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  1. Neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are common, multi-factorial and multi-symptomatic disorders. Ample evidence implicates oxidative stress, deficient rep...

    Authors: Flavia S. Mueller, René Amport, Tina Notter, Sina M. Schalbetter, Han-Yu Lin, Zuzana Garajova, Parisa Amini, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer and Enni Markkanen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:170
  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) acts as a transcriptional coactivator and regulates mitochondrial function. Various isoforms are generated by alternative splicing ...

    Authors: Daniel Oehler, André Spychala, Axel Gödecke, Alexander Lang, Norbert Gerdes, Jorge Ruas, Malte Kelm, Julia Szendroedi and Ralf Westenfeld
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:169
  3. Chimeras are genetically mixed entities resulting from the fusion of two or more conspecifics. This phenomenon is widely distributed in nature and documented in a variety of animal and plant phyla. In corals, ...

    Authors: Jeremie Vidal-Dupiol, Erwan Harscouet, Dor Shefy, Eve Toulza, Olivier Rey, Jean-François Allienne, Guillaume Mitta and Baruch Rinkevich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:167
  4. Yunnan is located in Southwest China and consists of great cultural, linguistic, and genetic diversity. However, the genomic diversity of ethnic minorities in Yunnan is largely under-investigated. To gain insi...

    Authors: Zhaoqing Yang, Hao Chen, Yan Lu, Yang Gao, Hao Sun, Jiucun Wang, Li Jin, Jiayou Chu and Shuhua Xu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:166
  5. Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements present in eukaryote genomes, which constitute indispensable determinants of gene regulation by governing the spatiotemporal and quantitative expression dynamics of target...

    Authors: Ying Zhang, Meng Tang, Mengling Huang, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang, Xiao Yu and Bo Li
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:165
  6. Mitochondria have an essential role in regulating metabolism and integrate environmental and physiological signals to affect processes such as cellular bioenergetics and response to stress. In the metabolicall...

    Authors: Adam J. Trewin, Jessica Silver, Hayley T. Dillon, Paul A. Della Gatta, Lewan Parker, Danielle S. Hiam, Yin Peng Lee, Mark Richardson, Glenn D. Wadley and Séverine Lamon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:164
  7. Aggressive cancers commonly ferment glucose to lactic acid at high rates, even in the presence of oxygen. This is known as aerobic glycolysis, or the “Warburg Effect.” It is widely assumed that this is a conse...

    Authors: Shonagh Russell, Liping Xu, Yoonseok Kam, Dominique Abrahams, Bryce Ordway, Alex S. Lopez, Marilyn M. Bui, Joseph Johnson, Tamir Epstein, Epifanio Ruiz, Mark C. Lloyd, Pawel Swietach, Daniel Verduzco, Jonathan Wojtkowiak and Robert J. Gillies
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:163
  8. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification required for a number of physiological functions regulating protein homeostasis, such as protein degradation. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control ...

    Authors: Kaori Nozawa, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Darius J. Devlin, Ricardo E. Deras, Katarzyna Kent, Irina V. Larina, Kohei Umezu, Zhifeng Yu, Courtney M. Sutton, Qiuji Ye, Laura K. Dean, Chihiro Emori, Masahito Ikawa, Thomas X. Garcia and Martin M. Matzuk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:161
  9. In many organisms, aging is characterized by a loss of mitochondrial homeostasis. Multiple factors such as respiratory metabolism, mitochondrial fusion/fission, or mitophagy have been linked to cell longevity,...

    Authors: Montserrat Vega, David Castillo, Laura de Cubas, Yirong Wang, Ying Huang, Elena Hidalgo and Margarita Cabrera
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:160
  10. Various mammalian species emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which reflect their emotional state and mediate social interactions. USVs are usually analyzed by manual or semi-automated methodologies that cat...

    Authors: Shai Netser, Guy Nahardiya, Gili Weiss-Dicker, Roei Dadush, Yizhaq Goussha, Shanah Rachel John, Mor Taub, Yuval Werber, Nir Sapir, Yossi Yovel, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Lior Cohen, Koby Crammer and Shlomo Wagner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:159
  11. In a broad variety of species, muscle contraction is controlled at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the peripheral synapse composed of a motor nerve terminal, a muscle specialization, and non-myelinating term...

    Authors: Francisca Bermedo-García, Diego Zelada, Esperanza Martínez, Lucía Tabares and Juan Pablo Henríquez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:158
  12. Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) including Eupeodes corollae are important insects worldwide that provide dual ecosystem services including pest control and pollination. The larvae are dominant predators of aphids...

    Authors: He Yuan, Bojia Gao, Chao Wu, Lei Zhang, Hui Li, Yutao Xiao and Kongming Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:157
  13. Sex chromosomes are typically viewed as having originated from a pair of autosomes, and differentiated as the sex-limited chromosome (e.g. Y) has degenerated by losing most genes through cessation of recombina...

    Authors: Aivars Cīrulis, Bengt Hansson and Jessica K. Abbott
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:156
  14. According to Waddington’s epigenetic landscape concept, the differentiation process can be illustrated by a cell akin to a ball rolling down from the top of a hill (proliferation state) and crossing furrows be...

    Authors: Souad Zreika, Camille Fourneaux, Elodie Vallin, Laurent Modolo, Rémi Seraphin, Alice Moussy, Elias Ventre, Matteo Bouvier, Anthony Ozier-Lafontaine, Arnaud Bonnaffoux, Franck Picard, Olivier Gandrillon and Sandrine Gonin-Giraud
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:155
  15. Archaea play fundamental roles in the environment, for example by methane production and consumption, ammonia oxidation, protein degradation, carbon compound turnover, and sulfur compound transformations. Rece...

    Authors: Raphaël Méheust, Cindy J. Castelle, Alexander L. Jaffe and Jillian F. Banfield
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:154
  16. Human babesiosis, caused by parasites of the genus Babesia, is an emerging and re-emerging tick-borne disease that is mainly transmitted by tick bites and infected blood transfusion. Babesia duncani has caused ma...

    Authors: Jinming Wang, Kai Chen, Jifei Yang, Shangdi Zhang, Youquan Li, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin, Guangying Wang and Guiquan Guan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:153
  17. Differences in morphology, ecology, and behavior through ontogeny can result in opposing selective pressures at different life stages. Most animals, however, transition through two or more distinct phenotypic ...

    Authors: Ryan K. Schott, Rayna C. Bell, Ellis R. Loew, Kate N. Thomas, David J. Gower, Jeffrey W. Streicher and Matthew K. Fujita
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:138
  18. Vertebrates develop their peripheral nervous system (PNS) from transient unique embryonic structures, the neural crest, and the ectodermal placodes that are located at the border of the forming central nervous...

    Authors: Rafath Chowdhury, Agnès Roure, Yann le Pétillon, Hélène Mayeur, Vladimir Daric and Sébastien Darras
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:152
  19. Colorectal cancer, one of the most common malignancies worldwide, is associated with a high mortality rate, mainly caused by metastasis. Comparative metagenome-wide association analyses of healthy individuals ...

    Authors: Evelien Wynendaele, Nathan Debunne, Yorick Janssens, Anton De Spiegeleer, Frederick Verbeke, Liesa Tack, Sophie Van Welden, Evy Goossens, Daniel Knappe, Ralf Hoffmann, Christophe Van De Wiele, Debby Laukens, Peter Van Eenoo, Lars Vereecke, Filip Van Immerseel, Olivier De Wever…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:151
  20. Age-related hearing loss is a common, heterogeneous disease with a strong genetic component. More than 100 loci have been reported to be involved in human hearing impairment to date, but most of the genes unde...

    Authors: Morag A. Lewis, Bradley A. Schulte, Judy R. Dubno and Karen P. Steel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:150
  21. Fungi use light as an environmental signal to regulate developmental transitions that are key aspects of their biological cycles and that are also relevant for their dispersal and infectivity as plant or anima...

    Authors: María del Mar Gil-Sánchez, Sara Cea-Sánchez, Eva M. Luque, David Cánovas and Luis M. Corrochano
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:149
  22. Venoms are ecological innovations that have evolved numerous times, on each occasion accompanied by the co-evolution of specialised morphological and behavioural characters for venom production and delivery. T...

    Authors: Taline D. Kazandjian, Brett R. Hamilton, Samuel D. Robinson, Steven R. Hall, Keirah E. Bartlett, Paul Rowley, Mark C. Wilkinson, Nicholas R. Casewell and Eivind A. B. Undheim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:148
  23. Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multifunctional enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of a group of diverse natural compounds with biotechnological and pharmaceutical interest called polyketides. The...

    Authors: Cécile Bon, Stéphanie Cabantous, Sylviane Julien, Valérie Guillet, Christian Chalut, Julie Rima, Yoann Brison, Wladimir Malaga, Angelique Sanchez-Dafun, Sabine Gavalda, Annaïk Quémard, Julien Marcoux, Geoffrey S. Waldo, Christophe Guilhot and Lionel Mourey
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:147
  24. Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been one of the most studied model organisms in the history of life sciences. Initially thought just to be commensal bacteria, E. coli has shown wide phenotypic diversity including...

    Authors: Erwin Tantoso, Birgit Eisenhaber, Miles Kirsch, Vladimir Shitov, Zhiya Zhao and Frank Eisenhaber
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:146
  25. The establishment of tissue architecture requires coordination between distinct processes including basement membrane assembly, cell adhesion, and polarity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly und...

    Authors: Adnan Mahly, Krishnanand Padmanabhan, Arad Soffer, Jonathan Cohen, Jana Omar, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg and Chen Luxenburg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:145
  26. Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) cause microcephaly and dengue hemorrhagic fever, respectively, leading to severe problems. No effective antiviral agents are approved against infections of these flavi...

    Authors: Yaning Gao, Wanbo Tai, Xinyi Wang, Shibo Jiang, Asim K. Debnath, Lanying Du and Shizhong Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:143
  27. Circadian rhythms are important for all aspects of biology; virtually every aspect of biological function varies according to time of day. Although this is well known, variation across the day is also often ig...

    Authors: Randy J. Nelson, Jacob R. Bumgarner, Jennifer A. Liu, Jharnae A. Love, O. Hecmarie Meléndez-Fernández, Darius D. Becker-Krail, William H. Walker II, James C. Walton, A. Courtney DeVries and Brian J. Prendergast
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:142
  28. DNA methylation is involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during developmental processes and is primarily established by the DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and 3B (DNMT3B). DNMT3A is one of t...

    Authors: Olivia Cypris, Julia Franzen, Joana Frobel, Philipp Glück, Chao-Chung Kuo, Stephani Schmitz, Selina Nüchtern, Martin Zenke and Wolfgang Wagner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:141
  29. Animal locomotion requires dynamic interactions between neural circuits, the body (typically muscles), and surrounding environments. While the neural circuitry of movement has been intensively studied, how the...

    Authors: Xiyang Sun, Yingtao Liu, Chang Liu, Koichi Mayumi, Kohzo Ito, Akinao Nose and Hiroshi Kohsaka
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:130
  30. As the most abundant epigenetic modification of eukaryotic mRNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification has been shown to play a role in mammalian nervous system development and function by regulating mRNA synt...

    Authors: Yeming Yang, Ping Shuai, Xiao Li, Kuanxiang Sun, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wenjing Liu, Weidong Le, Haisong Jiang, Yuping Liu and Xianjun Zhu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:140
  31. Peach (Prunus persica) is an economically important stone fruit crop in Rosaceae and widely cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions, emerging as an excellent material to study the interaction between plan...

    Authors: Ke Cao, Zhen Peng, Xing Zhao, Yong Li, Kuozhan Liu, Pere Arus, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, Jinlong Wu, Zhangjun Fei and Lirong Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:139
  32. β-1,4-endoglucanase (EG) is one of the three types of cellulases used in cellulose saccharification during lignocellulosic biofuel/biomaterial production. GsCelA is an EG secreted by the thermophilic bacterium Ge...

    Authors: Mei-Huey Wu, Mu-Rong Kao, Chen-Wei Li, Su-May Yu and Tuan-Hua David Ho
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:137
  33. Gene expression programs are intimately linked to the interplay of active cis regulatory elements mediated by chromatin contacts and associated RNAs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many va...

    Authors: Jingjin Li, Yue Xiang, Lu Zhang, Xiaolong Qi, Zhuqing Zheng, Peng Zhou, Zhenshuang Tang, Yi Jin, Qiulin Zhao, Yuhua Fu, Yunxia Zhao, Xinyun Li, Liangliang Fu and Shuhong Zhao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:136
  34. Symbiotic ant-plant associations, in which ants live on plants, feed on plant-provided food, and protect host trees against threats, are ubiquitous across the tropics, with the Azteca-Cecropia associations being ...

    Authors: Maximilian Nepel, Josephine Pfeifer, Felix B. Oberhauser, Andreas Richter, Dagmar Woebken and Veronika E. Mayer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:135
  35. The mammalian X and Y chromosomes originated from a pair of ordinary autosomes. Over the past ~180 million years, the X and Y have become highly differentiated and now only recombine with each other within a s...

    Authors: Jennifer F. Hughes, Helen Skaletsky, Peter K. Nicholls, Alexis Drake, Tatyana Pyntikova, Ting-Jan Cho, Daniel W. Bellott and David C. Page
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:133
  36. Generalist herbivores such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae thrive on a wide variety of plants and can rapidly adapt to novel hosts. What traits enable polyphagous herbivores to cope with the di...

    Authors: Christine Njiru, Wenxin Xue, Sander De Rouck, Juan M. Alba, Merijn R. Kant, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Bartel Vanholme, Wannes Dermauw, Nicky Wybouw and Thomas Van Leeuwen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:131
  37. Current understanding of the molecular basis of memory consolidation points to an important function of amyloid formation by neuronal-specific isoforms of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB)...

    Authors: D. Ramírez de Mingo, D. Pantoja-Uceda, R. Hervás, M. Carrión-Vázquez and D. V. Laurents
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:129
  38. A major route for cell-to-cell signalling in plants is mediated by cell wall-embedded pores termed plasmodesmata forming the symplasm. Plasmodesmata regulate the plant development and responses to the environm...

    Authors: Philip Kirk, Sam Amsbury, Liam German, Rocio Gaudioso-Pedraza and Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:128
  39. During the disease cycle, plant pathogenic fungi exhibit a morphological transition between hyphal growth (the phase of active infection) and the production of long-term survival structures that remain dormant...

    Authors: Huan Li, Dan Wang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Qi Geng, Jun-Jiao Li, Ruo-Cheng Sheng, Hui-Shan Xue, He Zhu, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Xiao-Feng Dai, Steven J. Klosterman, Krishna V. Subbarao, Feng-Mao Chen and Jie-Yin Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:125
  40. Neurodevelopmental disorders increase brain tumor risk, suggesting that normal brain development may have protective properties. Mutations in epigenetic regulators are common in pediatric brain tumors, highlig...

    Authors: N. Kfoury-Beaumont, R. Prakasam, S. Pondugula, J. S. Lagas, S. Matkovich, P. Gontarz, L. Yang, H. Yano, A. H. Kim, J. B. Rubin and K. L. Kroll
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:124
  41. In mammals, transitioning from sole milk uptake to the intake of solid feed results in dramatic developmental changes in intestinal function and immunological status. In fact, weaning stress is often accompani...

    Authors: Wenjie Tang, Yifan Zhong, Yusen Wei, Zhaoxi Deng, Jiangdi Mao, Jingliang Liu, Teresa G. Valencak, Jianxin Liu, Heping Xu and Haifeng Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:123
  42. Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that support and insulate axons in the central nervous system through the production of myelin. Oligodendrocytes arise throughout embryonic and early postnatal development from...

    Authors: Markus M. Hilscher, Christoffer Mattsson Langseth, Petra Kukanja, Chika Yokota, Mats Nilsson and Gonçalo Castelo-Branco
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:122
  43. Long-term domestication and intensive breeding of crop plants aim to establish traits desirable for human needs, and characteristics related to yield, disease resistance, and postharvest storage have tradition...

    Authors: Junwei Yang, Bin Liang, Yuemei Zhang, Yun Liu, Shengyuan Wang, Qinqin Yang, Xiaolin Geng, Simiao Liu, Yaoyao Wu, Yingfang Zhu and Tao Lin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:120