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  1. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease Ulp1 is responsible for both removing SUMO/Smt3 from specific target proteins and for processing precursor SUMO i...

    Authors: Zachary C Elmore, Megan Donaher, Brooke C Matson, Helen Murphy, Jason W Westerbeck and Oliver Kerscher
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:74
  2. This review discusses the many roles atomistic computer simulations of macromolecular (for example, protein) receptors and their associated small-molecule ligands can play in drug discovery, including the iden...

    Authors: Jacob D Durrant and J Andrew McCammon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:71
  3. The uptake of drugs into cells has traditionally been considered to be predominantly via passive diffusion through the bilayer portion of the cell membrane. The recent recognition that drug uptake is mostly ca...

    Authors: Karin Lanthaler, Elizabeth Bilsland, Paul D Dobson, Harry J Moss, Pınar Pir, Douglas B Kell and Stephen G Oliver
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:70
  4. Rule-based modeling has become a powerful approach for modeling intracellular networks, which are characterized by rich molecular diversity. Truly comprehensive models of cell behavior, however, must address s...

    Authors: James R Faeder
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:68
  5. Transposable elements are best interpreted as genomic parasites, proliferating in genomes through their over-replication relative to the rest of the genome. A new study examining correlations across Drosophila sp...

    Authors: John FY Brookfield
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:67
  6. The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) chan...

    Authors: Amandine Duflocq, Fabrice Chareyre, Marco Giovannini, François Couraud and Marc Davenne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:66
  7. It had been long assumed that almost all insertions of mobile DNA elements occurred during germ-cell development rather than in somatic-cell development, but solid evidence for transposition in somatic cells i...

    Authors: Haig H Kazazian Jr
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:62
  8. Genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster reveal an important role for Myc in controlling growth. Similar studies have also shown how components of the insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways are key regu...

    Authors: Federica Parisi, Sara Riccardo, Margaret Daniel, Mahesh Saqcena, Nandini Kundu, Annalisa Pession, Daniela Grifoni, Hugo Stocker, Esteban Tabak and Paola Bellosta
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:65
  9. The mitochondrial genome of higher plants is unusually dynamic, with recombination and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activities producing variability in size and organization. Plant mitochondrial DNA also g...

    Authors: Jaime I Davila, Maria P Arrieta-Montiel, Yashitola Wamboldt, Jun Cao, Joerg Hagmann, Vikas Shedge, Ying-Zhi Xu, Detlef Weigel and Sally A Mackenzie
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:64
  10. The caspase family, which plays a central role in apoptosis in metazoans, has undergone an expansion in amphioxus, increasing to 45 members through domain recombination and shuffling.

    Authors: Liqun Xu, Shaochun Yuan, Jun Li, Jie Ruan, Shengfeng Huang, Manyi Yang, Huiqing Huang, Shangwu Chen, Zhenghua Ren and Anlong Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:60
  11. Building the complex vertebrate nervous system involves the regulated production of neurons and glia while maintaining a progenitor cell population. Neurogenesis starts asynchronously in different regions of t...

    Authors: Filipe Vilas-Boas, Rita Fior, Jason R Swedlow, Kate G Storey and Domingos Henrique
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:58
  12. Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside mu...

    Authors: Wallace F Marshall
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:57
  13. Fungal sexual reproductive modes have markedly high diversity and plasticity, and asexual species have been hypothesized to arise frequently from sexual fungal species. A recent study on the red yeasts provide...

    Authors: Sheng Sun and Joseph Heitman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:56
  14. Enormous molecular sequence data have been accumulated over the past several years and are still exponentially growing with the use of faster and cheaper sequencing techniques. There is high and widespread int...

    Authors: Ralph S Peters, Benjamin Meyer, Lars Krogmann, Janus Borner, Karen Meusemann, Kai Schütte, Oliver Niehuis and Bernhard Misof
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:55
  15. Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways.

    Authors: Siau Wei Bai, Maria Teresa Herrera-Abreu, Jennifer L Rohn, Victor Racine, Virginia Tajadura, Narendra Suryavanshi, Stephanie Bechtel, Stefan Wiemann, Buzz Baum and Anne J Ridley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:54
  16. Peptide Recognition Domains (PRDs) are commonly found in signaling proteins. They mediate protein-protein interactions by recognizing and binding short motifs in their ligands. Although a great deal is known a...

    Authors: Kevin Y Yip, Lukas Utz, Simon Sitwell, Xihao Hu, Sachdev S Sidhu, Benjamin E Turk, Mark Gerstein and Philip M Kim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:53
  17. Many previous studies have focused on understanding how midbrain dopamine neurons, which are implicated in many neurological conditions, are generated during embryogenesis. One of the remaining questions conce...

    Authors: Lia Panman and Thomas Perlmann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:51
  18. The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to culture conditions in vitro and poor maternal diet in vivo. Such environmental perturbations can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for offspring health and phys...

    Authors: Charlotte L Williams, Jessica L Teeling, V Hugh Perry and Tom P Fleming
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:49
  19. Ire1 is a signal transduction protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane that serves to adjust the protein-folding capacity of the ER according to the needs of the cell. Ire1 signals, in a transcriptio...

    Authors: Alexei V Korennykh, Pascal F Egea, Andrei A Korostelev, Janet Finer-Moore, Robert M Stroud, Chao Zhang, Kevan M Shokat and Peter Walter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:48
  20. The unfolded protein response (UPR) controls the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Central to this signaling pathway is the ER-resident bifunctional transmembrane kinase/endoribonucle...

    Authors: Alexei V Korennykh, Andrei A Korostelev, Pascal F Egea, Janet Finer-Moore, Robert M Stroud, Chao Zhang, Kevan M Shokat and Peter Walter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:47
  21. Brains increase the survival value of organisms by being robust and fault tolerant. That is, brain circuits continue to operate as the organism needs, even when the circuit properties are significantly perturb...

    Authors: Shyam Srinivasan and Charles F Stevens
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:46
  22. Cytolytic cells of the immune system destroy pathogen-infected cells by polarised exocytosis of secretory lysosomes containing the pore-forming protein perforin. Precise delivery of this lethal hit is essentia...

    Authors: Jane C Stinchcombe, Mariolina Salio, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Daniela Pende, Maurizo Arico and Gillian M Griffiths
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:45
  23. Understanding how biodiversity is shaped through time is a fundamental question in biology. Even though tropical rain forests (TRF) represent the most diverse terrestrial biomes on the planet, the timing, loca...

    Authors: Thomas LP Couvreur, Félix Forest and William J Baker
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:44
  24. There are many reasons to be interested in stem cells, one of the most prominent being their potential use in finding better drugs to treat human disease. This article focuses on how this may be implemented. R...

    Authors: Lee L Rubin and Kelly M Haston
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:42
  25. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation route for soluble components of the cytosol and organelles. There is great interest in identifying compounds that modulate autophagy because they ...

    Authors: Tom Egil Hansen and Terje Johansen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:39
  26. Autophagy mediates lysosomal degradation of cytosolic components. Recent work has associated autophagic dysfunction with pathologies, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. To date, the identification of...

    Authors: Phillip Hundeshagen, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Roland Eils and Nathan R Brady
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:38
  27. Stable isotope tracing is a powerful technique for following the fate of individual atoms through metabolic pathways. Measuring isotopic enrichment in metabolites provides quantitative insights into the biosyn...

    Authors: Hunter NB Moseley, Andrew N Lane, Alex C Belshoff, Richard M Higashi and Teresa WM Fan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:37

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2012 10:74

  28. GINS is an essential eukaryotic DNA replication factor that is found in a simplified form in Archaea. A new study in this issue of BMC Biology reveals the first structure of the archaeal GINS complex. The structu...

    Authors: Stephen D Bell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:36
  29. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protein machine that is the final destination for cellular proteins that have been marked for degradation via an ubiquitin (Ub) chain appendage. These ubiquitylated proteins e...

    Authors: Tara A Gomez, Natalie Kolawa, Marvin Gee, Michael J Sweredoski and Raymond J Deshaies
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:33
  30. Gq is a heterotrimeric G protein that plays an important role in numerous physiological processes. To delineate the molecular mechanisms and kinetics of signalling through this protein, its activation should b...

    Authors: Merel JW Adjobo-Hermans, Joachim Goedhart, Laura van Weeren, Saskia Nijmeijer, Erik MM Manders, Stefan Offermanns and Theodorus WJ Gadella Jr
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:32
  31. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) has been shown to be phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues, based on cell type and physiological conditions. Although recent studies have suggested that prote...

    Authors: Geneviève Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier Estève, Nathalie Bibens Laulan, Sriharsa Pradhan and Yves St-Pierre
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:31
  32. The X chromosome has fewer testis-specific genes than autosomes in many species. This bias is commonly attributed to X inactivation in spermatogenesis but a recent paper in BMC Biology provides evidence against X...

    Authors: Xuemei Lu and Chung-I Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:30
  33. Paucity of male-biased genes on the Drosophila X chromosome is a well-established phenomenon, thought to be specifically linked to the role of these genes in reproduction and/or their expression in the meiotic ma...

    Authors: Lyudmila M Mikhaylova and Dmitry I Nurminsky
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:29
  34. In the early stage of eukaryotic DNA replication, the template DNA is unwound by the MCM helicase, which is activated by forming a complex with the Cdc45 and GINS proteins. The eukaryotic GINS forms a heterote...

    Authors: Takuji Oyama, Sonoko Ishino, Seiji Fujino, Hiromi Ogino, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Kouta Mayanagi, Mihoko Saito, Naoko Nagasawa, Yoshizumi Ishino and Kosuke Morikawa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:28
  35. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotecti...

    Authors: Derya Sargin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Amit Agarwal, Michael Müller, Sonja M Wojcik, Imam Hassouna, Swetlana Sperling, Klaus-Armin Nave and Hannelore Ehrenreich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:27
  36. Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots ...

    Authors: James Castelli-Gair Hombría
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:26