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  1. Trichogrammatids are minute parasitoid wasps that develop within other insect eggs. They are less than half a millimeter long, smaller than some protozoans. The Trichogrammatidae are one of the earliest branch...

    Authors: Amelia R. I. Lindsey, Yogeshwar D. Kelkar, Xin Wu, Dan Sun, Ellen O. Martinson, Zhichao Yan, Paul F. Rugman-Jones, Daniel S. T. Hughes, Shwetha C. Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L. Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, Harsha Vardhan Doddapaneni…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The evolutionary roots of human moral behavior are a key precondition to understanding human nature. Investigations usually start with a social dilemma and end up with a norm that can provide some insight into...

    Authors: J. Garay, S. Számadó, Z. Varga and E. Szathmáry

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:53

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Sequencing-based analyses of low-biomass samples are known to be prone to misinterpretation due to the potential presence of contaminating molecules derived from laboratory reagents and environments. DNA conta...

    Authors: Anna Heintz-Buschart, Dilmurat Yusuf, Anne Kaysen, Alton Etheridge, Joëlle V. Fritz, Patrick May, Carine de Beaufort, Bimal B. Upadhyaya, Anubrata Ghosal, David J. Galas and Paul Wilmes

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:52

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tre...

    Authors: Angelika Schmidt, Francesco Marabita, Narsis A. Kiani, Catharina C. Gross, Henrik J. Johansson, Szabolcs Éliás, Sini Rautio, Matilda Eriksson, Sunjay Jude Fernandes, Gilad Silberberg, Ubaid Ullah, Urvashi Bhatia, Harri Lähdesmäki, Janne Lehtiö, David Gomez-Cabrero, Heinz Wiendl…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:47

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Environmental influences fluctuate throughout the life course of an organism. It is therefore important to understand how the timing of exposure impacts molecular responses. Herein, we examine the responses of...

    Authors: Amy F. Danson, Sarah J. Marzi, Robert Lowe, Michelle L. Holland and Vardhman K. Rakyan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:51

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Photosensitizing fluorescent proteins, which generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light irradiation, are useful for spatiotemporal protein inactivation and cell ablation. They give us clues about protei...

    Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Tomoki Matsuda, Kiwamu Takemoto and Takeharu Nagai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:50

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Intron retention (IR), the most prevalent alternative splicing form in plants, plays a critical role in gene expression during plant development and stress response. However, the molecular mechanisms underlyin...

    Authors: Gang Wei, Kunpeng Liu, Ting Shen, Jinlei Shi, Bing Liu, Miao Han, Maolin Peng, Haihui Fu, Yifan Song, Jun Zhu, Aiwu Dong and Ting Ni

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:44

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Reliable recognition of individuals requires phenotypic identity signatures that are both individually distinctive and appropriately stable over time. Individual-specific vocalisations or visual patterning are...

    Authors: Sarah A. Roberts, Mark C. Prescott, Amanda J. Davidson, Lynn McLean, Robert J. Beynon and Jane L. Hurst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:48

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Candida albicans (C. albicans) invasion triggers antifungal innate immunity, and the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) plays a critical role in this proce...

    Authors: Long Yang, Wenwen Gu, King-Ho Cheung, Lan Yan, Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong, Yuanying Jiang and Jun Yang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:46

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Fear conditioning is a form of learning essential for animal survival and used as a behavioral paradigm to study the mechanisms of learning and memory. In mammals, the amygdala plays a crucial role in fear con...

    Authors: Pradeep Lal, Hideyuki Tanabe, Maximiliano L. Suster, Deepak Ailani, Yuri Kotani, Akira Muto, Mari Itoh, Miki Iwasaki, Hironori Wada, Emre Yaksi and Koichi Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:45

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Oomycetes are a group of filamentous eukaryotic microorganisms that have colonized all terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems, and they include prominent plant pathogens. The Aphanomyces genus is unique in its abilit...

    Authors: Elodie Gaulin, Michiel J. C. Pel, Laurent Camborde, Hélène San-Clemente, Sarah Courbier, Marie-Alexane Dupouy, Juliette Lengellé, Marine Veyssiere, Aurélie Le Ru, Frédéric Grandjean, Richard Cordaux, Bouziane Moumen, Clément Gilbert, Liliana M. Cano, Jean-Marc Aury, Julie Guy…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:43

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The presence of photoreceptive molecules outside the eye is widespread among animals, yet their functions in the periphery are less well understood. Marine organisms, such as annelid worms, exhibit a ‘shadow r...

    Authors: Thomas Ayers, Hisao Tsukamoto, Martin Gühmann, Vinoth Babu Veedin Rajan and Kristin Tessmar-Raible

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:41

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Conventionally, comparison among amniotes – birds, mammals, and reptiles – has often been approached through analyses of mammals and, for comparison, birds. However, birds are morphologically and physiological...

    Authors: Yuichiro Hara, Miki Takeuchi, Yuka Kageyama, Kaori Tatsumi, Masahiko Hibi, Hiroshi Kiyonari and Shigehiro Kuraku

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:40

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tunicates are the closest relatives of vertebrates and are widely used as models to study the evolutionary developmental biology of chordates. Their phylogeny, however, remains poorly understood, and to date, ...

    Authors: Frédéric Delsuc, Hervé Philippe, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Paul Simion, Marie-Ka Tilak, Xavier Turon, Susanna López-Legentil, Jacques Piette, Patrick Lemaire and Emmanuel J. P. Douzery

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:39

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Spatial organization of membrane domains within cells and cells within tissues is key to the development of organisms and the maintenance of adult tissue. Cell polarization is crucial for correct cell–cell sig...

    Authors: Ana-Citlali Gradilla, David Sanchez-Hernandez, Lucy Brunt and Steffen Scholpp

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:37

    Content type: Review

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  16. Developmental pathways must be responsive to the environment. Phosphorylation of eIF2α enables a family of stress-sensing kinases to trigger the integrated stress response (ISR), which has pro-survival and dev...

    Authors: Elke Malzer, Caia S. Dominicus, Joseph E. Chambers, Jennifer A. Dickens, Souradip Mookerjee and Stefan J. Marciniak

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:34

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Advances in automated image-based microscopy platforms coupled with high-throughput liquid workflows have facilitated the design of large-scale screens utilising multicellular model organisms such as Caenorhabdit...

    Authors: Blanca Hernando-Rodríguez, Annmary Paul Erinjeri, María Jesús Rodríguez-Palero, Val Millar, Sara González-Hernández, María Olmedo, Bettina Schulze, Ralf Baumeister, Manuel J. Muñoz, Peter Askjaer and Marta Artal-Sanz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:36

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Upon publication of the original article, Barlow et al. [1], the authors noticed that Fig. 4b contained an inaccuracy when additional data is taken into account. We inferred a loss of GRASP in the common ances...

    Authors: Lael D. Barlow, Eva Nývltová, Maria Aguilar, Jan Tachezy and Joel B. Dacks

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:35

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2018 16:27

  19. The hormone adiponectin (ApN) exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle and can reverse devastating myopathies, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), where inflammation exacerbates disease...

    Authors: Raphaël Boursereau, Michel Abou-Samra, Sophie Lecompte, Laurence Noel and Sonia M. Brichard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:33

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Much of the structure-based mechanistic understandings of the function of SLC6A neurotransmitter transporters emerged from the study of their bacterial LeuT-fold homologs. It has become evident, however, that ...

    Authors: Asghar M. Razavi, George Khelashvili and Harel Weinstein

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:31

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Eukaryotes evolved from the symbiotic association of at least two prokaryotic partners, and a good deal is known about the timings, mechanisms, and dynamics of these evolutionary steps. Recently, it was shown ...

    Authors: Raphaël Méheust, Debashish Bhattacharya, Jananan S. Pathmanathan, James O. McInerney, Philippe Lopez and Eric Bapteste

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:30

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The Golgi apparatus is a central meeting point for the endocytic and exocytic systems in eukaryotic cells, and the organelle’s dysfunction results in human disease. Its characteristic morphology of multiple di...

    Authors: Lael D. Barlow, Eva Nývltová, Maria Aguilar, Jan Tachezy and Joel B. Dacks

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:27

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2018 16:35

  23. Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects...

    Authors: Virginia Tajadura-Ortega, Ritu Garg, Richard Allen, Claudia Owczarek, Michael D. Bright, Samuel Kean, Aisyah Mohd-Noor, Anita Grigoriadis, Timothy C. Elston, Klaus M. Hahn and Anne J. Ridley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:29

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Multiple RNA samples are frequently processed together and often mixed before multiplex sequencing in the same sequencing run. While different samples can be separated post sequencing using sample barcodes, th...

    Authors: Paul Simion, Khalid Belkhir, Clémentine François, Julien Veyssier, Jochen C. Rink, Michaël Manuel, Hervé Philippe and Maximilian J. Telford

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:28

    Content type: Software

    Published on:

  25. Associations between traits are prevalent in nature, occurring across a diverse range of taxa and traits. Individual traits may co-evolve with one other, and these correlations can be driven by factors intrins...

    Authors: Dana A. Opulente, Emily J. Rollinson, Cleome Bernick-Roehr, Amanda Beth Hulfachor, Antonis Rokas, Cletus P. Kurtzman and Chris Todd Hittinger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:26

    Content type: Research article

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  26. G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromeric complexes have distinct properties from homomeric GPCRs, giving rise to new receptor functionalities. Adenosine receptors (A1R or A2AR) can form A1R-A2AR heteromers (...

    Authors: Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Marc Brugarolas, Estefanía Moreno, David Aguinaga, Laura Pérez-Benito, Sergi Ferre, Antoni Cortés, Vicent Casadó, Josefa Mallol, Enric I. Canela, Carme Lluís, Leonardo Pardo, Peter J. McCormick and Rafael Franco

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:24

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells...

    Authors: Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson and Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:25

    Content type: Methodology article

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  28. The need for high-throughput, precise, and meaningful methods for measuring behavior has been amplified by our recent successes in measuring and manipulating neural circuitry. The largest challenges associated...

    Authors: Gordon J. Berman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:23

    Content type: Review

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  29. Paraphrasing Dobzhansky’s famous dictum, I discuss how interrogating cancer through the lens of evolution has transformed our understanding of its development, causality and treatment resistance. The emerging ...

    Authors: Mel Greaves

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:22

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the ...

    Authors: Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E. S. Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais and Olivier Hamant

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:20

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Mammalian small intestinal tight junctions (TJ) link epithelial cells to one another and function as a permselective barrier, strictly modulating the passage of ions and macromolecules through the pore and lea...

    Authors: Sarah C. Pearce, Arwa Al-Jawadi, Kunihiro Kishida, Shiyan Yu, Madeleine Hu, Luke F. Fritzky, Karen L. Edelblum, Nan Gao and Ronaldo P. Ferraris

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:19

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Environmental stressors induce changes in endocrine state, leading to energy re-allocation from reproduction to survival. Female Drosophila melanogaster respond to thermal and nutrient stressors by arresting egg ...

    Authors: Matthew R. Meiselman, Timothy G. Kingan and Michael E. Adams

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Caenorhabditis elegans neurons have recently been found to throw out cellular debris for remote degradation and/or storage, adding an “extracellular garbage elimination” option to known intracellular protein and ...

    Authors: Meghan Lee Arnold, Ilija Melentijevic, Anna Joelle Smart and Monica Driscoll

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:17

    Content type: Question and Answer

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  34. Sex determination relies on a hierarchically structured network of genes, and is one of the most plastic processes in evolution. The evolution of sex-determining genes within a network, by neo- or sub-function...

    Authors: Manfred Schartl, Susanne Schories, Yuko Wakamatsu, Yusuke Nagao, Hisashi Hashimoto, Chloé Bertin, Brigitte Mourot, Cornelia Schmidt, Dagmar Wilhelm, Lazaro Centanin, Yann Guiguen and Amaury Herpin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:16

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Polyploidization is one of the major evolutionary processes that shape eukaryotic genomes, being particularly common in plants. Polyploids can arise through direct genome doubling within a species (autopolyplo...

    Authors: Irene Julca, Marina Marcet-Houben, Pablo Vargas and Toni Gabaldón

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:15

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling gradient is central for dorsoventral patterning in amphibian embryos. This gradient is established through the interaction of several BMPs and BMP antagonists and...

    Authors: Avi Leibovich, Hadas Kot-Leibovich, Danny Ben-Zvi and Abraham Fainsod

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:13

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The mouse Grueneberg ganglion (GG) is an olfactory subsystem specialized in the detection of volatile heterocyclic compounds signalling danger. The signalling pathways transducing the danger signals are only b...

    Authors: Fabian Moine, Julien Brechbühl, Monique Nenniger Tosato, Manon Beaumann and Marie-Christine Broillet

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:12

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Efficient movement of proteins across membranes is required for cell health. The translocation process is particularly challenging when the channel in the membrane through which proteins must pass is narrow—su...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Craig

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:11

    Content type: Review

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  39. Animal opsins are light-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that enable optogenetic control over the major heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways in animal cells. As such, opsins have potential ...

    Authors: Edward R. Ballister, Jessica Rodgers, Franck Martial and Robert J. Lucas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:10

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Genetically encoded calcium ion (Ca2+) indicators (GECIs) are indispensable tools for measuring Ca2+ dynamics and neuronal activities in vitro and in vivo. Red fluorescent protein (RFP)-based GECIs have inherent ...

    Authors: Yi Shen, Hod Dana, Ahmed S. Abdelfattah, Ronak Patel, Jamien Shea, Rosana S. Molina, Bijal Rawal, Vladimir Rancic, Yu-Fen Chang, Lanshi Wu, Yingche Chen, Yong Qian, Matthew D. Wiens, Nathan Hambleton, Klaus Ballanyi, Thomas E. Hughes…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2019 17:85

  41. Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are powerful model organisms, yet quantification of visible phenotypes is still often labor-intensive, biased, and error-prone. We developed WorMachine, a three-step MATLAB-based ...

    Authors: Adam Hakim, Yael Mor, Itai Antoine Toker, Amir Levine, Moran Neuhof, Yishai Markovitz and Oded Rechavi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:8

    Content type: Methodology article

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  42. Eukaryotic genome assembly remains a challenge in part due to the prevalence of complex DNA repeats. This is a particularly acute problem for holocentric nematodes because of the large number of satellite DNA ...

    Authors: David Eccles, Jodie Chandler, Mali Camberis, Bernard Henrissat, Sergey Koren, Graham Le Gros and Jonathan J. Ewbank

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:6

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

Announcement: COVID-19 and impact on peer review

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.