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  1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the gravest threats to human health and food security worldwide. The use of antimicrobials in livestock production can lead to emergence of AMR, which can have direct ef...

    Authors: Nazreen F. Hadjirin, Eric L. Miller, Gemma G. R. Murray, Phung L. K. Yen, Ho D. Phuc, Thomas M. Wileman, Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Susanna M. Williamson, Julian Parkhill, Duncan J. Maskell, Rui Zhou, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Marcelo Gottschalk, A. W. ( Dan) Tucker, Ngo Thi Hoa, John J. Welch…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:191

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Urbanization is rapidly changing our planet and animals that live in urban environments must quickly adjust their behavior. One of the most prevalent behavioral characteristics of urban dwelling animals is an ...

    Authors: Lee Harten, Nesim Gonceer, Michal Handel, Orit Dash, H. Bobby Fokidis and Yossi Yovel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:190

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The identification of open chromatin regions and transcription factor binding sites (TFBs) is an important step in understanding the regulation of gene expression in diverse species. ATAC-seq is a technique us...

    Authors: Lianggang Huang, Xuejie Li, Liangbo Dong, Bin Wang and Li Pan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:189

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A number of cellular processes have evolved in metazoans that increase the proteome repertoire in relation to the genome, such as alternative splicing and translation recoding. Another such process, translatio...

    Authors: Yunpo Zhao, Bo Gustav Lindberg, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Xiongzhuo Tang, Stefano Piazza and Ylva Engström

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:185

    Content type: Research article

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  5. A variety of human genetic diseases is known to be caused by mutations in genes encoding chromatin factors and epigenetic regulators, such as DNA or histone modifying enzymes and members of ATP-dependent chrom...

    Authors: Giovanni Messina, Yuri Prozzillo, Francesca Delle Monache, Maria Virginia Santopietro, Maria Teresa Atterrato and Patrizio Dimitri

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:184

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Knowledge on the localization and mobility of enzymes inside bacterial cells is scarce, but important for understanding spatial regulation of metabolism. The four central enzymes (Rib enzymes) of the riboflavi...

    Authors: Daniel A. O. Rotter, Christoph Heger, Luis M. Oviedo-Bocanegra and Peter L. Graumann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:183

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Speed and trajectory of locomotion are the characteristic traits of individual species. Locomotion kinematics may have been shaped during evolution towards increased survival in the habitats of each species. A...

    Authors: Yuji Matsuo, Akinao Nose and Hiroshi Kohsaka

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:176

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The volvocine algae, which include the single-celled species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial species Volvox carteri, serve as a model in which to study the evolution of multicellularity and cellular di...

    Authors: Charles Ross Lindsey, Frank Rosenzweig and Matthew D. Herron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:182

    Content type: Research article

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  9. In flowering plants, precise timing of the floral transition is crucial to maximize chances of reproductive success, and as such, this process has been intensively studied. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL ...

    Authors: Tom Bennett and Laura E. Dixon

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:181

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Inductive signaling interactions between different cell types are a major mechanism for the further diversification of embryonic cell fates. Most blastomeres in the model chordate Ciona robusta become restricted ...

    Authors: Konner M. Winkley, Wendy M. Reeves and Michael T. Veeman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:180

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The L-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is part of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of the bacterium Escherichia coli and its pathogenic varieties such as strain E. coli O157:H7. At the pres...

    Authors: Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, David Kalbermatter, Zöhre Ucurum, Thomas Lemmin and Dimitrios Fotiadis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:179

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Nematodes are a widespread and diverse group comprising free-living and parasitic species, some of which have major detrimental effects on crops, animals, and human health. Genomic comparisons of nematodes may...

    Authors: Dongjuan Yuan, Song Li, Ziyu Shang, Muchun Wan, Yu Lin, Yanhua Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lian Xu and Lihua Xiao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:178

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Apomixis, the asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 40 plant families and avoids the hidden cost of sex. Apomictic plants are thought to have an advantage in sparse populations and when colonizing...

    Authors: Christian Sailer, Simone Tiberi, Bernhard Schmid, Jürg Stöcklin and Ueli Grossniklaus

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:177

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The brain anatomy in the clade Spiralia can vary from simple, commissural brains (e.g., gastrotrichs, rotifers) to rather complex, partitioned structures (e.g., in cephalopods and annelids). How often and in w...

    Authors: Ludwik Gąsiorowski, Aina Børve, Irina A. Cherneva, Andrea Orús-Alcalde and Andreas Hejnol

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:175

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Comparing a parasitic lineage to its free-living relatives is a powerful way to understand how that evolutionary transition to parasitism occurred. Giardia intestinalis (Fornicata) is a leading cause of gastroint...

    Authors: Shweta V. Pipaliya, Rui Santos, Dayana Salas-Leiva, Erina A. Balmer, Corina D. Wirdnam, Andrew J. Roger, Adrian B. Hehl, Carmen Faso and Joel B. Dacks

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:167

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from pre-existing ones. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a leading member of the FGF family of heparin-binding growth factors, contributes to nor...

    Authors: Tao Jia, Thibault Jacquet, Fabien Dalonneau, Pauline Coudert, Elisabeth Vaganay, Chloé Exbrayat-Héritier, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Florence Ruggiero, Jean-Luc Coll and Béatrice Eymin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:173

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Genomes can be sequenced with relative ease, but ascribing gene function remains a major challenge. Genetically tractable model systems are crucial to meet this challenge. One powerful model is the social amoeba

    Authors: Nicole Gruenheit, Amy Baldwin, Balint Stewart, Sarah Jaques, Thomas Keller, Katie Parkinson, William Salvidge, Robert Baines, Chris Brimson, Jason B. Wolf, Rex Chisholm, Adrian J. Harwood and Christopher R. L. Thompson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:172

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Beneficial associations between plants and microbes are widespread in nature and have been studied extensively in the microbial-dominant environment of the rhizosphere. Such associations are highly advantageou...

    Authors: Ena Šečić, Silvia Zanini, Daniel Wibberg, Lukas Jelonek, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski, Sabrine Nasfi, Jennifer Thielmann, Jafargholi Imani, Jens Steinbrenner and Karl-Heinz Kogel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:171

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Optogenetics allows the experimental manipulation of excitable cells by a light stimulus without the need for technically challenging and invasive procedures. The high degree of spatial, temporal, and intensit...

    Authors: M. Koopman, L. Janssen and E. A. A. Nollen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:170

    Content type: Methodology article

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    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:216

  20. Asexual fungi include important pathogens of plants and other organisms, and their effective management requires understanding of their evolutionary dynamics. Genetic recombination is critical for adaptability...

    Authors: Vasileios Vangalis, Ilya Likhotkin, Michael Knop, Milton A. Typas and Ioannis A. Papaioannou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:169

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Dormancy is widespread in nature, but while it can be an effective adaptive strategy in fluctuating environments, the dormant forms are costly due to the inability to breed and the relatively high energy consu...

    Authors: Tao Wen, Eugene V. Koonin and Kang Hao Cheong

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:168

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Left-right (LR) asymmetry is an essential feature of bilateral animals. Studies in vertebrates show that LR asymmetry formation comprises three major steps: symmetry breaking, asymmetric gene expression, and L...

    Authors: Chaofan Xing, Rongrong Pan, Guangwei Hu, Xian Liu, Yiquan Wang and Guang Li

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:166

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Humans impose a significant pressure on large herbivore populations, such as hippopotami, through hunting, poaching, and habitat destruction. Anthropogenic pressures can also occur indirectly, such as artifici...

    Authors: Ruben Schols, Hans Carolus, Cyril Hammoud, Kudzai C. Muzarabani, Maxwell Barson and Tine Huyse

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:160

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The crAss-like phages are ubiquitous and highly abundant members of the human gut virome that infect commensal bacteria of the order Bacteroidales. Although incapable of lysogeny, these viruses demonstrate lon...

    Authors: Andrey N. Shkoporov, Ekaterina V. Khokhlova, Niamh Stephens, Cara Hueston, Samuel Seymour, Andrew J. Hryckowian, Dimitri Scholz, R. Paul Ross and Colin Hill

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:163

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Testes vary widely in mass relative to body mass across species, but we know very little about which genes underlie and contribute to such variation. This is partly because evidence for which genes are implica...

    Authors: Joanna Baker, Andrew Meade and Chris Venditti

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:162

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cell walls (CWs) are protein-rich polysaccharide matrices essential for plant growth and environmental acclimation. The CW constitutes the first physical barrier as well as a primary source of nutrients for mi...

    Authors: Alexandra Menna, Susanne Dora, Gloria Sancho-Andrés, Anurag Kashyap, Mukesh Kumar Meena, Kamil Sklodowski, Debora Gasperini, Nuria S. Coll and Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:161

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Plasmodium falciparum is the pathogen responsible for the most devastating form of human malaria. As it replicates asexually in the erythrocytes of its human host, the parasite feeds on haemoglobin uptaken from t...

    Authors: Mohd Asad, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté, Mohammad E. Hossain, Vandana Thakur, Shaifali Jain, Gaurav Datta, Cyrille Y. Botté and Asif Mohmmed

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:159

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Brain-computer interfaces decode intentions directly from the human brain with the aim to restore lost functionality, control external devices or augment daily experiences. To combine optimal performance with ...

    Authors: Benjamin Wittevrongel, Niall Holmes, Elena Boto, Ryan Hill, Molly Rea, Arno Libert, Elvira Khachatryan, Marc M. Van Hulle, Richard Bowtell and Matthew J. Brookes

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:158

    Content type: Methodology article

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  29. Methylation of cytosines in DNA (5mC methylation) is a major epigenetic modification that modulates gene expression and constitutes the basis for mechanisms regulating multiple aspects of embryonic development...

    Authors: Anabelle Planques, Pierre Kerner, Laure Ferry, Christoph Grunau, Eve Gazave and Michel Vervoort

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:148

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The emergence and continued global spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for methods to identify novel or repurposed therapeutic drugs in a fast and effective way. Despite the availa...

    Authors: Jonne Rietdijk, Marianna Tampere, Aleksandra Pettke, Polina Georgiev, Maris Lapins, Ulrika Warpman-Berglund, Ola Spjuth, Marjo-Riitta Puumalainen and Jordi Carreras-Puigvert

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:156

    Content type: Methodology article

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  31. Insects depend on their olfactory sense as a vital system. Olfactory cues are processed by a rather complex system and translated into various types of behavior. In holometabolous insects like the red flour be...

    Authors: Björn Trebels, Stefan Dippel, Brigitte Goetz, Maria Graebner, Carolin Hofmann, Florian Hofmann, Freya-Rebecca Schmid, Mara Uhl, Minh-Phung Vuong, Vanessa Weber and Joachim Schachtner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:155

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The skeletal muscle plays a central role in glucose homeostasis through the uptake of glucose from the extracellular medium in response to insulin. A number of factors are known to disrupt the normal response ...

    Authors: Marcel A. Vieira-Lara, Marleen B. Dommerholt, Wenxuan Zhang, Maaike Blankestijn, Justina C. Wolters, Fentaw Abegaz, Albert Gerding, Ydwine T. van der Veen, Rachel Thomas, Ronald P. van Os, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Johan W. Jonker, Janine K. Kruit and Barbara M. Bakker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:154

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Myogenesis is a highly regulated process ending with the formation of myotubes, the precursors of skeletal muscle fibers. Differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors...

    Authors: L. Coudert, A. Osseni, Y. G. Gangloff, L. Schaeffer and P. Leblanc

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:153

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Array tomography (AT) is a high-resolution imaging method to resolve fine details at the organelle level and has the advantage that it can provide 3D volumes to show the tissue context. AT can be carried out i...

    Authors: Sergio Gabarre, Frank Vernaillen, Pieter Baatsen, Katlijn Vints, Christopher Cawthorne, Steven Boeynaems, Emiel Michiels, Dorien Vandael, Natalia V. Gounko and Sebastian Munck

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:152

    Content type: Methodology article

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  35. Natural killer (NK) cells participate in cancer immunosurveillance and cancer immunotherapy. Live cell imaging of cancer cells targeted by NK cells, published today in BMC Biology by Zhu et al., reveals a rema...

    Authors: Timothy J. Mitchison

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:149

    Content type: Commentary

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    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:140

  36. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in cancer immunosurveillance and therapy. However, the target selectivity of NK cell activity is still poorly understood.

    Authors: Yanting Zhu, Jun Xie and Jue Shi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:140

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:149

  37. Authors: Pia U. Olafson, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Greta Buckmeier, Xiaoting Chen, Craig J. Coates, Megan Davis, Justin Dykema, Scott J. Emrich, Markus Friedrich, Christopher J. Holmes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Evan N. Jansen, Emily C. Jennings, Daniel Lawson, Ellen O. Martinson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:150

    Content type: Publisher Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:41

  38. Copy number variants (CNVs) linked to genes involved in nervous system development or function are often associated with neuropsychiatric disease. While CNVs involving deletions generally cause severe and high...

    Authors: Kesavan Meganathan, Ramachandran Prakasam, Dustin Baldridge, Paul Gontarz, Bo Zhang, Fumihiko Urano, Azad Bonni, Susan E. Maloney, Tychele N. Turner, James E. Huettner, John N. Constantino and Kristen L. Kroll

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Mitochondrial gene transfer/loss is common in land plants, and therefore the fate of missing mitochondrial genes has attracted more and more attention. The gene content of gymnosperm mitochondria varies greatl...

    Authors: Sheng-Long Kan, Ting-Ting Shen, Jin-Hua Ran and Xiao-Quan Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:146

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Hymenoptera comprise extremely diverse insect species with extensive variation in their life histories. The Dryinidae, a family of solitary wasps of Hymenoptera, have evolved innovations that allow them to hun...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Xinhai Ye, Cong Dang, Yunshen Cao, Rui Hong, Yu H. Sun, Shan Xiao, Yang Mei, Le Xu, Qi Fang, Huamei Xiao, Fei Li and Gongyin Ye

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Understanding how organisms evolve and adapt to extreme habitats is of crucial importance in evolutionary ecology. Altitude gradients are an important determinant of the distribution pattern and range of organ...

    Authors: Yupeng Geng, Yabin Guan, La Qiong, Shugang Lu, Miao An, M. James C. Crabbe, Ji Qi, Fangqing Zhao, Qin Qiao and Ticao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:143

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The opportunistic pathogen Naegleria fowleri establishes infection in the human brain, killing almost invariably within 2 weeks. The amoeba performs piece-meal ingestion, or trogocytosis, of brain material causin...

    Authors: Emily K. Herman, Alex Greninger, Mark van der Giezen, Michael L. Ginger, Inmaculada Ramirez-Macias, Haylea C. Miller, Matthew J. Morgan, Anastasios D. Tsaousis, Katrina Velle, Romana Vargová, Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Rodrigo Najle, Georgina MacIntyre, Norbert Muller, Mattias Wittwer, Denise C. Zysset-Burri…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:142

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Left-right asymmetries are a common feature of metazoans and can be found in a number of organs including the nervous system. These asymmetries are particularly pronounced in the simple central nervous system ...

    Authors: Matthew J. Kourakis, Michaela Bostwick, Amanda Zabriskie and William C. Smith

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Viruses can impose energetic demands on organisms they infect, in part by hosts mounting resistance. Recognizing that oxygen uptake reliably indicates steady-state energy consumption in all vertebrates, we com...

    Authors: Mark P. Polinski, Yangfan Zhang, Phillip R. Morrison, Gary D. Marty, Colin J. Brauner, Anthony P. Farrell and Kyle A. Garver

    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:138

    Content type: Research article

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