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  1. Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evoluti...

    Authors: Alexis C Edwards, Liesbeth Zwarts, Akihiko Yamamoto, Patrick Callaerts and Trudy FC Mackay
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:29
  2. Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones...

    Authors: Scott F Cummins, Dirk Erpenbeck, Zhihua Zou, Charles Claudianos, Leonid L Moroz, Gregg T Nagle and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:28
  3. Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest c...

    Authors: Francesca Orso, Richard Jäger, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Hubert Schorle, Piero Sismondi, Michele De Bortoli and Daniela Taverna
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:25
  4. We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10...

    Authors: Eusebio Chiefari, Francesco Paonessa, Stefania Iiritano, Ilaria Le Pera, Dario Palmieri, Giuseppe Brunetti, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Alfredo Fusco and Antonio Brunetti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:24
  5. Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only ...

    Authors: Zhenguo Zhang, Dedong Xin, Ping Wang, Li Zhou, Landian Hu, Xiangyin Kong and Laurence D Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:23
  6. Antimicrobial peptides are found in all kingdoms of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, antimicrobial peptides were established as key elements of innate immunity. Most antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Sebastian Leptihn, Jia Yi Har, Jianzhu Chen, Bow Ho, Thorsten Wohland and Jeak Ling Ding
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:22
  7. Gene gain and subsequent retention or loss during evolution may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the diversity of metazoan nervous systems. However, the causal relationships acting th...

    Authors: Nozomu Higuchi, Keigo Kohno and Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:21
  8. In Drosophila, all the 64 clonally derived spermatocytes differentiate in syncytium inside two somatic-origin cyst cells. They elongate to form slender spermatids, which are individualized and then released into ...

    Authors: Bela S Desai, Seema Shirolikar and Krishanu Ray
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:19
  9. Allopolyploid speciation requires rapid evolutionary reconciliation of two diverged genomes and gene regulatory networks. Here we describe global patterns of gene expression accompanying genomic merger and dou...

    Authors: Ryan A Rapp, Joshua A Udall and Jonathan F Wendel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:18
  10. The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland. Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone g...

    Authors: Hillel Galitzer, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Morris Nechama, Tomer Meir, Justin Silver and Tally Naveh-Many
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:17
  11. Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology ha...

    Authors: Joseph A Jackson, Ida M Friberg, Luke Bolch, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Philip D Harris, Jerzy M Behnke and Janette E Bradley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:16
  12. In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, w...

    Authors: Haisun Zhu, Robert J Gegear, Amy Casselman, Sriramana Kanginakudru and Steven M Reppert
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:14
  13. Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of ...

    Authors: David S Hibbett and P Brandon Matheny
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:13
  14. Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (γ-Proteobacteria). Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential ...

    Authors: Naruo Nikoh and Atsushi Nakabachi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:12
  15. Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the...

    Authors: Nichole A Broderick, Courtney J Robinson, Matthew D McMahon, Jonathan Holt, Jo Handelsman and Kenneth F Raffa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:11
  16. Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of...

    Authors: Ana Martín-González, Jacek Wierzchos, Juan-Carlos Gutiérrez, Jesús Alonso and Carmen Ascaso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:9
  17. In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on t...

    Authors: Lieke M van der Aa, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Malika Yahmi, Emilie Lauret, Valérie Briolat, Philippe Herbomel, Abdenour Benmansour and Pierre Boudinot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:7
  18. Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthrop...

    Authors: Lucy A Weinert, John H Werren, Alexandre Aebi, Graham N Stone and Francis M Jiggins
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:6
  19. Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived fro...

    Authors: Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz and M Dolors Ludevid
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:5
  20. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used ...

    Authors: Marc F Schetelig, Carlos Caceres, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz and Ernst A Wimmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:4
  21. Methods for assigning strains to bacterial species are cumbersome and no longer fit for purpose. The concatenated sequences of multiple house-keeping genes have been shown to be able to define and circumscribe...

    Authors: Cynthia J Bishop, David M Aanensen, Gregory E Jordan, Mogens Kilian, William P Hanage and Brian G Spratt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:3
  22. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, th...

    Authors: Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takahiro Hosokawa, Naruo Nikoh, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata and Takema Fukatsu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:2
  23. Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR) and denervat...

    Authors: James R Monaghan, Leonard G Epp, Srikrishna Putta, Robert B Page, John A Walker, Chris K Beachy, Wei Zhu, Gerald M Pao, Inder M Verma, Tony Hunter, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner, Tim T Harkins and S Randal Voss
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:1
  24. Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regi...

    Authors: Thomas LP Couvreur, Lars W Chatrou, Marc SM Sosef and James E Richardson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:54
  25. Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other...

    Authors: Jagan Srinivasan, Omer Durak and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:52
  26. In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80 kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane through its FERM domain. While the expression pattern of 4.1R in mat...

    Authors: Eva Lospitao, Carmen M Pérez-Ferreiro, Altea Gosálbez, Miguel A Alonso and Isabel Correas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:51
  27. In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping') genes. We have ...

    Authors: Zoltán Dezső, Yuri Nikolsky, Evgeny Sviridov, Weiwei Shi, Tatiana Serebriyskaya, Damir Dosymbekov, Andrej Bugrim, Eugene Rakhmatulin, Richard J Brennan, Alexey Guryanov, Kelly Li, Julie Blake, Raymond R Samaha and Tatiana Nikolskaya
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:49
  28. The mammary gland undergoes a sophisticated programme of developmental changes during pregnancy/lactation. However, little is known about processes involving initiation of apoptosis at involution following wea...

    Authors: Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefèvre and Kevin R Nicholas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:48
  29. Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demogr...

    Authors: Sofie Vandewoestijne, Nicolas Schtickzelle and Michel Baguette
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:46
  30. The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward,...

    Authors: Hong Shi, Hua Zhong, Yi Peng, Yong-Li Dong, Xue-Bin Qi, Feng Zhang, Lu-Fang Liu, Si-Jie Tan, Runlin Z Ma, Chun-Jie Xiao, R Spencer Wells, Li Jin and Bing Su
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:45
  31. Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have...

    Authors: Caroline Anselme, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Agnès Vallier, Carole Vincent-Monegat, Delphine Charif, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya and Abdelaziz Heddi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:43
  32. Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of ge...

    Authors: James H Thomas and Hugh M Robertson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:42
  33. Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of...

    Authors: Malcolm Burrows, Stephen R Shaw and Gregory P Sutton
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:41
  34. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, otherwise known as prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc)...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi, Luisa Diomede, Mario Salmona and Alun Williams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:39
  35. In pathogens, certain genes encoding proteins that directly interact with host defences coevolve with their host and are subject to positive selection. In the lepidopteran host-wasp parasitoid system, one of t...

    Authors: Céline Serbielle, Shafinaz Chowdhury, Samuel Pichon, Stéphane Dupas, Jérôme Lesobre, Enrico O Purisima, Jean-Michel Drezen and Elisabeth Huguet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:38
  36. Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of ho...

    Authors: Bartosz Adamcio, Derya Sargin, Alicja Stradomska, Lucian Medrihan, Christoph Gertler, Fabian Theis, Mingyue Zhang, Michael Müller, Imam Hassouna, Kathrin Hannke, Swetlana Sperling, Konstantin Radyushkin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Lizzy Schulze, Anja Ronnenberg, Fred Wolf…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:37
  37. The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and mat...

    Authors: Uwe G Maier, Andrew Bozarth, Helena T Funk, Stefan Zauner, Stefan A Rensing, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber, Thomas Börner and Michael Tillich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:36
  38. Gene duplication provides opportunities for lineage diversification and evolution of developmental novelties. Duplicated genes generally either disappear by accumulation of mutations (nonfunctionalization), or...

    Authors: Susan Bassham, Cristian Cañestro and John H Postlethwait
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:35
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