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  1. The L-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is part of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of the bacterium Escherichia coli and its pathogenic varieties such as strain E. coli O157:H7. At the pres...

    Authors: Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, David Kalbermatter, Zöhre Ucurum, Thomas Lemmin and Dimitrios Fotiadis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:179
  2. Apomixis, the asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 40 plant families and avoids the hidden cost of sex. Apomictic plants are thought to have an advantage in sparse populations and when colonizing...

    Authors: Christian Sailer, Simone Tiberi, Bernhard Schmid, Jürg Stöcklin and Ueli Grossniklaus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:177
  3. The brain anatomy in the clade Spiralia can vary from simple, commissural brains (e.g., gastrotrichs, rotifers) to rather complex, partitioned structures (e.g., in cephalopods and annelids). How often and in w...

    Authors: Ludwik Gąsiorowski, Aina Børve, Irina A. Cherneva, Andrea Orús-Alcalde and Andreas Hejnol
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:175
  4. Comparing a parasitic lineage to its free-living relatives is a powerful way to understand how that evolutionary transition to parasitism occurred. Giardia intestinalis (Fornicata) is a leading cause of gastroint...

    Authors: Shweta V. Pipaliya, Rui Santos, Dayana Salas-Leiva, Erina A. Balmer, Corina D. Wirdnam, Andrew J. Roger, Adrian B. Hehl, Carmen Faso and Joel B. Dacks
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:167
  5. Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from pre-existing ones. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a leading member of the FGF family of heparin-binding growth factors, contributes to nor...

    Authors: Tao Jia, Thibault Jacquet, Fabien Dalonneau, Pauline Coudert, Elisabeth Vaganay, Chloé Exbrayat-Héritier, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Florence Ruggiero, Jean-Luc Coll and Béatrice Eymin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:173
  6. Genomes can be sequenced with relative ease, but ascribing gene function remains a major challenge. Genetically tractable model systems are crucial to meet this challenge. One powerful model is the social amoeba

    Authors: Nicole Gruenheit, Amy Baldwin, Balint Stewart, Sarah Jaques, Thomas Keller, Katie Parkinson, William Salvidge, Robert Baines, Chris Brimson, Jason B. Wolf, Rex Chisholm, Adrian J. Harwood and Christopher R. L. Thompson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:172
  7. Beneficial associations between plants and microbes are widespread in nature and have been studied extensively in the microbial-dominant environment of the rhizosphere. Such associations are highly advantageou...

    Authors: Ena Šečić, Silvia Zanini, Daniel Wibberg, Lukas Jelonek, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski, Sabrine Nasfi, Jennifer Thielmann, Jafargholi Imani, Jens Steinbrenner and Karl-Heinz Kogel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:171
  8. Optogenetics allows the experimental manipulation of excitable cells by a light stimulus without the need for technically challenging and invasive procedures. The high degree of spatial, temporal, and intensit...

    Authors: M. Koopman, L. Janssen and E. A. A. Nollen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:170

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:216

  9. Asexual fungi include important pathogens of plants and other organisms, and their effective management requires understanding of their evolutionary dynamics. Genetic recombination is critical for adaptability...

    Authors: Vasileios Vangalis, Ilya Likhotkin, Michael Knop, Milton A. Typas and Ioannis A. Papaioannou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:169
  10. Dormancy is widespread in nature, but while it can be an effective adaptive strategy in fluctuating environments, the dormant forms are costly due to the inability to breed and the relatively high energy consu...

    Authors: Tao Wen, Eugene V. Koonin and Kang Hao Cheong
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:168
  11. Left-right (LR) asymmetry is an essential feature of bilateral animals. Studies in vertebrates show that LR asymmetry formation comprises three major steps: symmetry breaking, asymmetric gene expression, and L...

    Authors: Chaofan Xing, Rongrong Pan, Guangwei Hu, Xian Liu, Yiquan Wang and Guang Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:166
  12. Humans impose a significant pressure on large herbivore populations, such as hippopotami, through hunting, poaching, and habitat destruction. Anthropogenic pressures can also occur indirectly, such as artifici...

    Authors: Ruben Schols, Hans Carolus, Cyril Hammoud, Kudzai C. Muzarabani, Maxwell Barson and Tine Huyse
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:160
  13. The crAss-like phages are ubiquitous and highly abundant members of the human gut virome that infect commensal bacteria of the order Bacteroidales. Although incapable of lysogeny, these viruses demonstrate lon...

    Authors: Andrey N. Shkoporov, Ekaterina V. Khokhlova, Niamh Stephens, Cara Hueston, Samuel Seymour, Andrew J. Hryckowian, Dimitri Scholz, R. Paul Ross and Colin Hill
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:163
  14. Testes vary widely in mass relative to body mass across species, but we know very little about which genes underlie and contribute to such variation. This is partly because evidence for which genes are implica...

    Authors: Joanna Baker, Andrew Meade and Chris Venditti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:162
  15. Cell walls (CWs) are protein-rich polysaccharide matrices essential for plant growth and environmental acclimation. The CW constitutes the first physical barrier as well as a primary source of nutrients for mi...

    Authors: Alexandra Menna, Susanne Dora, Gloria Sancho-Andrés, Anurag Kashyap, Mukesh Kumar Meena, Kamil Sklodowski, Debora Gasperini, Nuria S. Coll and Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:161
  16. Plasmodium falciparum is the pathogen responsible for the most devastating form of human malaria. As it replicates asexually in the erythrocytes of its human host, the parasite feeds on haemoglobin uptaken from t...

    Authors: Mohd Asad, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté, Mohammad E. Hossain, Vandana Thakur, Shaifali Jain, Gaurav Datta, Cyrille Y. Botté and Asif Mohmmed
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:159
  17. Brain-computer interfaces decode intentions directly from the human brain with the aim to restore lost functionality, control external devices or augment daily experiences. To combine optimal performance with ...

    Authors: Benjamin Wittevrongel, Niall Holmes, Elena Boto, Ryan Hill, Molly Rea, Arno Libert, Elvira Khachatryan, Marc M. Van Hulle, Richard Bowtell and Matthew J. Brookes
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:158
  18. Methylation of cytosines in DNA (5mC methylation) is a major epigenetic modification that modulates gene expression and constitutes the basis for mechanisms regulating multiple aspects of embryonic development...

    Authors: Anabelle Planques, Pierre Kerner, Laure Ferry, Christoph Grunau, Eve Gazave and Michel Vervoort
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:148
  19. The emergence and continued global spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for methods to identify novel or repurposed therapeutic drugs in a fast and effective way. Despite the availa...

    Authors: Jonne Rietdijk, Marianna Tampere, Aleksandra Pettke, Polina Georgiev, Maris Lapins, Ulrika Warpman-Berglund, Ola Spjuth, Marjo-Riitta Puumalainen and Jordi Carreras-Puigvert
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:156
  20. Insects depend on their olfactory sense as a vital system. Olfactory cues are processed by a rather complex system and translated into various types of behavior. In holometabolous insects like the red flour be...

    Authors: Björn Trebels, Stefan Dippel, Brigitte Goetz, Maria Graebner, Carolin Hofmann, Florian Hofmann, Freya-Rebecca Schmid, Mara Uhl, Minh-Phung Vuong, Vanessa Weber and Joachim Schachtner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:155
  21. The skeletal muscle plays a central role in glucose homeostasis through the uptake of glucose from the extracellular medium in response to insulin. A number of factors are known to disrupt the normal response ...

    Authors: Marcel A. Vieira-Lara, Marleen B. Dommerholt, Wenxuan Zhang, Maaike Blankestijn, Justina C. Wolters, Fentaw Abegaz, Albert Gerding, Ydwine T. van der Veen, Rachel Thomas, Ronald P. van Os, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Johan W. Jonker, Janine K. Kruit and Barbara M. Bakker
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:154
  22. Myogenesis is a highly regulated process ending with the formation of myotubes, the precursors of skeletal muscle fibers. Differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes is controlled by myogenic regulatory factors...

    Authors: L. Coudert, A. Osseni, Y. G. Gangloff, L. Schaeffer and P. Leblanc
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:153
  23. Array tomography (AT) is a high-resolution imaging method to resolve fine details at the organelle level and has the advantage that it can provide 3D volumes to show the tissue context. AT can be carried out i...

    Authors: Sergio Gabarre, Frank Vernaillen, Pieter Baatsen, Katlijn Vints, Christopher Cawthorne, Steven Boeynaems, Emiel Michiels, Dorien Vandael, Natalia V. Gounko and Sebastian Munck
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:152
  24. Natural killer (NK) cells participate in cancer immunosurveillance and cancer immunotherapy. Live cell imaging of cancer cells targeted by NK cells, published today in BMC Biology by Zhu et al., reveals a rema...

    Authors: Timothy J. Mitchison
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:149

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:140

  25. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in cancer immunosurveillance and therapy. However, the target selectivity of NK cell activity is still poorly understood.

    Authors: Yanting Zhu, Jun Xie and Jue Shi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:140

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:149

  26. Authors: Pia U. Olafson, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Greta Buckmeier, Xiaoting Chen, Craig J. Coates, Megan Davis, Justin Dykema, Scott J. Emrich, Markus Friedrich, Christopher J. Holmes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Evan N. Jansen, Emily C. Jennings, Daniel Lawson, Ellen O. Martinson…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:150

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:41

  27. Copy number variants (CNVs) linked to genes involved in nervous system development or function are often associated with neuropsychiatric disease. While CNVs involving deletions generally cause severe and high...

    Authors: Kesavan Meganathan, Ramachandran Prakasam, Dustin Baldridge, Paul Gontarz, Bo Zhang, Fumihiko Urano, Azad Bonni, Susan E. Maloney, Tychele N. Turner, James E. Huettner, John N. Constantino and Kristen L. Kroll
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:147
  28. Mitochondrial gene transfer/loss is common in land plants, and therefore the fate of missing mitochondrial genes has attracted more and more attention. The gene content of gymnosperm mitochondria varies greatl...

    Authors: Sheng-Long Kan, Ting-Ting Shen, Jin-Hua Ran and Xiao-Quan Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:146
  29. Hymenoptera comprise extremely diverse insect species with extensive variation in their life histories. The Dryinidae, a family of solitary wasps of Hymenoptera, have evolved innovations that allow them to hun...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Xinhai Ye, Cong Dang, Yunshen Cao, Rui Hong, Yu H. Sun, Shan Xiao, Yang Mei, Le Xu, Qi Fang, Huamei Xiao, Fei Li and Gongyin Ye
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:145
  30. Understanding how organisms evolve and adapt to extreme habitats is of crucial importance in evolutionary ecology. Altitude gradients are an important determinant of the distribution pattern and range of organ...

    Authors: Yupeng Geng, Yabin Guan, La Qiong, Shugang Lu, Miao An, M. James C. Crabbe, Ji Qi, Fangqing Zhao, Qin Qiao and Ticao Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:143
  31. The opportunistic pathogen Naegleria fowleri establishes infection in the human brain, killing almost invariably within 2 weeks. The amoeba performs piece-meal ingestion, or trogocytosis, of brain material causin...

    Authors: Emily K. Herman, Alex Greninger, Mark van der Giezen, Michael L. Ginger, Inmaculada Ramirez-Macias, Haylea C. Miller, Matthew J. Morgan, Anastasios D. Tsaousis, Katrina Velle, Romana Vargová, Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Rodrigo Najle, Georgina MacIntyre, Norbert Muller, Mattias Wittwer, Denise C. Zysset-Burri…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:142
  32. Left-right asymmetries are a common feature of metazoans and can be found in a number of organs including the nervous system. These asymmetries are particularly pronounced in the simple central nervous system ...

    Authors: Matthew J. Kourakis, Michaela Bostwick, Amanda Zabriskie and William C. Smith
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:141
  33. Viruses can impose energetic demands on organisms they infect, in part by hosts mounting resistance. Recognizing that oxygen uptake reliably indicates steady-state energy consumption in all vertebrates, we com...

    Authors: Mark P. Polinski, Yangfan Zhang, Phillip R. Morrison, Gary D. Marty, Colin J. Brauner, Anthony P. Farrell and Kyle A. Garver
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:138
  34. Lactose malabsorption occurs in around 68% of the world’s population, causing lactose intolerance (LI) symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. To alleviate LI, previous studies have mainly fo...

    Authors: Mingyue Cheng, Zhangyu Cheng, Yiyan Yu, Wangjie Liu, Ruihao Li, Zhenyi Guo, Jiyue Qin, Zhi Zeng, Lin Di, Yufeng Mo, Chunxiu Pan, Yuanhao Liang, Jinman Li, Yigang Tong, Yunjun Yan, Yi Zhan…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:137
  35. Quantitative imaging of epithelial tissues requires bioimage analysis tools that are widely applicable and accurate. In the case of imaging 3D tissues, a common preprocessing step consists of projecting the ac...

    Authors: Sébastien Herbert, Léo Valon, Laure Mancini, Nicolas Dray, Paolo Caldarelli, Jérôme Gros, Elric Esposito, Spencer L. Shorte, Laure Bally-Cuif, Nathalie Aulner, Romain Levayer and Jean-Yves Tinevez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:136
  36. Cerebellar neurogenesis involves the generation of large numbers of cerebellar granule neurons (GNs) throughout development of the cerebellum, a process that involves tight regulation of proliferation and diff...

    Authors: Wenqin Luo, Guan Ning Lin, Weichen Song, Yu Zhang, Huadong Lai, Man Zhang, Juju Miao, Xiaomu Cheng, Yongjie Wang, Wang Li, Wenxiang Wei, Wei-Qiang Gao, Ru Yang and Jia Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:135
  37. Gene-environment interactions are likely to underlie most human birth defects. The most common known environmental contributor to birth defects is prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (F...

    Authors: Alfire Sidik, Groves Dixon, Desire M. Buckley, Hannah G. Kirby, Shuge Sun and Johann K. Eberhart
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:134
  38. For many animals, chemosensory cues are vital for social and defensive interactions and are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system (VNS). These cues are often inherently associated with eth...

    Authors: Rohini Bansal, Maximilian Nagel, Romana Stopkova, Yizhak Sofer, Tali Kimchi, Pavel Stopka, Marc Spehr and Yoram Ben-Shaul
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:133
  39. Oligodendrocytes, responsible for axon ensheathment, are critical for central nervous system (CNS) development, function, and diseases. OLIG2 is an important transcription factor (TF) that acts during oligoden...

    Authors: Haichao Wei, Xiaomin Dong, Yanan You, Bo Hai, Raquel Cuevas-Diaz Duran, Xizi Wu, Natasha Kharas and Jia Qian Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:132
  40. Plant pathogens and their hosts undergo adaptive changes in managed agricultural ecosystems, by overcoming host resistance, but the underlying genetic adaptations are difficult to determine in natural settings. V...

    Authors: Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jin-Qun Huang, Ran Li, Dan Wang, Jian Song, Krishna D. Puri, Lin Yang, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Bang-Zhuo Tong, Jun-Jiao Li, Yu-Shan Huang, Ivan Simko, Steven J. Klosterman, Xiao-Feng Dai and Krishna V. Subbarao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:131
  41. Targeted installation of designer chemical moieties on biopolymers provides an orthogonal means for their visualisation, manipulation and sequence analysis. Although high-throughput RNA sequencing is a widely ...

    Authors: Milda Mickutė, Kotryna Kvederavičiūtė, Aleksandr Osipenko, Raminta Mineikaitė, Saulius Klimašauskas and Giedrius Vilkaitis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:129
  42. Complex organismal traits are often the result of multiple interacting genes and sub-organismal phenotypes, but how these interactions shape the evolutionary trajectories of adaptive traits is poorly understoo...

    Authors: Oliver H. Wearing, Catherine M. Ivy, Natalia Gutiérrez-Pinto, Jonathan P. Velotta, Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Zachary A. Cheviron, Jay F. Storz and Graham R. Scott
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:128