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  1. Phosphorylation is the predominant language of cell signaling. And, as with any common language, an abundance of dialects has evolved to convey complex information. We discuss here how biosensors are being use...

    Authors: John D Scott and Alexandra C Newton
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:61
  2. Although RNA interference (RNAi) is known to play an important part in defense against viruses of invertebrates, its contribution to mammalian anti-viral defense has been a matter of dispute. This is surprisin...

    Authors: Kuan-Teh Jeang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:58
  3. Caenorhabditis elegans is a preeminent model organism, but the natural ecology of this nematode has been elusive. A four-year survey of French orchards published in BMC Biology reveals thriving populations of C. ...

    Authors: Mark Blaxter and Dee R Denver
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:57
  4. Insects respond to the spatial and temporal dynamics of a pheromone plume, which implies not only a strong response to 'odor on', but also to 'odor off'. This requires mechanisms geared toward a fast signal te...

    Authors: Thomas Chertemps, Adrien François, Nicolas Durand, Gloria Rosell, Teun Dekker, Philippe Lucas and Martine Maïbèche-Coisne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:56
  5. Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flo...

    Authors: João A Paredes, Laura Carreto, João Simões, Ana R Bezerra, Ana C Gomes, Rodrigo Santamaria, Misha Kapushesky, Gabriela R Moura and Manuel AS Santos
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:55
  6. In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomi...

    Authors: Eugene V Koonin and Valerian V Dolja
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:54
  7. Replicate adaptive radiations occur when lineages repeatedly radiate and fill new but similar niches and converge phenotypically. While this is commonly seen in traditional island systems, it may also be prese...

    Authors: Richard Lapoint and Noah Whiteman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:53
  8. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insect...

    Authors: Thomas Ant, Martha Koukidou, Polychronis Rempoulakis, Hong-Fei Gong, Aris Economopoulos, John Vontas and Luke Alphey
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:51
  9. In the ubiquitin-proteasome system, a subset of ubiquitylated proteins requires the AAA+ ATPase p97 (also known as VCP or Cdc48) for extraction from membranes or protein complexes before delivery to the protea...

    Authors: Hemmo Meyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:48
  10. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis has been proposed as one of the evolutionary driving forces behind both the under-representation of male-biased genes on, and the gene movement...

    Authors: Maria D Vibranovski, Yong E Zhang, Claus Kemkemer, Hedibert F Lopes, Timothy L Karr and Manyuan Long
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:49
  11. Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the gener...

    Authors: Ryo Futahashi, Hiroko Shirataki, Takanori Narita, Kazuei Mita and Haruhiko Fujiwara
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:46
  12. The retina of craniates/vertebrates has been proposed to derive from a photoreceptor prosencephalic territory in ancestral chordates, but the evolutionary origin of the different cell types making the retina i...

    Authors: Florian Razy-Krajka, Euan R Brown, Takeo Horie, Jacques Callebert, Yasunori Sasakura, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Takehiro G Kusakabe and Philippe Vernier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:45
  13. During a viral infection, the intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense viral RNA and signal through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor MAVS (also known as IPS-1, Cardif and VISA) whose activa...

    Authors: Céline Castanier, Naima Zemirli, Alain Portier, Dominique Garcin, Nicolas Bidère, Aimé Vazquez and Damien Arnoult
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:44
  14. H3N2 influenza A viruses have been widely circulating in human populations since the pandemic of 1968. A striking feature of the evolutionary development of this strain has been its 'canalized' nature, with na...

    Authors: Paul G Thomas and Tomer Hertz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:43
  15. The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnera...

    Authors: T Yvanka de Soysa, Allison Ulrich, Timo Friedrich, Danielle Pite, Shannon L Compton, Deborah Ok, Rebecca L Bernardos, Gerald B Downes, Shizuka Hsieh, Rachael Stein, M Caterina Lagdameo, Katherine Halvorsen, Lydia-Rose Kesich and Michael JF Barresi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:40
  16. Bioluminescent and fluorescent proteins are now used as tools for research in all organisms. There has been massive progress over the past 15 years in creating a palette of fluorescent proteins with a wide spe...

    Authors: Alexander M Jones, David W Ehrhardt and Wolf B Frommer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:39
  17. Efficient osteogenic differentiation is highly dependent on coordinated signals arising from growth factor signalling and mechanical forces. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that trigge...

    Authors: Jessica Kopf, Ansgar Petersen, Georg N Duda and Petra Knaus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:37
  18. The proteins from the UBA-UBX family interact with ubiquitylated proteins via their UBA domain and with p97 via their UBX domain, thereby acting as substrate-binding adaptors for the p97 ATPase. In particular,...

    Authors: Susanne Bandau, Axel Knebel, Zoe O Gage, Nicola T Wood and Gabriela Alexandru
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:36
  19. The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinat...

    Authors: Takuro Nakayama and John M Archibald
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:35
  20. There is overwhelming evidence that in vitro three-dimensional tumor cell cultures more accurately reflect the complex in vivo microenvironment than simple two-dimensional cell monolayers, not least with respect ...

    Authors: Maria Vinci, Sharon Gowan, Frances Boxall, Lisa Patterson, Miriam Zimmermann, William Court, Cara Lomas, Marta Mendiola, David Hardisson and Suzanne A Eccles
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:29
  21. Molecular oxygen (O2) is one of the key metabolites of all obligate and facultative aerobic pro- and eukaryotes. It plays a fundamental role in energy homeostasis whereas oxygen deprivation, in turn, broadly affe...

    Authors: Janko Potzkei, Martin Kunze, Thomas Drepper, Thomas Gensch, Karl-Erich Jaeger and Jochen Büchs
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:28
  22. Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters play important roles in balancing excitatory and inhibitory signals in the brain. Increasing evidence suggest that they may act concertedly to regulate ext...

    Authors: László Héja, Gabriella Nyitrai, Orsolya Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi, Pál Szabó, Richárd Fiáth, István Ulbert, Borbála Pál-Szenthe, Miklós Palkovits and Julianna Kardos
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:26
  23. Ubiquitination now ranks with phosphorylation as one of the best-studied post-translational modifications of proteins with broad regulatory roles across all of biology. Ubiquitination usually involves the addi...

    Authors: Henning Walczak, Kazuhiro Iwai and Ivan Dikic
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:23
  24. In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a ha...

    Authors: William B Monahan, Ricardo J Pereira and David B Wake
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:20
  25. Genome and proteome data from Hydra magnipapillata have opened the way for the molecular analysis of an ancient nervous system, which includes stinging cells, an unusual neurosensory and neurosecretory cell type....

    Authors: Thomas W Holstein
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:18
  26. The protein secretory pathway must process a wide assortment of native proteins for eukaryotic cells to function. As well, recombinant protein secretion is used extensively to produce many biologics and indust...

    Authors: Keith EJ Tyo, Zihe Liu, Dina Petranovic and Jens Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:16
  27. Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila all...

    Authors: Mark L Siegal and Joanna Masel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:14
  28. The up-dated species level phylogeny for the carnivores using a supertree approach provides new insights into the evolutionary origin and relationships of carnivores. While the gain in biological knowledge is ...

    Authors: Arndt von Haeseler
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:13
  29. Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age...

    Authors: Katrin Nyakatura and Olaf RP Bininda-Emonds
    Citation: BMC Biology 2012 10:12
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