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  1. The functional understanding of genetic interaction networks and cellular mechanisms governing health and disease requires the dissection, and multifaceted study, of discrete cell subtypes in developing and ad...

    Authors: Savannah J. Lusk, Andrew McKinney, Patrick J. Hunt, Paul G. Fahey, Jay Patel, Andersen Chang, Jenny J. Sun, Vena K. Martinez, Ping Jun Zhu, Jeremy R. Egbert, Genevera Allen, Xiaolong Jiang, Benjamin R. Arenkiel, Andreas S. Tolias, Mauro Costa-Mattioli and Russell S. Ray
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:28
  2. The evolution of the brain and its major neuropils in Panarthropoda (comprising Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora) remains enigmatic. As one of the closest relatives of arthropods, onychophorans are regar...

    Authors: Christine Martin, Henry Jahn, Mercedes Klein, Jörg U. Hammel, Paul A. Stevenson, Uwe Homberg and Georg Mayer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:26
  3. There is a need for functional genome-wide annotation of the protein-coding genes to get a deeper understanding of mammalian biology. Here, a new annotation strategy is introduced based on dimensionality reduc...

    Authors: Max Karlsson, Evelina Sjöstedt, Per Oksvold, Åsa Sivertsson, Jinrong Huang, María Bueno Álvez, Muhammad Arif, Xiangyu Li, Lin Lin, Jiaying Yu, Tao Ma, Fengping Xu, Peng Han, Hui Jiang, Adil Mardinoglu, Cheng Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:25
  4. A continued effort in neuroscience aims to understand the way brain circuits consisting of diverse neuronal types generate complex behavior following sensory input. A common feature of vertebrate visual system...

    Authors: Alexander L. Tesmer, Nicholas P. Fields and Estuardo Robles
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:24
  5. Scales are mineralised exoskeletal structures that are part of the dermal skeleton. Scales have been mostly lost during evolution of terrestrial vertebrates whilst bony fish have retained a mineralised dermal ...

    Authors: Dylan J. M. Bergen, Qiao Tong, Ankit Shukla, Elis Newham, Jan Zethof, Mischa Lundberg, Rebecca Ryan, Scott E. Youlten, Monika Frysz, Peter I. Croucher, Gert Flik, Rebecca J. Richardson, John P. Kemp, Chrissy L. Hammond and Juriaan R. Metz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:21
  6. Stem cells (SCs) in vertebrates typically reside in “stem cell niches” (SCNs), morphologically restricted tissue microenvironments that are important for SC survival and proliferation. SCNs are broadly defined...

    Authors: P. Martinez, L. Ballarin, A. V. Ereskovsky, E. Gazave, B. Hobmayer, L. Manni, E. Rottinger, S. G. Sprecher, S. Tiozzo, A. Varela-Coelho and B. Rinkevich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:23
  7. Epigenetic regulation relies on the activity of enzymes that use sentinel metabolites as cofactors to modify DNA or histone proteins. Thus, fluctuations in cellular metabolite levels have been reported to affe...

    Authors: Evelina Charidemou, Maria A. Tsiarli, Andria Theophanous, Vural Yilmaz, Chrysoula Pitsouli, Katerina Strati, Julian L. Griffin and Antonis Kirmizis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:22
  8. Africa is an important watershed in the genetic history of domestic cattle, as two lineages of modern cattle, Bos taurus and B. indicus, form distinct admixed cattle populations. Despite the predominant B. indicu...

    Authors: Taehyung Kwon, Kwondo Kim, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Samsun Sung, Seoae Cho, Choongwon Jeong, Olivier Hanotte and Heebal Kim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:20

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:62

  9. The role of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their effect on metabolic health is complex. How dietary BCAA levels and their interaction with background nutrition affect health is unclear. Here, w...

    Authors: Samantha M. Solon-Biet, Lucy Griffiths, Sophie Fosh, David G. Le Couteur, Stephen J. Simpson and Alistair M. Senior
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:19
  10. Optogenetic tools allow precise manipulation of neuronal activity via genetically encoded light-sensitive proteins. Currently available optogenetic inhibitors are not suitable for prolonged use due to short-la...

    Authors: P. Kleis, E. Paschen, U. Häussler, Y. A. Bernal Sierra and C. A. Haas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:18
  11. Infectious diseases of farmed and wild animals pose a recurrent threat to food security and human health. The macrophage, a key component of the innate immune system, is the first line of defence against many ...

    Authors: Stephen Meek, Tom Watson, Lel Eory, Gus McFarlane, Felicity J. Wynne, Stephen McCleary, Laura E. M. Dunn, Emily M. Charlton, Chloe Craig, Barbara Shih, Tim Regan, Ryan Taylor, Linda Sutherland, Anton Gossner, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Sarah Fletcher…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:14
  12. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a cell surface GPI-anchored protein, usually known for its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal prionopathies. However, increasing knowledge about the participation of PrP

    Authors: A. Matamoros-Angles, A. Hervera, J. Soriano, E. Martí, P. Carulla, F. Llorens, M. Nuvolone, A. Aguzzi, I. Ferrer, A. Gruart, J. M. Delgado-García and J. A. Del Río
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:17
  13. Many named species as defined in current bacterial taxonomy correspond to species complexes. Uncertainties regarding the organization of their genetic diversity challenge research efforts. We utilized the Agrobac...

    Authors: Lin Chou, Yu-Chen Lin, Mindia Haryono, Mary Nia M. Santos, Shu-Ting Cho, Alexandra J. Weisberg, Chih-Feng Wu, Jeff H. Chang, Erh-Min Lai and Chih-Horng Kuo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:16
  14. Over 120 million mice and rats are used annually in research, conventionally housed in shoebox-sized cages that restrict natural behaviours (e.g. nesting and burrowing). This can reduce physical fitness, impai...

    Authors: Jessica Cait, Alissa Cait, R. Wilder Scott, Charlotte B. Winder and Georgia J. Mason
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:15
  15. Mitochondria require thousands of proteins to fulfill their essential function in energy production and other fundamental biological processes. These proteins are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, translat...

    Authors: Mickaële Hémono, Alexandre Haller, Johana Chicher, Anne-Marie Duchêne and Richard Patryk Ngondo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:13
  16. The establishment and maintenance of functional neural connections relies on appropriate distribution and localization of mitochondria in neurites, as these organelles provide essential energy and metabolites....

    Authors: Soyeon Lee, Dongkeun Park, Chunghun Lim, Jae-Ick Kim and Kyung-Tai Min
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:12
  17. Women facing increased energetic demands in childhood commonly have altered adult ovarian activity and shorter reproductive lifespan, possibly comprising a strategy to optimize reproductive success. Here, we s...

    Authors: Ben Bar-Sadeh, Or E. Amichai, Lilach Pnueli, Khurshida Begum, Gregory Leeman, Richard D. Emes, Reinhard Stöger, Gillian R. Bentley and Philippa Melamed
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:11
  18. The synthetic chemical 1,4-dioxane is used as industrial solvent, food, and care product additive. 1,4-Dioxane has been noted to influence the nervous system in long-term animal experiments and in humans, but ...

    Authors: Xiaoyi Mo, Qiang Liu, Luna Gao, Chang Xie, Xin Wei, Peiyuan Pang, Quan Tian, Yue Gao, Youjing Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Tianchen Xiong, Bo Zhong, Dongdong Li and Jing Yao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:10
  19. Gasdermins are ancient (>500million-years-ago) proteins, constituting a family of pore-forming proteins that allow the release of intracellular content including proinflammatory cytokines. Despite their import...

    Authors: Diego Angosto-Bazarra, Cristina Alarcón-Vila, Laura Hurtado-Navarro, María C. Baños, Jack Rivers-Auty and Pablo Pelegrín
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:9
  20. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds tremendous potential for basic research and cell-based gene therapy. However, the fulfillment of these promises r...

    Authors: Joffrey Mianné, Amel Nasri, Chloé Nguyen Van, Chloé Bourguignon, Mathieu Fieldès, Engi Ahmed, Christine Duthoit, Nicolas Martin, Hugues Parrinello, Anaïs Louis, Alexandra Iché, Régis Gayon, Florine Samain, Lucille Lamouroux, Pascale Bouillé, Arnaud Bourdin…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:8
  21. A single circular mitochondrial (mt) genome is a common feature across most metazoans. The mt-genome includes protein-coding genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, as well as RNAs necessary for translati...

    Authors: Shiqian Feng, Andrea Pozzi, Vaclav Stejskal, George Opit, Qianqian Yang, Renfu Shao, Damian K. Dowling and Zhihong Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:7
  22. The cytoskeleton is a key component of the system responsible for transmitting mechanical cues from the cellular environment to the nucleus, where they trigger downstream responses. This communication is parti...

    Authors: Juan José Romero, María Cecilia De Rossi, Camila Oses, Camila Vázquez Echegaray, Paula Verneri, Marcos Francia, Alejandra Guberman and Valeria Levi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:6
  23. Fishes are the one of the most diverse groups of animals with respect to their modes of sex determination, providing unique models for uncovering the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying sex determ...

    Authors: Le Wang, Fei Sun, Zi Yi Wan, Zituo Yang, Yi Xuan Tay, May Lee, Baoqing Ye, Yanfei Wen, Zining Meng, Bin Fan, Yuzer Alfiko, Yubang Shen, Francesc Piferrer, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl and Gen Hua Yue
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:5
  24. The explosive radiation and diversification of the advanced snakes (superfamily Colubroidea) was associated with changes in all aspects of the shared venom system. Morphological changes included the partitioni...

    Authors: Bing Xie, Daniel Dashevsky, Darin Rokyta, Parviz Ghezellou, Behzad Fathinia, Qiong Shi, Michael K. Richardson and Bryan G. Fry
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:4
  25. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are crucial to their social communication and a widely used translational tool for linking gene mutations to behavior. To maximize the causal interpretation of experiment...

    Authors: Jonas Håkansson, Weili Jiang, Qian Xue, Xudong Zheng, Ming Ding, Anurag A. Agarwal and Coen P. H. Elemans
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:3
  26. Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that can insert at specific target sequences, however, their origins are often challenging to reconstruct because of rapid sequence decay following invasion and spr...

    Authors: Dongseok Kim, JunMo Lee, Chung Hyun Cho, Eun Jeung Kim, Debashish Bhattacharya and Hwan Su Yoon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:2
  27. Across the Metazoa, similar genetic programs are found in the development of analogous, independently evolved, morphological features. The functional significance of this reuse and the underlying mechanisms of...

    Authors: Stephanie Neal, Kyle J. McCulloch, Francesca R. Napoli, Christina M. Daly, James H. Coleman and Kristen M. Koenig
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:1
  28. The cervicovaginal microbiome (CVM) plays a significant role in women’s cervical health and disease. Microbial alterations at the species level and characteristic community state types (CST) have been associat...

    Authors: Karolina M. Andralojc, Mariano A. Molina, Mengjie Qiu, Bram Spruijtenburg, Menno Rasing, Bernard Pater, Martijn A. Huynen, Bas E. Dutilh, Thomas H. A. Ederveen, Duaa Elmelik, Albert G. Siebers, Diede Loopik, Ruud L. M. Bekkers, William P. J. Leenders and Willem J. G. Melchers
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:267
  29. Rett syndrome (RTT) is a monogenic X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, which lead to structural and functional changes in synapse communication, ...

    Authors: Clara Alice Musi, Anna Maria Castaldo, Anna Elisa Valsecchi, Sara Cimini, Noemi Morello, Riccardo Pizzo, Alessandra Renieri, Ilaria Meloni, Maurizio Bonati, Maurizio Giustetto and Tiziana Borsello
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:256
  30. Tissue hypoxia is a key feature of several endemic hepatic diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and organ failure. Hypoxia imposes a severe metabolic challenge on the liver, pot...

    Authors: Katie A. O’Brien, Ben D. McNally, Alice P. Sowton, Antonio Murgia, James Armitage, Luke W. Thomas, Fynn N. Krause, Lucas A. Maddalena, Ian Francis, Stefan Kavanagh, Dominic P. Williams, Margaret Ashcroft, Julian L. Griffin, Jonathan J. Lyon and Andrew J. Murray
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:265
  31. Ciliated protists are a widely distributed, morphologically diverse, and genetically heterogeneous group of unicellular organisms, usually known for containing two types of nuclei: a transcribed polyploid macr...

    Authors: Wenbing Chen, Changling Zuo, Chundi Wang, Tengteng Zhang, Liping Lyu, Yu Qiao, Fangqing Zhao and Miao Miao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:264
  32. Cells and organisms typically cannot survive in the absence of water. However, some animals including nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, and some arthropods are able to survive near-complete desiccation. One cl...

    Authors: Jonathan D. Hibshman and Bob Goldstein
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:263
  33. Tigecycline is a tetracycline derivative that constitutes one of the last-resort antibiotics used clinically to treat infections caused by both multiple drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bac...

    Authors: Qipeng Cheng, Yanchu Cheung, Chenyu Liu, Qingjie Xiao, Bo Sun, Jiahai Zhou, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Rong Zhang and Sheng Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:262
  34. Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are high-energy derivatives of inositol, involved in different signalling and regulatory responses of eukaryotic cells. Distinct PP-InsPs species are characterized by the pre...

    Authors: Anuj Shukla, Mandeep Kaur, Swati Kanwar, Gazaldeep Kaur, Shivani Sharma, Shubhra Ganguli, Vandana Kumari, Koushik Mazumder, Pratima Pandey, Hatem Rouached, Vikas Rishi, Rashna Bhandari and Ajay Kumar Pandey
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:261
  35. The integrity of microtubule filament networks is essential for the roles in diverse cellular functions, and disruption of its structure or dynamics has been explored as a therapeutic approach to tackle diseas...

    Authors: Ashley M. Rozario, Sam Duwé, Cade Elliott, Riley B. Hargreaves, Gregory W. Moseley, Peter Dedecker, Donna R. Whelan and Toby D. M. Bell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:260
  36. Hunter-gatherer lifestyles dominated the southern African landscape up to ~ 2000 years ago, when herding and farming groups started to arrive in the area. First, herding and livestock, likely of East African o...

    Authors: Mário Vicente, Imke Lankheet, Thembi Russell, Nina Hollfelder, Vinet Coetzee, Himla Soodyall, Michael De Jongh and Carina M. Schlebusch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:259
  37. Yeasts of the CTG-clade lineage, which includes the human-infecting Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis species, are characterized by an altered genetic code. Instead of translating CUG ...

    Authors: Stefanie Mühlhausen, Hans Dieter Schmitt, Uwe Plessmann, Peter Mienkus, Pia Sternisek, Thorsten Perl, Michael Weig, Henning Urlaub, Oliver Bader and Martin Kollmar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:258
  38. The evolutionary history of cell types provides insights into how morphological and functional complexity arose during animal evolution. Photoreceptor cell types are particularly broadly distributed throughout...

    Authors: Jonathan E. Valencia, Roberto Feuda, Dan O. Mellott, Robert D. Burke and Isabelle S. Peter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:257
  39. The consequences of the earth’s daily rotation have led to 24-h biological rhythms in most organisms. Even some parasites are known to have daily rhythms, which, when in synchrony with host rhythms, can optimi...

    Authors: Kate A. Rawlinson, Adam J. Reid, Zhigang Lu, Patrick Driguez, Anna Wawer, Avril Coghlan, Geetha Sankaranarayanan, Sarah K. Buddenborg, Carmen Diaz Soria, Catherine McCarthy, Nancy Holroyd, Mandy Sanders, Karl F. Hoffmann, David Wilcockson, Gabriel Rinaldi and Matthew Berriman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:255
  40. Functional genomic analyses rely on high-quality genome assemblies and annotations. Highly contiguous genome assemblies have become available for a variety of species, but accurate and complete annotation of g...

    Authors: Emily J. Shields, Masato Sorida, Lihong Sheng, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Long Ding and Roberto Bonasio
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:254
  41. Snakes and primates have a multi-layered coevolutionary history as predators, prey, and competitors with each other. Previous work has explored the Snake Detection Theory (SDT), which focuses on the role of sn...

    Authors: Richard J. Harris, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris and Bryan G. Fry
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:253
  42. Although electrical stimulation of the peripheral and central nervous systems has attracted much attention owing to its potential therapeutic effects on neuropsychiatric diseases, its non-cell-type-specific ac...

    Authors: Yi Cao, Suwan Pan, Mengying Yan, Chongyang Sun, Jianyu Huang, Cheng Zhong, Liping Wang and Lu Yi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:252
  43. The phylum Euglenozoa is a group of flagellated protists comprising the diplonemids, euglenids, symbiontids, and kinetoplastids. The diplonemids are highly abundant and speciose, and recent tools have rendered...

    Authors: Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Kristína Záhonová, Valéria Juricová, Maksym Danchenko, Martin Moos, Peter Baráth, Galina Prokopchuk, Anzhelika Butenko, Veronika Lukáčová, Lenka Kohútová, Barbora Bučková, Aleš Horák, Drahomíra Faktorová, Anton Horváth, Petr Šimek and Julius Lukeš
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:251
  44. Diatoms usually dominate phytoplankton blooms in open oceans, exhibiting extremely high population densities. Although the iron uptake rate of diatoms largely determines the magnitude and longevity of diatom b...

    Authors: Xuehua Liu, Xiujun Xie, Shan Gao, Lepu Wang, Lu Zhou, Yao Liu, Qiang Hu, Wenhui Gu and Guangce Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:249
  45. Lipid species are accurately distributed in the eukaryotic cell so that organelle and plasma membranes have an adequate lipid composition to support numerous cellular functions. In the plasma membrane, a preci...

    Authors: Souade Ikhlef, Nicolas-Frédéric Lipp, Vanessa Delfosse, Nicolas Fuggetta, William Bourguet, Maud Magdeleine and Guillaume Drin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2021 19:248