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  1. Content type: Research article

    Genetically encoded calcium ion (Ca2+) indicators (GECIs) are indispensable tools for measuring Ca2+ dynamics and neuronal activities in vitro and in vivo. Red fluorescent protein (RFP)-based GECIs have inherent ...

    Authors: Yi Shen, Hod Dana, Ahmed S. Abdelfattah, Ronak Patel, Jamien Shea, Rosana S. Molina, Bijal Rawal, Vladimir Rancic, Yu-Fen Chang, Lanshi Wu, Yingche Chen, Yong Qian, Matthew D. Wiens, Nathan Hambleton, Klaus Ballanyi, Thomas E. Hughes…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:9

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  2. Content type: Research Article

    Structural variation contributes substantially to polymorphism within species. Chromosomal rearrangements that impact genes can lead to functional variation among individuals and influence the expression of ph...

    Authors: Clémence Plissonneau, Fanny E. Hartmann and Daniel Croll

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:5

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  3. Content type: Methodology article

    Eukaryotic genome assembly remains a challenge in part due to the prevalence of complex DNA repeats. This is a particularly acute problem for holocentric nematodes because of the large number of satellite DNA ...

    Authors: David Eccles, Jodie Chandler, Mali Camberis, Bernard Henrissat, Sergey Koren, Graham Le Gros and Jonathan J. Ewbank

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:6

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been highlighted as an important agent in cancer-related events. Although the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform has received most attention, recent studies in the literature ...

    Authors: Jon Peñarando, Laura M. López-Sánchez, Rafael Mena, Silvia Guil-Luna, Francisco Conde, Vanessa Hernández, Marta Toledano, Victoria Gudiño, Michela Raponi, Caroline Billard, Carlos Villar, César Díaz, José Gómez-Barbadillo, Juan De la Haba-Rodríguez, Kevin Myant, Enrique Aranda…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:3

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), glycolipids found on the outer surface of virulent members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex, are a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Mtb. Myelocyt...

    Authors: Thomas R. Lerner, Christophe J. Queval, Antony Fearns, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths and Maximiliano G. Gutierrez

    Citation: BMC Biology 2018 16:1

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder characterized by the compulsive use of drugs. The study of chronic morphine-induced adaptation in the brain and its functional significance is of importance to unders...

    Authors: Yanfang Zhao, Junfang Zhang, Hualan Yang, Dongyang Cui, Jiaojiao Song, Qianqian Ma, Wenjie Luan, Bin Lai, Lan Ma, Ming Chen and Ping Zheng

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:128

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  7. Content type: Review

    The trillions of microbes living in the gut—the gut microbiota—play an important role in human biology and disease. While much has been done to explore its diversity, a full understanding of our microbiomes de...

    Authors: Emily R. Davenport, Jon G. Sanders, Se Jin Song, Katherine R. Amato, Andrew G. Clark and Rob Knight

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:127

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  8. Content type: Methodology article

    Clonal microbial populations often harbor rare phenotypic variants that are typically hidden within the majority of the remaining cells, but are crucial for the population’s resilience to external perturbation...

    Authors: Rosemary A. Bamford, Ashley Smith, Jeremy Metz, Georgina Glover, Richard W. Titball and Stefano Pagliara

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:121

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Host sexual dimorphism is being increasingly recognized to generate strong differences in the outcome of infectious disease, but the mechanisms underlying immunological differences between males and females re...

    Authors: David F. Duneau, Hannah C. Kondolf, Joo Hyun Im, Gerardo A. Ortiz, Christopher Chow, Michael A. Fox, Ana T. Eugénio, J. Revah, Nicolas Buchon and Brian P. Lazzaro

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:124

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  10. Content type: Methodology article

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance ...

    Authors: Sarah V. Biedermann, Daniel G. Biedermann, Frederike Wenzlaff, Tim Kurjak, Sawis Nouri, Matthias K. Auer, Klaus Wiedemann, Peer Briken, Jan Haaker, Tina B. Lonsdorf and Johannes Fuss

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:125

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoi...

    Authors: Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li and Wei Jia

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:120

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Telomere length heterogeneity has been detected in various cell types, including stem cells and cancer cells. Cell heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), is of particular...

    Authors: Hua Wang, Kunshan Zhang, Yifei Liu, Yudong Fu, Shan Gao, Peng Gong, Haiying Wang, Zhongcheng Zhou, Ming Zeng, Zhenfeng Wu, Yu Sun, Tong Chen, Siguang Li and Lin Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:114

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Climate change causes the breakdown of the symbiotic relationships between reef-building corals and their photosynthetic symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), with thermal anomalies in 2015–2016 triggering the most wid...

    Authors: Stephanie G. Gardner, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Matthew R. Nitschke, Daniel A. Nielsen, Michael Stat, Cherie A. Motti, Peter J. Ralph and Katherina Petrou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:117

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Smad4 is a critical effector of TGF-β signaling that regulates a variety of cellular functions. However, its role in the brain has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the...

    Authors: Wei L. Hsu, Yun L. Ma, Yen C. Liu and Eminy H. Y. Lee

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:112

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  15. Content type: Research article

    One of evolution’s most important achievements is the development and radiation of multicellular organisms with different types of cells. Complex multicellularity has evolved several times in eukaryotes; yet, ...

    Authors: Benjamin Klein, Daniel Wibberg and Armin Hallmann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:111

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