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  1. TATA-box-binding protein 2 (TBP2/TRF3) is a vertebrate-specific paralog of TBP that shares with TBP a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain and the ability to bind the TATA box. TBP2 is highly expressed in ...

    Authors: Waseem Akhtar and Gert Jan C Veenstra
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:45
  2. Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. How...

    Authors: Deenadayalan Bakthavatsalam, Jonathan M Choe, Nana E Hanson and Richard H Gomer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:44
  3. The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisat...

    Authors: Jerome HL Hui, Florian Raible, Natalia Korchagina, Nicolas Dray, Sylvie Samain, Ghislaine Magdelenat, Claire Jubin, Béatrice Segurens, Guillaume Balavoine, Detlev Arendt and David EK Ferrier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:43
  4. Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selec...

    Authors: Carlo G Artieri, Wilfried Haerty and Rama S Singh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:42
  5. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chrom...

    Authors: Beatrice Bodega, Gabriella Di Capua Ramirez, Florian Grasser, Stefania Cheli, Silvia Brunelli, Marina Mora, Raffaella Meneveri, Anna Marozzi, Stefan Mueller, Elena Battaglioli and Enrico Ginelli
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:41
  6. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic element capable of autonomous transposition via an RNA intermediate. Their large size and proliferative ability make them important con...

    Authors: Mark C Ungerer, Suzanne C Strakosh and Kaitlin M Stimpson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:40
  7. A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008,...

    Authors: Nicholas D Holland and Michael T Ghiselin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:39
  8. Adipose tissues serve not only as a store for energy in the form of lipid, but also as endocrine tissues that regulates metabolic activities of the organism by secreting various kinds of hormones. Peroxisome p...

    Authors: Katsunori Fujiki, Fumi Kano, Kunio Shiota and Masayuki Murata
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:38
  9. Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for ...

    Authors: Brian M Wiegmann, Michelle D Trautwein, Jung-Wook Kim, Brian K Cassel, Matthew A Bertone, Shaun L Winterton and David K Yeates
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:34
  10. To survive and reproduce, animals must be able to modify their motor behavior in response to changes in the environment. We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provid...

    Authors: Allyson J Whittaker and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:33
  11. Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship b...

    Authors: Sara L Goodacre, Oliver Y Martin, Dries Bonte, Linda Hutchings, Chris Woolley, Kamal Ibrahim, CF George Thomas and Godfrey M Hewitt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:32
  12. Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE) induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study,...

    Authors: Cesar V Borlongan, Teruo Hayashi, Peter R Oeltgen, Tsung-Ping Su and Yun Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:31
  13. Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions an...

    Authors: Emmanuel Perisse, Valérie Raymond-Delpech, Isabelle Néant, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Catherine Leclerc, Marc Moreau and Jean-Christophe Sandoz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:30
  14. Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evoluti...

    Authors: Alexis C Edwards, Liesbeth Zwarts, Akihiko Yamamoto, Patrick Callaerts and Trudy FC Mackay
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:29
  15. Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones...

    Authors: Scott F Cummins, Dirk Erpenbeck, Zhihua Zou, Charles Claudianos, Leonid L Moroz, Gregg T Nagle and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:28
  16. Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest c...

    Authors: Francesca Orso, Richard Jäger, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Hubert Schorle, Piero Sismondi, Michele De Bortoli and Daniela Taverna
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:25
  17. We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10...

    Authors: Eusebio Chiefari, Francesco Paonessa, Stefania Iiritano, Ilaria Le Pera, Dario Palmieri, Giuseppe Brunetti, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Alfredo Fusco and Antonio Brunetti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:24
  18. Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only ...

    Authors: Zhenguo Zhang, Dedong Xin, Ping Wang, Li Zhou, Landian Hu, Xiangyin Kong and Laurence D Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:23
  19. Antimicrobial peptides are found in all kingdoms of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, antimicrobial peptides were established as key elements of innate immunity. Most antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Sebastian Leptihn, Jia Yi Har, Jianzhu Chen, Bow Ho, Thorsten Wohland and Jeak Ling Ding
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:22
  20. Gene gain and subsequent retention or loss during evolution may be one of the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the diversity of metazoan nervous systems. However, the causal relationships acting th...

    Authors: Nozomu Higuchi, Keigo Kohno and Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:21
  21. In Drosophila, all the 64 clonally derived spermatocytes differentiate in syncytium inside two somatic-origin cyst cells. They elongate to form slender spermatids, which are individualized and then released into ...

    Authors: Bela S Desai, Seema Shirolikar and Krishanu Ray
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:19
  22. Allopolyploid speciation requires rapid evolutionary reconciliation of two diverged genomes and gene regulatory networks. Here we describe global patterns of gene expression accompanying genomic merger and dou...

    Authors: Ryan A Rapp, Joshua A Udall and Jonathan F Wendel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:18
  23. The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland. Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone g...

    Authors: Hillel Galitzer, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Morris Nechama, Tomer Meir, Justin Silver and Tally Naveh-Many
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:17
  24. Immunological analyses of wild populations can increase our understanding of how vertebrate immune systems respond to 'natural' levels of exposure to diverse infections. A major recent advance in immunology ha...

    Authors: Joseph A Jackson, Ida M Friberg, Luke Bolch, Ann Lowe, Catriona Ralli, Philip D Harris, Jerzy M Behnke and Janette E Bradley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:16
  25. In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, w...

    Authors: Haisun Zhu, Robert J Gegear, Amy Casselman, Sriramana Kanginakudru and Steven M Reppert
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:14
  26. Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are symbioses formed by polyphyletic assemblages of fungi (mostly Agaricomycetes) and plants (mostly Pinaceae and angiosperms in the rosid clade). Efforts to reconstruct the evolution of ...

    Authors: David S Hibbett and P Brandon Matheny
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:13
  27. Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (γ-Proteobacteria). Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential ...

    Authors: Naruo Nikoh and Atsushi Nakabachi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:12
  28. Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the...

    Authors: Nichole A Broderick, Courtney J Robinson, Matthew D McMahon, Jonathan Holt, Jo Handelsman and Kenneth F Raffa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:11
  29. Microfossils are not only useful for elucidating biological macro- and microevolution but also the biogeochemical history of our planet. Pyritization is the most important and extensive mode of preservation of...

    Authors: Ana Martín-González, Jacek Wierzchos, Juan-Carlos Gutiérrez, Jesús Alonso and Carmen Ascaso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:9
  30. In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on t...

    Authors: Lieke M van der Aa, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Malika Yahmi, Emilie Lauret, Valérie Briolat, Philippe Herbomel, Abdenour Benmansour and Pierre Boudinot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:7
  31. Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthrop...

    Authors: Lucy A Weinert, John H Werren, Alexandre Aebi, Graham N Stone and Francis M Jiggins
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:6
  32. Protein bodies (PBs) are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived fro...

    Authors: Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz and M Dolors Ludevid
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:5
  33. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used ...

    Authors: Marc F Schetelig, Carlos Caceres, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Gerald Franz and Ernst A Wimmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:4
  34. Methods for assigning strains to bacterial species are cumbersome and no longer fit for purpose. The concatenated sequences of multiple house-keeping genes have been shown to be able to define and circumscribe...

    Authors: Cynthia J Bishop, David M Aanensen, Gregory E Jordan, Mogens Kilian, William P Hanage and Brian G Spratt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:3
  35. Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution have been commonly observed among obligate endocellular insect symbionts, while such examples have rarely been identified among extracellular ones, th...

    Authors: Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Takahiro Hosokawa, Naruo Nikoh, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata and Takema Fukatsu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:2
  36. Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR) and denervat...

    Authors: James R Monaghan, Leonard G Epp, Srikrishna Putta, Robert B Page, John A Walker, Chris K Beachy, Wei Zhu, Gerald M Pao, Inder M Verma, Tony Hunter, Susan V Bryant, David M Gardiner, Tim T Harkins and S Randal Voss
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:1
  37. Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regi...

    Authors: Thomas LP Couvreur, Lars W Chatrou, Marc SM Sosef and James E Richardson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:54
  38. Avoidance of noxious stimuli is essential for the survival of an animal in its natural habitat. Some avoidance responses require polymodal sensory neurons, which sense a range of diverse stimuli, whereas other...

    Authors: Jagan Srinivasan, Omer Durak and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:52
  39. In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80 kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane through its FERM domain. While the expression pattern of 4.1R in mat...

    Authors: Eva Lospitao, Carmen M Pérez-Ferreiro, Altea Gosálbez, Miguel A Alonso and Isabel Correas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:51
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