertebrate chordates (amphioxi and tunicates) and the larvae of modern lampreys. It is generally considered to be an evolutionary precursor of the thy...

    Authors: Wataru Takagi, Fumiaki Sugahara, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Rie Kusakabe, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Iori Sato, Yasuhiro Oisi, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Hiroshi Miyanishi, Noritaka Adachi, Susumu Hyodo and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:76
  23. Understanding the contribution of gene function in distinct organ systems to the pathogenesis of human diseases in biomedical research requires modifying gene expression through the generation of gain- and los...

    Authors: Anna Georgina Kopasz, Dávid Zsolt Pusztai, Réka Karkas, Liza Hudoba, Khaldoon Sadiq Ahmed Abdullah, Gergely Imre, Gabriella Pankotai-Bodó, Ede Migh, Andrea Nagy, András Kriston, Péter Germán, Andrea Bakné Drubi, Anna Molnár, Ildikó Fekete, Virág Éva Dani, Imre Ocsovszki…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:74
  24. Using genetically modified plants as natural dispensers of insect pheromones may eventually become part of a novel strategy for integrated pest management.

    Authors: Yi-Han Xia, Bao-Jian Ding, Shuang-Lin Dong, Hong-Lei Wang, Per Hofvander and Christer Löfstedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:80
  25. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiling across tissues can provide necessary information for an in-depth understanding of their biological functions. We performed a large-scale gene expression an...

    Authors: Tianliu Zhang, Tianzhen Wang, Qunhao Niu, Lei Xu, Yan Chen, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Lupei Zhang, George E. Liu, Junya Li and Lingyang Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:79
  26. Spermatogenesis is regulated by a complex network of intercellular communication processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of the important mediators in intercellular communication. Previous reports have...

    Authors: Kathleen Hoi Kei Choy, Sze Yan Chan, William Lam, Jing Jin, Tingting Zheng, Tin Yu Samuel Law, Sidney Siubun Yu, Weiping Wang, Linxian Li, Gangcai Xie, Howard Chi Ho Yim, Hao Chen and Ellis Kin Lam Fok
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:78
  27. Tissue-clearing techniques have recently been developed to make tissues transparent for three-dimensional (3D) imaging at different scales, including single-cell resolution. However, current tissue-clearing wo...

    Authors: Qing-Hong Shan, Xin-Ya Qin, Nan Zhou, Chuan Huang, Yu Wang, Peng Chen and Jiang-Ning Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:77
  28. Seahorses, seadragons, pygmy pipehorses, and pipefishes (Syngnathidae, Syngnathiformes) are among the most recognizable groups of fishes because of their derived morphology, unusual life history, and worldwide...

    Authors: Josefin Stiller, Graham Short, Healy Hamilton, Norah Saarman, Sarah Longo, Peter Wainwright, Greg W. Rouse and W. Brian Simison
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:75
  29. Supraphysiological hemodynamics are a recognized driver of platelet activation and thrombosis at high-grade stenosis and in blood contacting circulatory support devices. However, whether platelets mechano-sens...

    Authors: Nurul A. Zainal Abidin, Eric K. W. Poon, Crispin Szydzik, Mariia Timofeeva, Farzan Akbaridoust, Rose J. Brazilek, Francisco J. Tovar Lopez, Xiao Ma, Chitrarth Lav, Ivan Marusic, Philip E. Thompson, Arnan Mitchell, Andrew S. H. Ooi, Justin R. Hamilton and Warwick S. Nesbitt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:73
  30. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by nearly every cell type and have attracted much attention for their ability to transfer protein and diverse RNA species from donor to recipient cells. Much attention...

    Authors: Tina O’Grady, Makon-Sébastien Njock, Michelle Lion, Jonathan Bruyr, Emeline Mariavelle, Bartimée Galvan, Amandine Boeckx, Ingrid Struman and Franck Dequiedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:72
  31. Despite recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating aging and lifespan, and the pathways involved being conserved in different species, a full understanding of the aging process has no...

    Authors: Yizhou Jiang, Uma Gaur, Zhibai Cao, Sheng-Tao Hou and Wenhua Zheng
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:71
  32. Cytosine DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic mark present in most eukaryotic groups. While the patterns and functions of DNA methylation have been extensively studied in mouse and human, their conservati...

    Authors: Hala Al Adhami, Anaïs Flore Bardet, Michael Dumas, Elouan Cleroux, Sylvain Guibert, Patricia Fauque, Hervé Acloque and Michael Weber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:70
  33. Functional complexity of the eukaryotic mitochondrial proteome is augmented by independent gene acquisition from bacteria since its endosymbiotic origins. Mammalian homologs of many ancestral mitochondrial pro...

    Authors: Andrew J. Smith, Jayshree Advani, Daniel C. Brock, Jacob Nellissery, Jessica Gumerson, Lijin Dong, L. Aravind, Breandán Kennedy and Anand Swaroop
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:68
  34. Mice carrying targeted mutations are important for investigating gene function and the role of genes in disease, but off-target mutagenic effects associated with the processes of generating targeted alleles, f...

    Authors: Morag A. Lewis, Neil J. Ingham, Jing Chen, Selina Pearson, Francesca Di Domenico, Sohinder Rekhi, Rochelle Allen, Matthew Drake, Annelore Willaert, Victoria Rook, Johanna Pass, Thomas Keane, David J. Adams, Abigail S. Tucker, Jacqueline K. White and Karen P. Steel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:67
  35. The plastid genomes of the green algal order Chlamydomonadales tend to expand their non-coding regions, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here we shed new light on organellar genome evolution in Chlamy...

    Authors: Tomáš Pánek, Dovilė Barcytė, Sebastian C. Treitli, Kristína Záhonová, Martin Sokol, Tereza Ševčíková, Eliška Zadrobílková, Karin Jaške, Naoji Yubuki, Ivan Čepička and Marek Eliáš
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:66
  36. Ubiquitylation of the ligands and the receptor plays an important part in the regulation of the activity of the evolutionary conserved Notch signalling pathway. However, its function for activation of Notch is...

    Authors: Björn Schnute, Hideyuki Shimizu, Marvin Lyga, Martin Baron and Thomas Klein
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:65
  37. During mammalian preimplantation development, as the fertilized egg develops and differentiates, three cell lineages become specified: trophectoderm (TE), epiblast, and primitive endoderm (PrE). Through two st...

    Authors: Mami Tsume-Kajioka, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Kyoko Mochida, Yoko Ueda and Isao Matsuo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:64
  38. Twenty-four-hour rhythmicity in mammalian tissues and organs is driven by local circadian oscillators, systemic factors, the central circadian pacemaker and light-dark cycles. At the physiological level, the n...

    Authors: Carla S. Möller-Levet, Emma E. Laing, Simon N. Archer and Derk-Jan Dijk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:63

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:98

  39. T cell activation is a mechanical process as much as it is a biochemical process. In this study, we used a cone-and-plate viscometer system to treat Jurkat and primary human T cells with fluid shear stress (FS...

    Authors: Jacob M. Hope, Jenna A. Dombroski, Rebecca S. Pereles, Maria Lopez-Cavestany, Joshua D. Greenlee, Samantha C. Schwager, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King and Michael R. King
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:61
  40. Mature blood cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow by a process of differentiation along one of several different lineage trajectories. This is often represented as a series of discrete ...

    Authors: Charles Dussiau, Agathe Boussaroque, Mathilde Gaillard, Clotilde Bravetti, Laila Zaroili, Camille Knosp, Chloé Friedrich, Philippe Asquier, Lise Willems, Laurent Quint, Didier Bouscary, Michaela Fontenay, Thibault Espinasse, Adriana Plesa, Pierre Sujobert, Olivier Gandrillon…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:60
  41. Many epidemiological studies revealed that shift work is associated with an increased risk of a number of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. An experimental model of shift work in rats has additio...

    Authors: Alexandra J. Trott, Ben J. Greenwell, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Natali N. Guerrero-Vargas, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M. Buijs and Jerome S. Menet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:58
  42. Mitochondria and peroxisomes are the two organelles that are most affected during adaptation to microoxic or anoxic environments. Mitochondria are known to transform into anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes...

    Authors: Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Cristian Treitli, Tien Le, Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Pavla Hanousková, Ivan Čepička, Jan Tachezy and Vladimír Hampl
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:56