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  1. Hansen’s disease (leprosy), widespread in medieval Europe, is today mainly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with around 200,000 new cases reported annually. Despite its long history and appearance...

    Authors: Saskia Pfrengle, Judith Neukamm, Meriam Guellil, Marcel Keller, Martyna Molak, Charlotte Avanzi, Alena Kushniarevich, Núria Montes, Gunnar U. Neumann, Ella Reiter, Rezeda I. Tukhbatova, Nataliya Y. Berezina, Alexandra P. Buzhilova, Dmitry S. Korobov, Stian Suppersberger Hamre, Vitor M. J. Matos…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:220
  2. Plasmodium simium, a malaria parasite of non-human primates (NHP), was recently shown to cause zoonotic infections in humans in Brazil. We sequenced the P. simium genome to investigate its evolutionary history an...

    Authors: Tobias Mourier, Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Abhinav Kaushik, Anielle de Pina-Costa, Olga Douvropoulou, Qingtian Guan, Francisco J. Guzmán-Vega, Sarah Forrester, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Cesare Bianco Júnior, Julio Cesar de Souza Junior, Silvia Bahadian Moreira, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Alcides Pissinatti, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:219
  3. Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is a childhood-onset, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes NPC1 or NPC2 and characterized by impaired cholesterol homeostasis,...

    Authors: Anika V. Prabhu, Insung Kang, Raffaella De Pace, Christopher A. Wassif, Hideji Fujiwara, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Daniel S. Ory, Juan S. Bonifacino, Michael E. Ward and Forbes D. Porter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:218
  4. DNA barcodes are a useful tool for discovering, understanding, and monitoring biodiversity which are critical tasks at a time of rapid biodiversity loss. However, widespread adoption of barcodes requires cost-...

    Authors: Amrita Srivathsan, Leshon Lee, Kazutaka Katoh, Emily Hartop, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Johnathan Wong, Darren Yeo and Rudolf Meier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:217
  5. Maturation is a process that allows synapses to acquire full functionality, optimizing their activity to diverse neural circuits, and defects in synaptic maturation may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorde...

    Authors: Andonia Petkova-Tuffy, Nina Gödecke, Julio Viotti, Martin Korte and Thomas Dresbach
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:215
  6. How microbes affect host fitness and environmental adaptation has become a fundamental research question in evolutionary biology. To better understand the role of microbial genomic variation for host fitness, ...

    Authors: Yun Wang, Franz Baumdicker, Paul Schweiger, Sven Kuenzel and Fabian Staubach
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:187
  7. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) is a common technique for identifying DNA-protein interactions, and robotic platforms have been developed for high-throughput analyses to unravel the gene regulatory networks in many org...

    Authors: Ni-Chiao Tsai, Tzu-Shu Hsu, Shang-Che Kuo, Chung-Ting Kao, Tzu-Huan Hung, Da-Gin Lin, Chung-Shu Yeh, Chia-Chen Chu, Jeng-Shane Lin, Hsin-Hung Lin, Chia-Ying Ko, Tien-Hsien Chang, Jung-Chen Su and Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:214
  8. Activation of gene expression in striped domains is a key building block of biological patterning, from the recursive formation of veins in plant leaves to that of ribs and vertebrae in our bodies. In animals,...

    Authors: Anmol Krishna, Jason Gardiner, Tyler J. Donner and Enrico Scarpella
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:213
  9. Advances in three-dimensional culture technologies have led to progression in systems used to model the gonadal microenvironment in vitro. Despite demonstrating basic functionality, tissue organisation is ofte...

    Authors: Elizabeth Oliver, João Pedro Alves-Lopes, Femke Harteveld, Rod T. Mitchell, Elisabet Åkesson, Olle Söder and Jan-Bernd Stukenborg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:212
  10. Glossina species (tsetse flies), the sole vectors of African trypanosomes, maintained along their long evolutionary history a unique reproductive strategy, adenotrophic viviparity. Viviparity reduces their reprod...

    Authors: Grazia Savini, Francesca Scolari, Lino Ometto, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Davide Carraretto, Ludvik M. Gomulski, Giuliano Gasperi, Adly M. M. Abd-Alla, Serap Aksoy, Geoffrey M. Attardo and Anna R. Malacrida
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:211
  11. Species co-occurrences can have profound effects on the habitat use of species, and therefore habitat structure alone cannot fully explain observed abundances. To account for this aspect of community organizat...

    Authors: Marco Basile, Thomas Asbeck, João M. Cordeiro Pereira, Grzegorz Mikusiński and Ilse Storch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:210
  12. Authors: Sarah Farhat, Phuong Le, Ehsan Kayal, Benjamin Noel, Estelle Bigeard, Erwan Corre, Florian Maumus, Isabelle Florent, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Tristan Barbeyron, Ruibo Cai, Corinne Da Silva, Benjamin Istace, Karine Labadie, Dominique Marie…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:209

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:1

  13. Variability is a hallmark of animal behavior. It contributes to survival by endowing individuals and populations with the capacity to adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. Intra-individual variabili...

    Authors: Guillaume Le Goc, Julie Lafaye, Sophia Karpenko, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier and Georges Debrégeas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:208
  14. Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) encompasses cellular differences in tumors and is related to clinical outcomes such as drug resistance. However, little is known about the dynamics of ITH, owing to the lack of ...

    Authors: Hanako Ono, Yasuhito Arai, Eisaku Furukawa, Daichi Narushima, Tetsuya Matsuura, Hiromi Nakamura, Daisuke Shiokawa, Momoko Nagai, Toshio Imai, Koshi Mimori, Koji Okamoto, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuhiro Shibata and Mamoru Kato
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:207
  15. Eukaryotic genomes are known to display an enormous variation in size, but the evolutionary causes of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. To obtain mechanistic insights into such variation, previous s...

    Authors: C. P. Stelzer, J. Blommaert, A. M. Waldvogel, M. Pichler, B. Hecox-Lea and D. B. Mark Welch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:206
  16. Pineal-related organs in cyclostomes, teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles exhibit color opponency, generating antagonistic neural responses to different wavelengths of light and thereby sensory information abou...

    Authors: Seiji Wada, Emi Kawano-Yamashita, Tomohiro Sugihara, Satoshi Tamotsu, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Akihisa Terakita
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:188
  17. The cuticular microbiomes of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants pose a conundrum in microbiome biology because they are freely colonisable, and yet the prevalence of the vertically transmitted bacteria Pseudonocardia, ...

    Authors: Sarah F. Worsley, Tabitha M. Innocent, Neil A. Holmes, Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam, Morten Schiøtt, Barrie Wilkinson, J. Colin Murrell, Jacobus J. Boomsma, Douglas W. Yu and Matthew I. Hutchings
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:205
  18. Murray’s Law, which describes the branching architecture of bifurcating tubes, predicts the morphology of vessels in many amniotes and plants. Here, we use insects to explore the universality of Murray’s Law a...

    Authors: Sandra R. Schachat, C. Kevin Boyce, Jonathan L. Payne and David Lentink
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:204
  19. Silencing of transposable elements (TEs) is essential for maintaining genome stability. Plants use small RNAs (sRNAs) to direct DNA methylation to TEs (RNA-directed DNA methylation; RdDM). Similar mechanisms o...

    Authors: Jana Sperschneider, Ashley W. Jones, Jamila Nasim, Bo Xu, Silke Jacques, Chengcheng Zhong, Narayana M. Upadhyaya, Rohit Mago, Yiheng Hu, Melania Figueroa, Karam B. Singh, Eric A. Stone, Benjamin Schwessinger, Ming-Bo Wang, Jennifer M. Taylor and Peter N. Dodds
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:203
  20. The world’s fast disappearing mangrove forests have low plant diversity and are often assumed to also have a species-poor insect fauna. We here compare the tropical arthropod fauna across a freshwater swamp an...

    Authors: Darren Yeo, Amrita Srivathsan, Jayanthi Puniamoorthy, Foo Maosheng, Patrick Grootaert, Lena Chan, Benoit Guénard, Claas Damken, Rodzay A. Wahab, Ang Yuchen and Rudolf Meier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:202
  21. Gravity plays an important role in most life forms on Earth. Yet, a complete molecular understanding of sensing and responding to gravity is lacking. While there are anatomical differences among animals, there...

    Authors: Wei-Long Chen, Hungtang Ko, Han-Sheng Chuang, David M. Raizen and Haim H. Bau
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:186
  22. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets in mice have previously been studied using cell surface markers, and more recently single-cell technologies. The recent revolution of single-cell analysis ...

    Authors: Jinheng Wang, Chenggong Tu, Hui Zhang, Yongliang Huo, Eline Menu and Jinbao Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:201
  23. Although oocyte quality is the dominant factor determining embryo quality, few studies have been conducted to evaluate embryo quality based on the metabolites related to the oocyte. With quantification of the ...

    Authors: Ju Wang, Wei Zheng, Shuoping Zhang, Keqiang Yan, Miao Jin, Huiling Hu, Zhen Ma, Fei Gong, Guangxiu Lu, Yan Ren, Liang Lin, Ge Lin, Liang Hu and Siqi Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:200

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2021 19:234

  24. The microtubule-associated protein tau forms aggregates in different neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. Prior work has shown that a single P301L mutation in tau gene, MAPT, can promote alternative tau...

    Authors: Sang-Gyun Kang, Zhuang Zhuang Han, Nathalie Daude, Emily McNamara, Serene Wohlgemuth, Laura Molina-Porcel, Jiri G. Safar, Sue-Ann Mok and David Westaway
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:199
  25. Deciphering the functions of Y chromosome in mammals has been slow owing to the presence of repeats. Some of these repeats transcribe coding RNAs, the roles of which have been studied. Functions of the noncodi...

    Authors: Hemakumar M. Reddy, Rupa Bhattacharya, Shrish Tiwari, Kankadeb Mishra, Pranatharthi Annapurna, Zeenath Jehan, Nissankararao Mary Praveena, Jomini Liza Alex, Vishnu M. Dhople, Lalji Singh, Mahadevan Sivaramakrishnan, Anurag Chaturvedi, Nandini Rangaraj, Thomas Michael Shiju, Badanapuram Sreedevi, Sachin Kumar…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:198
  26. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying hair follicle development is of paramount importance in the genetic improvement of wool-related traits in sheep and skin-related traits in humans. The Me...

    Authors: Bingru Zhao, Hanpeng Luo, Junmin He, Xixia Huang, Siqian Chen, Xuefeng Fu, Weidan Zeng, Yuezhen Tian, Shuli Liu, Cong-jun Li, George E. Liu, Lingzhao Fang, Shengli Zhang and Kechuan Tian
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:197
  27. The biophysics of an organism span multiple scales from subcellular to organismal and include processes characterized by spatial properties, such as the diffusion of molecules, cell migration, and flow of intr...

    Authors: T. J. Sego, Josua O. Aponte-Serrano, Juliano F. Gianlupi and James A. Glazier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:196
  28. QconCATs are quantitative concatamers for proteomic applications that yield stoichiometric quantities of sets of stable isotope-labelled internal standards. However, changing a QconCAT design, for example, to ...

    Authors: James Johnson, Victoria M. Harman, Catarina Franco, Edward Emmott, Nichola Rockliffe, Yaqi Sun, Lu-Ning Liu, Ayako Takemori, Nobuaki Takemori and Robert J. Beynon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:195
  29. KDEL receptor helps establish cellular equilibrium in the early secretory pathway by recycling leaked ER-chaperones to the ER during secretion of newly synthesized proteins. Studies have also shown that KDEL r...

    Authors: Xihua Yue, Yi Qian, Lianhui Zhu, Bopil Gim, Mengjing Bao, Jie Jia, Shuaiyang Jing, Yijing Wang, Chuanting Tan, Francesca Bottanelli, Pascal Ziltener, Sunkyu Choi, Piliang Hao and Intaek Lee
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:194
  30. The presence of mitochondria is a distinguishing feature between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It is currently accepted that the evolutionary origin of mitochondria coincided with the formation of eukaryot...

    Authors: Pavla Tůmová, Luboš Voleman, Andreas Klingl, Eva Nohýnková, Gerhard Wanner and Pavel Doležal
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:193
  31. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in tumor progression. However, their biological functions and underlying mechanisms in hypoxia adaptation remain largely unclear.

    Authors: Tao Shen, Wangxiao Xia, Sainan Min, Zixuan Yang, Lehua Cheng, Wei Wang, Qianxi Zhan, Fanghong Shao, Xuehan Zhang, Zhiyu Wang, Yan Zhang, Guodong Shen, Huafeng Zhang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Qing-Peng Kong…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:192
  32. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is among the gravest threats to human health and food security worldwide. The use of antimicrobials in livestock production can lead to emergence of AMR, which can have direct ef...

    Authors: Nazreen F. Hadjirin, Eric L. Miller, Gemma G. R. Murray, Phung L. K. Yen, Ho D. Phuc, Thomas M. Wileman, Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Susanna M. Williamson, Julian Parkhill, Duncan J. Maskell, Rui Zhou, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Marcelo Gottschalk, A. W. ( Dan) Tucker, Ngo Thi Hoa, John J. Welch…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:191
  33. Urbanization is rapidly changing our planet and animals that live in urban environments must quickly adjust their behavior. One of the most prevalent behavioral characteristics of urban dwelling animals is an ...

    Authors: Lee Harten, Nesim Gonceer, Michal Handel, Orit Dash, H. Bobby Fokidis and Yossi Yovel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:190
  34. The identification of open chromatin regions and transcription factor binding sites (TFBs) is an important step in understanding the regulation of gene expression in diverse species. ATAC-seq is a technique us...

    Authors: Lianggang Huang, Xuejie Li, Liangbo Dong, Bin Wang and Li Pan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:189
  35. A number of cellular processes have evolved in metazoans that increase the proteome repertoire in relation to the genome, such as alternative splicing and translation recoding. Another such process, translatio...

    Authors: Yunpo Zhao, Bo Gustav Lindberg, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Xiongzhuo Tang, Stefano Piazza and Ylva Engström
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:185
  36. A variety of human genetic diseases is known to be caused by mutations in genes encoding chromatin factors and epigenetic regulators, such as DNA or histone modifying enzymes and members of ATP-dependent chrom...

    Authors: Giovanni Messina, Yuri Prozzillo, Francesca Delle Monache, Maria Virginia Santopietro, Maria Teresa Atterrato and Patrizio Dimitri
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:184
  37. Knowledge on the localization and mobility of enzymes inside bacterial cells is scarce, but important for understanding spatial regulation of metabolism. The four central enzymes (Rib enzymes) of the riboflavi...

    Authors: Daniel A. O. Rotter, Christoph Heger, Luis M. Oviedo-Bocanegra and Peter L. Graumann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:183
  38. Speed and trajectory of locomotion are the characteristic traits of individual species. Locomotion kinematics may have been shaped during evolution towards increased survival in the habitats of each species. A...

    Authors: Yuji Matsuo, Akinao Nose and Hiroshi Kohsaka
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:176
  39. The volvocine algae, which include the single-celled species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial species Volvox carteri, serve as a model in which to study the evolution of multicellularity and cellular di...

    Authors: Charles Ross Lindsey, Frank Rosenzweig and Matthew D. Herron
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:182
  40. In flowering plants, precise timing of the floral transition is crucial to maximize chances of reproductive success, and as such, this process has been intensively studied. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL ...

    Authors: Tom Bennett and Laura E. Dixon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:181
  41. Inductive signaling interactions between different cell types are a major mechanism for the further diversification of embryonic cell fates. Most blastomeres in the model chordate Ciona robusta become restricted ...

    Authors: Konner M. Winkley, Wendy M. Reeves and Michael T. Veeman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:180
  42. The L-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is part of the arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system of the bacterium Escherichia coli and its pathogenic varieties such as strain E. coli O157:H7. At the pres...

    Authors: Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, David Kalbermatter, Zöhre Ucurum, Thomas Lemmin and Dimitrios Fotiadis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:179
  43. Nematodes are a widespread and diverse group comprising free-living and parasitic species, some of which have major detrimental effects on crops, animals, and human health. Genomic comparisons of nematodes may...

    Authors: Dongjuan Yuan, Song Li, Ziyu Shang, Muchun Wan, Yu Lin, Yanhua Zhang, Yaoyu Feng, Lian Xu and Lihua Xiao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:178
  44. Apomixis, the asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 40 plant families and avoids the hidden cost of sex. Apomictic plants are thought to have an advantage in sparse populations and when colonizing...

    Authors: Christian Sailer, Simone Tiberi, Bernhard Schmid, Jürg Stöcklin and Ueli Grossniklaus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:177
  45. The brain anatomy in the clade Spiralia can vary from simple, commissural brains (e.g., gastrotrichs, rotifers) to rather complex, partitioned structures (e.g., in cephalopods and annelids). How often and in w...

    Authors: Ludwik Gąsiorowski, Aina Børve, Irina A. Cherneva, Andrea Orús-Alcalde and Andreas Hejnol
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:175
  46. Comparing a parasitic lineage to its free-living relatives is a powerful way to understand how that evolutionary transition to parasitism occurred. Giardia intestinalis (Fornicata) is a leading cause of gastroint...

    Authors: Shweta V. Pipaliya, Rui Santos, Dayana Salas-Leiva, Erina A. Balmer, Corina D. Wirdnam, Andrew J. Roger, Adrian B. Hehl, Carmen Faso and Joel B. Dacks
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:167
  47. Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from pre-existing ones. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a leading member of the FGF family of heparin-binding growth factors, contributes to nor...

    Authors: Tao Jia, Thibault Jacquet, Fabien Dalonneau, Pauline Coudert, Elisabeth Vaganay, Chloé Exbrayat-Héritier, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Florence Ruggiero, Jean-Luc Coll and Béatrice Eymin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:173
  48. Genomes can be sequenced with relative ease, but ascribing gene function remains a major challenge. Genetically tractable model systems are crucial to meet this challenge. One powerful model is the social amoeba

    Authors: Nicole Gruenheit, Amy Baldwin, Balint Stewart, Sarah Jaques, Thomas Keller, Katie Parkinson, William Salvidge, Robert Baines, Chris Brimson, Jason B. Wolf, Rex Chisholm, Adrian J. Harwood and Christopher R. L. Thompson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:172