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  1. Several lines of evidence suggest that codon usage in the Drosophila saltans and D. willistoni lineages has shifted towards a less frequent use of GC-ending codons. Introns in these lineages show a parallel shift...

    Authors: Nadia D Singh, Peter F Arndt and Dmitri A Petrov
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:37
  2. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known as a powerful regulator of white blood cell proliferation and differentiation in mammals. We, and others, have shown that G-CSF is effective in treating c...

    Authors: Armin Schneider, Rainer Wysocki, Claudia Pitzer, Carola Krüger, Rico Laage, Stefan Schwab, Alfred Bach and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:36
  3. Fertilization restores the diploid state and begins the process by which the single-cell oocyte is converted into a polarized, multicellular organism. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, two of the earliest ...

    Authors: Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus and James W Dennis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:35
  4. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA...

    Authors: Bert Ely, Jamie Lee Wilson, Fatimah Jackson and Bruce A Jackson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:34

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:13

  5. Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorph...

    Authors: Katrin Juling, Hermann Schwarzenbacher, John L Williams and Ruedi Fries
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:33
  6. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite ext...

    Authors: Danny W Rice and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:31
  7. Mean phosphorous:nitrogen (P:N) ratios and relationships of P:N ratios with the growth rate of organisms indicate a surprising similarity among and within microbial species, plants, and insect herbivores. To r...

    Authors: Tatiana V Karpinets, Duncan J Greenwood, Carl E Sams and John T Ammons
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:30
  8. Protein translocation to the proper cellular destination may be guided by various classes of sorting signals recognizable in the primary sequence. Detection in some genomes, but not others, may reveal sorting ...

    Authors: Daniel H Haft, Ian T Paulsen, Naomi Ward and Jeremy D Selengut
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:29
  9. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) offer a renewable source of a wide range of cell types for use in research and cell-based therapies to treat disease. Inspection of protein markers provides important informat...

    Authors: Richard Josephson, Gregory Sykes, Ying Liu, Carol Ording, Weining Xu, Xianmin Zeng, Soojung Shin, Jeanne Loring, Anirban Maitra, Mahendra S Rao and Jonathan M Auerbach
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:28
  10. Congenital aniridia caused by heterozygousity at the PAX6 locus is associated with ocular surface disease including keratopathy. It is not clear whether the keratopathy is a direct result of reduced PAX6 gene dos...

    Authors: Lucy J Leiper, Petr Walczysko, Romana Kucerova, Jingxing Ou, Lynne J Shanley, Diane Lawson, John V Forrester, Colin D McCaig, Min Zhao and J Martin Collinson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:27
  11. The Caenorhabditis elegans male exhibits a stereotypic behavioral pattern when attempting to mate. This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule inse...

    Authors: Gary Schindelman, Allyson J Whittaker, Jian Yuan Thum, Shahla Gharib and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:26
  12. A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 h...

    Authors: Peter Sörös, Nikolaus Michael, Melanie Tollkötter and Bettina Pfleiderer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:25
  13. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current m...

    Authors: Michelle S Teng, Martijn PJ Dekkers, Bee Ling Ng, Suzanne Rademakers, Gert Jansen, Andrew G Fraser and John McCafferty
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:22
  14. Efficient host exploitation by parasites is frequently likely to depend on cooperative behaviour. Under these conditions, mixed-strain infections are predicted to show lower virulence (host mortality) than are...

    Authors: Freya Harrison, Lucy E Browning, Michiel Vos and Angus Buckling
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:21
  15. DBA/2J (D2) mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve...

    Authors: Michael G Anderson, Richard T Libby, Mao Mao, Ioan M Cosma, Larry A Wilson, Richard S Smith and Simon WM John
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:20
  16. The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from o...

    Authors: C Adam Middleton, Upendra Nongthomba, Katherine Parry, Sean T Sweeney, John C Sparrow and Christopher JH Elliott
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:17
  17. Evolution of the deuterostome lineage was accompanied by an increase in systematic complexity especially with regard to highly specialized tissues and organs. Based on the observation of an increased number of...

    Authors: Dirk Steinke, Simone Hoegg, Henner Brinkmann and Axel Meyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:16
  18. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30%) and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex a...

    Authors: Roney S Coimbra, Veronique Voisin, Antoine B de Saizieu, Raija LP Lindberg, Matthias Wittwer, David Leppert and Stephen L Leib
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:15
  19. The RB1 gene was the first tumor suppressor gene cloned from humans by studying genetic lesions in families with retinoblastoma. Children who inherit one defective copy of the RB1 gene have an increased susceptib...

    Authors: Stacy L Donovan, Brett Schweers, Rodrigo Martins, Dianna Johnson and Michael A Dyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:14
  20. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key regulator of the immune system and an important factor in the development of allergic hypersensitivity. Together with interleukin 13 (IL-13), IL-4 plays an important role in exace...

    Authors: Michael Kraich, Markus Klein, Edwin Patiño, Henning Harrer, Joachim Nickel, Walter Sebald and Thomas D Mueller
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:13
  21. The view that gene flow between related animal species is rare and evolutionarily unimportant largely antedates sensitive molecular techniques. Here we use DNA sequencing to investigate a pair of morphological...

    Authors: Vanessa Bull, Margarita Beltrán, Chris D Jiggins, W Owen McMillan, Eldredge Bermingham and James Mallet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:11
  22. Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and...

    Authors: Hannah Rajasingh, Leiv Øyehaug, Dag Inge Våge and Stig W Omholt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:10
  23. Polycomb-group genes (PcG) encode proteins that maintain homeotic (Hox) gene repression throughout development. Conversely, trithorax-group (trxG) genes encode positive factors required for maintenance of long t...

    Authors: Juliette Salvaing, Martine Decoville, Emmanuèle Mouchel-Vielh, Marianne Bussière, Anne Daulny, Lidiya Boldyreva, Igor Zhimulev, Daniel Locker and Frédérique Peronnet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:9
  24. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, r...

    Authors: Susana Peciña, Jay Schulkin and Kent C Berridge
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:8
  25. Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors wh...

    Authors: Tod R Clapp, Kathryn F Medler, Sami Damak, Robert F Margolskee and Sue C Kinnamon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:7
  26. Habitat variation strongly influences the evolution of developmentally flexible traits, and may drive speciation and diversification. The plethodontid salamander Eurycea tynerensis is endemic to the geologically ...

    Authors: Ronald M Bonett and Paul T Chippindale
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:6
  27. Soon after the first algorithms for RNA folding became available, it was recognised that the prediction of only one energetically optimal structure is insufficient to achieve reliable results. An in-depth anal...

    Authors: Björn Voß, Robert Giegerich and Marc Rehmsmeier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:5
  28. Runx proteins are developmentally important metazoan transcription factors that form a heterodimeric complex with the non-homologous protein Core Binding Factor β (CBFβ). CBFβ allosterically enhances Runx DNA ...

    Authors: Anthony J Robertson, Carrie Dickey-Sims, Andrew Ransick, Dawn E Rupp, John J McCarthy and James A Coffman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:4
  29. The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae,...

    Authors: Jean-François Pombert, Claude Lemieux and Monique Turmel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:3
  30. Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to ...

    Authors: Jung Yeon Kim, Simon Tavaré and Darryl Shibata
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:2
  31. The provision of stress resistance diverts resources from development and reproduction and must therefore be tightly regulated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the switch to increased stress resistance to promote surv...

    Authors: David Weinkove, Jonathan R Halstead, David Gems and Nullin Divecha
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:1
  32. Sec8 is highly expressed in mammalian nervous systems and has been proposed to play a role in several aspects of neural development and function, including neurite outgrowth, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter...

    Authors: Faith LW Liebl, Kaiyun Chen, Julie Karr, Qi Sheng and David E Featherstone
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:27
  33. Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic diseas...

    Authors: Jay R Radke, Michael S Behnke, Aaron J Mackey, Josh B Radke, David S Roos and Michael W White
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:26
  34. Myelination requires precise control of oligodendrocyte morphology and myelin generation at each of the axons contacted by an individual cell. This control must involve the integration of extracellular cues, s...

    Authors: Inger Marie Olsen and Charles ffrench-Constant
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:25
  35. Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication...

    Authors: Mikhail Lipatov, Kapa Lenkov, Dmitri A Petrov and Casey M Bergman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:24
  36. Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins through their receptors, the frizzled (Fz) family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins, is critical for numerous cell fate and tissue polarity decisions du...

    Authors: Hyon J Kim, Jack R Schleiffarth, Jose Jessurun, Saulius Sumanas, Anna Petryk, Shuo Lin and Stephen C Ekker
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:23
  37. The Streptophyta comprise all land plants and six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae. Phylogenetic analyses of four genes from three cellular compartments support the following branching order for...

    Authors: Monique Turmel, Christian Otis and Claude Lemieux
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:22
  38. Compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, but its evolution remains poorly understood. GTPases are the oldest enzymes that use nucleotides as substrates and they participate in a wide range of...

    Authors: Emmanuel G Reynaud, Miguel A Andrade, Fabien Bonneau, Thi Bach Nga Ly, Michael Knop, Klaus Scheffzek and Rainer Pepperkok
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:21
  39. Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease partly through improved aerobic fitness. The determinants of exercise-induced gains in aerobic fitness in humans are not known. We have demonstrate...

    Authors: James A Timmons, Eva Jansson, Helene Fischer, Thomas Gustafsson, Paul L Greenhaff, John Ridden, Jonathan Rachman and Carl Johan Sundberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:19
  40. Runx transcription factors play critical roles in the developmental control of cell fate and contribute variously as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors to leukemia and other cancers. To discover fundamental Ru...

    Authors: Carrie Dickey-Sims, Anthony J Robertson, Dawn E Rupp, John J McCarthy and James A Coffman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:18
  41. The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instabil...

    Authors: Ivan Zamora and Wallace F Marshall
    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:15
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