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  1. Ubiquitylation of the ligands and the receptor plays an important part in the regulation of the activity of the evolutionary conserved Notch signalling pathway. However, its function for activation of Notch is...

    Authors: Björn Schnute, Hideyuki Shimizu, Marvin Lyga, Martin Baron and Thomas Klein
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:65
  2. During mammalian preimplantation development, as the fertilized egg develops and differentiates, three cell lineages become specified: trophectoderm (TE), epiblast, and primitive endoderm (PrE). Through two st...

    Authors: Mami Tsume-Kajioka, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Kyoko Mochida, Yoko Ueda and Isao Matsuo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:64
  3. Twenty-four-hour rhythmicity in mammalian tissues and organs is driven by local circadian oscillators, systemic factors, the central circadian pacemaker and light-dark cycles. At the physiological level, the n...

    Authors: Carla S. Möller-Levet, Emma E. Laing, Simon N. Archer and Derk-Jan Dijk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:63

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:98

  4. T cell activation is a mechanical process as much as it is a biochemical process. In this study, we used a cone-and-plate viscometer system to treat Jurkat and primary human T cells with fluid shear stress (FS...

    Authors: Jacob M. Hope, Jenna A. Dombroski, Rebecca S. Pereles, Maria Lopez-Cavestany, Joshua D. Greenlee, Samantha C. Schwager, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King and Michael R. King
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:61
  5. Mature blood cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow by a process of differentiation along one of several different lineage trajectories. This is often represented as a series of discrete ...

    Authors: Charles Dussiau, Agathe Boussaroque, Mathilde Gaillard, Clotilde Bravetti, Laila Zaroili, Camille Knosp, Chloé Friedrich, Philippe Asquier, Lise Willems, Laurent Quint, Didier Bouscary, Michaela Fontenay, Thibault Espinasse, Adriana Plesa, Pierre Sujobert, Olivier Gandrillon…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:60
  6. Many epidemiological studies revealed that shift work is associated with an increased risk of a number of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases. An experimental model of shift work in rats has additio...

    Authors: Alexandra J. Trott, Ben J. Greenwell, Tejas R. Karhadkar, Natali N. Guerrero-Vargas, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M. Buijs and Jerome S. Menet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:58
  7. Mitochondria and peroxisomes are the two organelles that are most affected during adaptation to microoxic or anoxic environments. Mitochondria are known to transform into anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes...

    Authors: Kristína Záhonová, Sebastian Cristian Treitli, Tien Le, Ingrid Škodová-Sveráková, Pavla Hanousková, Ivan Čepička, Jan Tachezy and Vladimír Hampl
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:56
  8. Verticillium dahliae is a fungal pathogen that causes a vascular wilt on many economically important crops. Common fungal extracellular membrane (CFEM) domain proteins including secreted types have been implicate...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Jian Song, Jun-Jiao Li, Jun Wang, Ran Li, Steven J. Klosterman, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Fa-Zhuang Lin, Xiao-Feng Dai, Krishna V. Subbarao and Jie-Yin Chen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:55
  9. Structural variants (SVs), including deletions, insertions, duplications, and inversions, are relatively long genomic variations implicated in a diverse range of processes from human disease to ecology and evo...

    Authors: Marc-André Lemay, Jonas A. Sibbesen, Davoud Torkamaneh, Jérémie Hamel, Roger C. Levesque and François Belzile
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:53
  10. Long-term selection experiments are a powerful tool to understand the genetic background of complex traits. The longest of such experiments has been conducted in the Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology ...

    Authors: Sergio E. Palma-Vera, Henry Reyer, Martina Langhammer, Norbert Reinsch, Lorena Derezanin, Joerns Fickel, Saber Qanbari, Joachim M. Weitzel, Soeren Franzenburg, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak and Jennifer Schoen
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:52

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:238

  11. Parasite evolution has been conceptualized as a process of genetic loss and simplification. Contrary to this model, there is evidence of expansion and conservation of gene families related to essential functio...

    Authors: Qingxiang Guo, Stephen D. Atkinson, Bin Xiao, Yanhua Zhai, Jerri L. Bartholomew and Zemao Gu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:51
  12. Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play critical, sometimes opposing roles, in multiple physiological and pathological processes and diseases. They signal to distinct Smad branches; activins signa...

    Authors: Szabina Szófia Szilágyi, Ayelet R. Amsalem-Zafran, Keren E. Shapira, Marcelo Ehrlich and Yoav I. Henis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:50
  13. Mosquito control is a crucial global issue for protecting the human community from mosquito-borne diseases. There is an urgent need for the development of selective and safe reagents for mosquito control. Flav...

    Authors: Kazue Inaba, Kana Ebihara, Miki Senda, Ryunosuke Yoshino, Chisako Sakuma, Kotaro Koiwai, Daisuke Takaya, Chiduru Watanabe, Akira Watanabe, Yusuke Kawashima, Kaori Fukuzawa, Riyo Imamura, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takayoshi Okabe, Nozomi Uemura, Shinji Kasai…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:43
  14. The morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are distributed worldwide and produce economically important crops, medicinal herbs, and ornamentals. Members of this family are diverse in morphological characteristics an...

    Authors: Yanxiang Lin, Pan Li, Yuchan Zhang, Delara Akhter, Ronghui Pan, Zhixi Fu, Mingqing Huang, Xiaobo Li and Yanlei Feng
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:49
  15. To localize sound sources accurately in a reverberant environment, human binaural hearing strongly favors analyzing the initial wave front of sounds. Behavioral studies of this “precedence effect” have so far ...

    Authors: Kongyan Li, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Chloe H. K. Chan, Ambika Prasad Mishra and Jan W. H. Schnupp
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:48
  16. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a global leading cause of vision loss in older populations. Distinct from typical AMD, PCV is characterized by p...

    Authors: Kan Xing Wu, Natalie Jia Ying Yeo, Chun Yi Ng, Florence Wen Jing Chioh, Qiao Fan, Xianfeng Tian, Binxia Yang, Gunaseelan Narayanan, Hui Min Tay, Han Wei Hou, N. Ray Dunn, Xinyi Su, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung and Christine Cheung
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:47
  17. Resistance in malaria vectors to pyrethroids, the most widely used class of insecticides for malaria vector control, threatens the continued efficacy of vector control tools. Target-site resistance is an impor...

    Authors: Penelope A. Hancock, Amy Lynd, Antoinette Wiebe, Maria Devine, John Essandoh, Francis Wat’senga, Emile Z. Manzambi, Fiacre Agossa, Martin J. Donnelly, David Weetman and Catherine L. Moyes
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:46
  18. Base editors (BEs) display diverse applications in a variety of plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, maize, soybean, and cotton, where they have been used to mediate precise base pair conversions wi...

    Authors: Guanying Wang, Zhongping Xu, Fuqiu Wang, Yuefan Huang, Yanfeng Xin, Sijia Liang, Bo Li, Huan Si, Lin Sun, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao Ding, Xiangqian Zhu, Luo Chen, Lu Yu, Keith Lindsey, Xianlong Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:45
  19. Primary cilia are sensory organelles crucial for organ development. The pivotal structure of the primary cilia is a microtubule that is generated via tubulin polymerization reaction that occurs in the basal bo...

    Authors: Emi Hibino, Yusuke Ichiyama, Atsushi Tsukamura, Yosuke Senju, Takao Morimune, Masahito Ohji, Yoshihiro Maruo, Masaki Nishimura and Masaki Mori
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:42
  20. In sprouting angiogenesis, VEGFR2 level is regulated via a fine-tuned process involving various signaling pathways. Other than VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway, Wnt/ β-catenin signaling is also important in vascu...

    Authors: Yeaji Kim, Dong Young Kim, Haiying Zhang, Cho-Rong Bae, Daehyeon Seong, Yeomyung Kim, Jaewhan Song, Young-Myeong Kim and Young-Guen Kwon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:41
  21. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is present at high copy numbers in animal cells, and though characterized by a single haplotype in each individual due to maternal germline inheritance, deleterious mutations and inta...

    Authors: Lana Meshnik, Dan Bar-Yaacov, Dana Kasztan, Tali Neiger, Tal Cohen, Mor Kishner, Itay Valenci, Sara Dadon, Christopher J. Klein, Jeffery M. Vance, Yoram Nevo, Stephan Züchner, Ofer Ovadia, Dan Mishmar and Anat Ben-Zvi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:40
  22. Obesity leads to a decline in the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle, thereby reducing mobility and promoting obesity-associated health risks. Dietary intervention has been shown to be an important measure t...

    Authors: Wei Chen, Yushi Chen, Ruifan Wu, Guanqun Guo, Youhua Liu, Botao Zeng, Xing Liao, Yizhen Wang and Xinxia Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:39
  23. Most of the known genes required for developmental processes have been identified by genetic screens in a few well-studied model organisms, which have been considered representative of related species, and inf...

    Authors: Muhammad Salim Hakeemi, Salim Ansari, Matthias Teuscher, Matthias Weißkopf, Daniela Großmann, Tobias Kessel, Jürgen Dönitz, Janna Siemanowski, Xuebin Wan, Dorothea Schultheis, Manfred Frasch, Siegfried Roth, Michael Schoppmeier, Martin Klingler and Gregor Bucher
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:38
  24. Body mass estimation is of paramount importance for paleobiological studies, as body size influences numerous other biological parameters. In mammals, body mass has been traditionally estimated using regressio...

    Authors: Russell K. Engelman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:37

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:54

  25. The full catalog of satellite DNA (satDNA) within a same genome constitutes the satellitome. The Library Hypothesis predicts that satDNA in relative species reflects that in their common ancestor, but the evol...

    Authors: Juan Pedro M. Camacho, Josefa Cabrero, María Dolores López-León, María Martín-Peciña, Francisco Perfectti, Manuel A. Garrido-Ramos and Francisco J. Ruiz-Ruano
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:36

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:69

  26. Sex allocation is the distribution of resources to male or female reproduction. In hermaphrodites, this concerns an individual’s resource allocation to, for example, the production of male or female gametes. M...

    Authors: Jeremias N. Brand, Luke J. Harmon and Lukas Schärer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:35
  27. In insects, airborne chemical signals are mainly detected by two receptor families, odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). Functions of ORs have been intensively investigated in Diptera and Le...

    Authors: Xiao-Qing Hou, Dan-Dan Zhang, Daniel Powell, Hong-Lei Wang, Martin N. Andersson and Christer Löfstedt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:34
  28. The process of thrombus formation is thought to involve interactions between platelets and leukocytes. Leukocyte incorporation into growing thrombi has been well established in vivo, and a number of properties...

    Authors: Daria S. Morozova, Alexey A. Martyanov, Sergei I. Obydennyi, Julia-Jessica D. Korobkin, Alexey V. Sokolov, Ekaterina V. Shamova, Irina V. Gorudko, Anna L. Khoreva, Anna Shcherbina, Mikhail A. Panteleev and Anastasia N. Sveshnikova
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:32
  29. Biopesticides and transgenic crops based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are extensively used to control insect pests, but the rapid evolution of insect resistance seriously threatens their effectiveness. B...

    Authors: Dan Sun, Liuhong Zhu, Le Guo, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Neil Crickmore, Xuguo Zhou, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Zhaojiang Guo and Youjun Zhang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:33
  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Satyaprakash Pandey, Mona Hajikazemi, Theresa Zacheja, Stephanie Schalbetter, Matthew J. Neale, Jonathan Baxter, Victor Guryev, Andreas Hofmann, Dieter W. Heermann, Stefan A. Juranek and Katrin Paeschke
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:29

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2021 19:247

  31. The functional understanding of genetic interaction networks and cellular mechanisms governing health and disease requires the dissection, and multifaceted study, of discrete cell subtypes in developing and ad...

    Authors: Savannah J. Lusk, Andrew McKinney, Patrick J. Hunt, Paul G. Fahey, Jay Patel, Andersen Chang, Jenny J. Sun, Vena K. Martinez, Ping Jun Zhu, Jeremy R. Egbert, Genevera Allen, Xiaolong Jiang, Benjamin R. Arenkiel, Andreas S. Tolias, Mauro Costa-Mattioli and Russell S. Ray
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:28
  32. The evolution of the brain and its major neuropils in Panarthropoda (comprising Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora) remains enigmatic. As one of the closest relatives of arthropods, onychophorans are regar...

    Authors: Christine Martin, Henry Jahn, Mercedes Klein, Jörg U. Hammel, Paul A. Stevenson, Uwe Homberg and Georg Mayer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:26
  33. There is a need for functional genome-wide annotation of the protein-coding genes to get a deeper understanding of mammalian biology. Here, a new annotation strategy is introduced based on dimensionality reduc...

    Authors: Max Karlsson, Evelina Sjöstedt, Per Oksvold, Åsa Sivertsson, Jinrong Huang, María Bueno Álvez, Muhammad Arif, Xiangyu Li, Lin Lin, Jiaying Yu, Tao Ma, Fengping Xu, Peng Han, Hui Jiang, Adil Mardinoglu, Cheng Zhang…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:25
  34. A continued effort in neuroscience aims to understand the way brain circuits consisting of diverse neuronal types generate complex behavior following sensory input. A common feature of vertebrate visual system...

    Authors: Alexander L. Tesmer, Nicholas P. Fields and Estuardo Robles
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:24
  35. Scales are mineralised exoskeletal structures that are part of the dermal skeleton. Scales have been mostly lost during evolution of terrestrial vertebrates whilst bony fish have retained a mineralised dermal ...

    Authors: Dylan J. M. Bergen, Qiao Tong, Ankit Shukla, Elis Newham, Jan Zethof, Mischa Lundberg, Rebecca Ryan, Scott E. Youlten, Monika Frysz, Peter I. Croucher, Gert Flik, Rebecca J. Richardson, John P. Kemp, Chrissy L. Hammond and Juriaan R. Metz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:21
  36. Stem cells (SCs) in vertebrates typically reside in “stem cell niches” (SCNs), morphologically restricted tissue microenvironments that are important for SC survival and proliferation. SCNs are broadly defined...

    Authors: P. Martinez, L. Ballarin, A. V. Ereskovsky, E. Gazave, B. Hobmayer, L. Manni, E. Rottinger, S. G. Sprecher, S. Tiozzo, A. Varela-Coelho and B. Rinkevich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:23
  37. Epigenetic regulation relies on the activity of enzymes that use sentinel metabolites as cofactors to modify DNA or histone proteins. Thus, fluctuations in cellular metabolite levels have been reported to affe...

    Authors: Evelina Charidemou, Maria A. Tsiarli, Andria Theophanous, Vural Yilmaz, Chrysoula Pitsouli, Katerina Strati, Julian L. Griffin and Antonis Kirmizis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:22
  38. Africa is an important watershed in the genetic history of domestic cattle, as two lineages of modern cattle, Bos taurus and B. indicus, form distinct admixed cattle populations. Despite the predominant B. indicu...

    Authors: Taehyung Kwon, Kwondo Kim, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Samsun Sung, Seoae Cho, Choongwon Jeong, Olivier Hanotte and Heebal Kim
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:20

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2022 20:62

  39. The role of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their effect on metabolic health is complex. How dietary BCAA levels and their interaction with background nutrition affect health is unclear. Here, w...

    Authors: Samantha M. Solon-Biet, Lucy Griffiths, Sophie Fosh, David G. Le Couteur, Stephen J. Simpson and Alistair M. Senior
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:19
  40. Optogenetic tools allow precise manipulation of neuronal activity via genetically encoded light-sensitive proteins. Currently available optogenetic inhibitors are not suitable for prolonged use due to short-la...

    Authors: P. Kleis, E. Paschen, U. Häussler, Y. A. Bernal Sierra and C. A. Haas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:18
  41. Infectious diseases of farmed and wild animals pose a recurrent threat to food security and human health. The macrophage, a key component of the innate immune system, is the first line of defence against many ...

    Authors: Stephen Meek, Tom Watson, Lel Eory, Gus McFarlane, Felicity J. Wynne, Stephen McCleary, Laura E. M. Dunn, Emily M. Charlton, Chloe Craig, Barbara Shih, Tim Regan, Ryan Taylor, Linda Sutherland, Anton Gossner, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Sarah Fletcher…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:14
  42. Many named species as defined in current bacterial taxonomy correspond to species complexes. Uncertainties regarding the organization of their genetic diversity challenge research efforts. We utilized the Agrobac...

    Authors: Lin Chou, Yu-Chen Lin, Mindia Haryono, Mary Nia M. Santos, Shu-Ting Cho, Alexandra J. Weisberg, Chih-Feng Wu, Jeff H. Chang, Erh-Min Lai and Chih-Horng Kuo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:16
  43. Over 120 million mice and rats are used annually in research, conventionally housed in shoebox-sized cages that restrict natural behaviours (e.g. nesting and burrowing). This can reduce physical fitness, impai...

    Authors: Jessica Cait, Alissa Cait, R. Wilder Scott, Charlotte B. Winder and Georgia J. Mason
    Citation: BMC Biology 2022 20:15