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  1. In red blood cells, protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80 kDa protein that stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and anchors it to the plasma membrane through its FERM domain. While the expression pattern of 4.1R in mat...

    Authors: Eva Lospitao, Carmen M Pérez-Ferreiro, Altea Gosálbez, Miguel A Alonso and Isabel Correas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:51
  2. In recent years, the maturation of microarray technology has allowed the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns to identify tissue-specific and ubiquitously expressed ('housekeeping') genes. We have ...

    Authors: Zoltán Dezső, Yuri Nikolsky, Evgeny Sviridov, Weiwei Shi, Tatiana Serebriyskaya, Damir Dosymbekov, Andrej Bugrim, Eugene Rakhmatulin, Richard J Brennan, Alexey Guryanov, Kelly Li, Julie Blake, Raymond R Samaha and Tatiana Nikolskaya
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:49
  3. The mammary gland undergoes a sophisticated programme of developmental changes during pregnancy/lactation. However, little is known about processes involving initiation of apoptosis at involution following wea...

    Authors: Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefèvre and Kevin R Nicholas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:48
  4. Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demogr...

    Authors: Sofie Vandewoestijne, Nicolas Schtickzelle and Michel Baguette
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:46
  5. The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward,...

    Authors: Hong Shi, Hua Zhong, Yi Peng, Yong-Li Dong, Xue-Bin Qi, Feng Zhang, Lu-Fang Liu, Si-Jie Tan, Runlin Z Ma, Chun-Jie Xiao, R Spencer Wells, Li Jin and Bing Su
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:45
  6. Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have...

    Authors: Caroline Anselme, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Agnès Vallier, Carole Vincent-Monegat, Delphine Charif, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya and Abdelaziz Heddi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:43
  7. Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of ge...

    Authors: James H Thomas and Hugh M Robertson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:42
  8. Many insects jump by storing and releasing energy in elastic structures within their bodies. This allows them to release large amounts of energy in a very short time to jump at very high speeds. The fastest of...

    Authors: Malcolm Burrows, Stephen R Shaw and Gregory P Sutton
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:41
  9. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, otherwise known as prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc)...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi, Luisa Diomede, Mario Salmona and Alun Williams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:39
  10. In pathogens, certain genes encoding proteins that directly interact with host defences coevolve with their host and are subject to positive selection. In the lepidopteran host-wasp parasitoid system, one of t...

    Authors: Céline Serbielle, Shafinaz Chowdhury, Samuel Pichon, Stéphane Dupas, Jérôme Lesobre, Enrico O Purisima, Jean-Michel Drezen and Elisabeth Huguet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:38
  11. Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of ho...

    Authors: Bartosz Adamcio, Derya Sargin, Alicja Stradomska, Lucian Medrihan, Christoph Gertler, Fabian Theis, Mingyue Zhang, Michael Müller, Imam Hassouna, Kathrin Hannke, Swetlana Sperling, Konstantin Radyushkin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Lizzy Schulze, Anja Ronnenberg, Fred Wolf…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:37
  12. The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and mat...

    Authors: Uwe G Maier, Andrew Bozarth, Helena T Funk, Stefan Zauner, Stefan A Rensing, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber, Thomas Börner and Michael Tillich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:36
  13. Gene duplication provides opportunities for lineage diversification and evolution of developmental novelties. Duplicated genes generally either disappear by accumulation of mutations (nonfunctionalization), or...

    Authors: Susan Bassham, Cristian Cañestro and John H Postlethwait
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:35
  14. Vertebrate alpha (α)- and beta (β)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin cluster...

    Authors: Vidushi S Patel, Steven JB Cooper, Janine E Deakin, Bob Fulton, Tina Graves, Wesley C Warren, Richard K Wilson and Jennifer AM Graves
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:34
  15. Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are techn...

    Authors: Alexander Ziegler, Cornelius Faber, Susanne Mueller and Thomas Bartolomaeus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:33
  16. Periodic patterning of iterative structures is a fundamental process during embryonic organization and development. Studies have shown how gene networks are employed to pattern butterfly eyespots, fly bristles...

    Authors: Gareth J Fraser, Ryan F Bloomquist and J Todd Streelman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:32
  17. We have applied a high-throughput pyrosequencing technology for transcriptome profiling of Caenorhabditis elegans in its first larval stage. Using this approach, we have generated a large amount of data for expre...

    Authors: Heesun Shin, Martin Hirst, Matthew N Bainbridge, Vincent Magrini, Elaine Mardis, Donald G Moerman, Marco A Marra, David L Baillie and Steven JM Jones
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:30
  18. tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as an mRNA to rescue stalled ribosomes in eubacteria. Two unanswered questions about tmRNA function remain: how does tmRNA, lacking an anticodon, bypass the decoding machine...

    Authors: Mickey R Miller, David W Healey, Stephen G Robison, Jonathan D Dewey and Allen R Buskirk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:29
  19. Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive par...

    Authors: Olivier Duron, Didier Bouchon, Sébastien Boutin, Lawrence Bellamy, Liqin Zhou, Jan Engelstädter and Gregory D Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:27
  20. Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As...

    Authors: Gerd P Bienert, Michael Thorsen, Manuela D Schüssler, Henrik R Nilsson, Annemarie Wagner, Markus J Tamás and Thomas P Jahn
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:26
  21. New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister)...

    Authors: Jacob G Bundy, Jasmin K Sidhu, Faisal Rana, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Jodie F Wren, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan and Peter Kille
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:25
  22. The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whet...

    Authors: Alexei A Sharov, Geppino Falco, Yulan Piao, Suresh Poosala, Kevin G Becker, Alan B Zonderman, Dan L Longo, David Schlessinger and Minoru SH Ko
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:24
  23. Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geogra...

    Authors: Bridget J Piculell, Jason D Hoeksema and John N Thompson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:23
  24. Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes diff...

    Authors: Karen L Carleton, Tyrone C Spady, J Todd Streelman, Michael R Kidd, William N McFarland and Ellis R Loew
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:22
  25. Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera) represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, L...

    Authors: Wenhui Nie, Beiyuan Fu, Patricia CM O'Brien, Jinhuan Wang, Weiting Su, Alongkoad Tanomtong, Vitaly Volobouev, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith and Fengtang Yang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:18
  26. Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redun...

    Authors: Lex Flagel, Joshua Udall, Dan Nettleton and Jonathan Wendel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:16
  27. The proneural proteins Mash1 and Ngn2 are key cell autonomous regulators of neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system, yet little is known about the molecular pathways regulated by these transcripti...

    Authors: Julia M Gohlke, Olivier Armant, Frederick M Parham, Marjolein V Smith, Celine Zimmer, Diogo S Castro, Laurent Nguyen, Joel S Parker, Gerard Gradwohl, Christopher J Portier and François Guillemot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:15
  28. Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyrax...

    Authors: Robert J Asher and Thomas Lehmann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:14
  29. In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP), the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP) variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit ...

    Authors: Hui-wang Ai, Scott G Olenych, Peter Wong, Michael W Davidson and Robert E Campbell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:13
  30. Double-stranded (ds) RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general ...

    Authors: Stefan Rothenburg, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Madhusudan Dey, Thomas E Dever and Loubna Tazi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:12
  31. The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim ...

    Authors: Line V Ugelvig, Falko P Drijfhout, Daniel JC Kronauer, Jacobus J Boomsma, Jes S Pedersen and Sylvia Cremer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:11

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2018 16:128

  32. Adaptive radiation, the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity from a common ancestor, is a central concept in evolutionary biology and characterizes the evolutionary histories of many groups of orga...

    Authors: Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Kerry A Deere, Graham J Slater, Colleen Begg, Keith Begg, Lon Grassman, Mauro Lucherini, Geraldine Veron and Robert K Wayne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:10
  33. In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, ...

    Authors: Iris Nesher, Sima Barhoom and Amir Sharon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:9
  34. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), otherwise known as the prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded isoform (PrPSc). ...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi and Alun Williams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:8
  35. The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave h...

    Authors: Carlos Villacorta, Damià Jaume, Pedro Oromí and Carlos Juan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:7
  36. Determining an absolute timescale for avian evolutionary history has proven contentious. The two sources of information available, paleontological data and inference from extant molecular genetic sequences (co...

    Authors: Joseph W Brown, Joshua S Rest, Jaime García-Moreno, Michael D Sorenson and David P Mindell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:6
  37. The heat shock protein Hsp70 promotes inducible thermotolerance in nearly every organism examined to date. Hsp70 interacts with a network of other stress-response proteins, and dissecting the relative roles of...

    Authors: Brian R Bettencourt, Catherine C Hogan, Mario Nimali and Brian W Drohan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:5
  38. To study the organization and interaction with the fusion domain (or fusion peptide, FP) of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of influenza virus envelope glycoprotein for its role in membrane fusion which is also...

    Authors: Ding-Kwo Chang, Shu-Fang Cheng, Eric Aseen B Kantchev, Chi-Hui Lin and Yu-Tsan Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:2
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