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  1. Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying ...

    Authors: Daniel N Düring, Alexander Ziegler, Christopher K Thompson, Andreas Ziegler, Cornelius Faber, Johannes Müller, Constance Scharff and Coen PH Elemans
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:1
  2. How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been...

    Authors: Masato Yoshizawa, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Kelly E O'Quin and William R Jeffery
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:108
  3. Calcium-activated photoproteins are luciferase variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora). The complete genomic sequence from the cteno...

    Authors: Christine E Schnitzler, Kevin Pang, Meghan L Powers, Adam M Reitzel, Joseph F Ryan, David Simmons, Takashi Tada, Morgan Park, Jyoti Gupta, Shelise Y Brooks, Robert W Blakesley, Shozo Yokoyama, Steven HD Haddock, Mark Q Martindale and Andreas D Baxevanis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:107
  4. The clockwise rotation of cilia in the developing mammalian embryo drives a leftward flow of liquid; this genetically regulated biophysical force specifies left-right asymmetry of the mammalian body. How leftw...

    Authors: Dominic P Norris
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:102
  5. Among vertebrates lens regeneration is most pronounced in newts, which have the ability to regenerate the entire lens throughout their lives. Regeneration occurs from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of...

    Authors: Rinako Suetsugu-Maki, Nobuyasu Maki, Kenta Nakamura, Saulius Sumanas, Jie Zhu, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis and Panagiotis A Tsonis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:103
  6. Authors: Wallace F Marshall, Kevin D Young, Matthew Swaffer, Elizabeth Wood, Paul Nurse, Akatsuki Kimura, Joseph Frankel, John Wallingford, Virginia Walbot, Xian Qu and Adrienne HK Roeder
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:101
  7. Harmful algal blooms deteriorate the services of aquatic ecosystems. They are often formed by cyanobacteria composed of genotypes able to produce a certain toxin, for example, the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC),...

    Authors: Veronika Ostermaier, Ferdinand Schanz, Oliver Köster and Rainer Kurmayer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:100
  8. In the absence of a vaccine or a cure, identification of novel HIV-1 inhibitors remains important. A paper in Retrovirology describes a rationally designed bi-specific protein that irreversibly damages the viral ...

    Authors: Rogier W Sanders
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:99
  9. In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However...

    Authors: W Tecumseh Fitch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:98
  10. All animals are anatomically constrained in the number of discrete call types they can produce. Recent studies suggest that by combining existing calls into meaningful sequences, animals can increase the infor...

    Authors: David AWAM Jansen, Michael A Cant and Marta B Manser
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:97
  11. Conditional gene knockout (cKO) mediated by the Cre/LoxP system is indispensable for exploring gene functions in mice. However, a major limitation of this method is that gene KO is not reversible. A number of ...

    Authors: Barbara H Chaiyachati, Ravinder K Kaundal, Jiugang Zhao, Jie Wu, Richard Flavell and Tian Chi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:96
  12. Pupylation is a post-translational protein modification occurring in actinobacteria through which the small, intrinsically disordered protein Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) is conjugated to lysine re...

    Authors: Jonas Barandun, Cyrille L Delley and Eilika Weber-Ban
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:95
  13. Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the ...

    Authors: Christian Pohl, Michael Tiongson, Julia L Moore, Anthony Santella and Zhirong Bao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:94
  14. We have investigated a simple strategy for enhancing transgene expression specificity by leveraging genetic silencer elements. The approach serves to restrict transgene expression to a tissue of interest - the...

    Authors: Xiayang Xie, Jonathan R Mathias, Marie-Ange Smith, Steven L Walker, Yong Teng, Martin Distel, Reinhard W Köster, Howard I Sirotkin, Meera T Saxena and Jeff S Mumm
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:93
  15. Logic-derived modeling has been used to map biological networks and to study arbitrary functional interactions, and fine-grained kinetic modeling can accurately predict the detailed behavior of well-characteri...

    Authors: Michael L Blinov and Ion I Moraru
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:92
  16. This work describes the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional landscape of the pig. A new porcine Affymetrix expression array was designed in order to provide comprehensive coverage of the known pi...

    Authors: Tom C Freeman, Alasdair Ivens, J Kenneth Baillie, Dario Beraldi, Mark W Barnett, David Dorward, Alison Downing, Lynsey Fairbairn, Ronan Kapetanovic, Sobia Raza, Andru Tomoiu, Ramiro Alberio, Chunlei Wu, Andrew I Su, Kim M Summers, Christopher K Tuggle…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:90
  17. Many biological studies are carried out on large populations of cells, often in order to obtain enough material to make measurements. However, we now know that noise is endemic in biological systems and this r...

    Authors: Kyung Hyuk Kim and Herbert M Sauro
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:89
  18. Authors: Jeremy Miller, Torsten Dikow, Donat Agosti, Guido Sautter, Terry Catapano, Lyubomir Penev, ZhiQiang Zhang, Dean Pentcheff, Richard Pyle, Stan Blum, Cynthia Parr, Chris Freeland, Tom Garnett, Linda S Ford, Burgert Muller, Leo Smith…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:87
  19. Responding to noxious stimuli by invoking an appropriate escape response is critical for survival of an organism. The sensations of small and large changes in temperature in most organisms have been studied se...

    Authors: Rajarshi Ghosh, Aylia Mohammadi, Leonid Kruglyak and William S Ryu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:85
  20. A half century after John Gurdon demonstrated nuclear reprogramming, for which he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, his group provides insights into the molecular mechanisms whereby c...

    Authors: Peter J Skene and Steven Henikoff
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:83
  21. Seed plants are composed of angiosperms and gymnosperms, which diverged from each other around 300 million years ago. While much light has been shed on the mechanisms and rate of genome evolution in flowering ...

    Authors: Nathalie Pavy, Betty Pelgas, Jérôme Laroche, Philippe Rigault, Nathalie Isabel and Jean Bousquet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:84
  22. Computational sequence analysis, that is, prediction of local sequence properties, homologs, spatial structure and function from the sequence of a protein, offers an efficient way to obtain needed information ...

    Authors: Qian Cong and Nick V Grishin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:82
  23. Vetulicolians are a group of Cambrian metazoans whose distinctive bodyplan continues to present a major phylogenetic challenge. Thus, we see vetulicolians assigned to groups as disparate as deuterostomes and e...

    Authors: Qiang Ou, Simon Conway Morris, Jian Han, Zhifei Zhang, Jianni Liu, Ailin Chen, Xingliang Zhang and Degan Shu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:81
  24. Turning gene expression on and off at will is one of the most powerful tools for the study of gene function in vivo. While several conditional systems were successful in invertebrates, in mice the Cre/loxP recomb...

    Authors: Kai Schönig, Tillmann Weber, Ariana Frömmig, Lena Wendler, Brigitte Pesold, Dominik Djandji, Hermann Bujard and Dusan Bartsch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:77
  25. Chemosensory receptor genes encode G protein-coupled receptors with which animals sense their chemical environment. The large number of chemosensory receptor genes in the genome and their extreme genetic varia...

    Authors: Andreas Keller
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:75
  26. Metastasis is the primary cause of death for cancer patients. TWIST1, an evolutionarily conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, is a strong promoter of metastatic spread and its expressio...

    Authors: Shan Li, Stephen E Kendall, Raquel Raices, James Finlay, Maricela Covarrubias, Zheng Liu, Gina Lowe, Yu-Huey Lin, Yuan Han Teh, Victoria Leigh, Simi Dhillon, Steven Flanagan, Karen S Aboody and Carlotta A Glackin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:73
  27. Fascin-1 is an actin crosslinking protein that is important for the assembly of cell protrusions in neurons, skeletal and smooth muscle, fibroblasts, and dendritic cells. Although absent from most normal adult...

    Authors: Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons and Josephine C Adams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:72
  28. Eukaryotic cells are distinguished by their compartmentalization into membrane-enclosed organelles that exchange membranes and content in a highly ordered manner. Central in defining membrane identity are the ...

    Authors: Harald Stenmark
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:68
  29. Gut microbes influence animal health and thus, are potential targets for interventions that slow aging. Live E. coli provides the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans with vital micronutrients, such as folates th...

    Authors: Bhupinder Virk, Gonçalo Correia, David P Dixon, Inna Feyst, Jie Jia, Nikolin Oberleitner, Zoe Briggs, Emily Hodge, Robert Edwards, John Ward, David Gems and David Weinkove
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:67
  30. The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been...

    Authors: Ylenia Chiari, Vincent Cahais, Nicolas Galtier and Frédéric Delsuc
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:65
  31. The position of turtles among amniotes remains in dispute, with morphological and molecular comparisons giving different results. Morphological analyses align turtles with either lizards and their relatives, o...

    Authors: S Blair Hedges
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:64
  32. B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins are the central regulators of apoptosis. The two bcl-2 genes in Drosophila modulate the response to stress-induced cell death, but not developmental cell death. Because null mut...

    Authors: Jessica P Monserrate, Michelle Y-Y Chen and Carrie Baker Brachmann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:63
  33. The family of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) comprises the multifunctional, ubiquitous LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, and the cell type-specific proteins DC-LAMP (LAMP-3), BAD-LAMP (UNC-46, C20orf103) and ma...

    Authors: Sonja Wilke, Joern Krausze and Konrad Büssow
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:62
  34. Phosphorylation is the predominant language of cell signaling. And, as with any common language, an abundance of dialects has evolved to convey complex information. We discuss here how biosensors are being use...

    Authors: John D Scott and Alexandra C Newton
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:61
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