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  1. The pygopus gene of Drosophila encodes an essential component of the Armadillo (β-catenin) transcription factor complex of canonical Wnt signaling. To better understand the functions of Pygopus-mediated canonical...

    Authors: Kristopher R Schwab, Larry T Patterson, Heather A Hartman, Ni Song, Richard A Lang, Xinhua Lin and S Steven Potter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:15
  2. Bacterial motility is a crucial factor in the colonization of natural environments. Escherichia coli has two flagella-driven motility types: swimming and swarming. Swimming motility consists of individual cell mo...

    Authors: José-María Gómez-Gómez, Candela Manfredi, Juan-Carlos Alonso and Jesús Blázquez
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:14
  3. Balancing selection operating for long evolutionary periods at a locus is characterized by the maintenance of distinct alleles because of a heterozygote or rare-allele advantage. The loci under balancing selec...

    Authors: Bora E Baysal, Elizabeth C Lawrence and Robert E Ferrell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:12
  4. Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is ...

    Authors: Hoang Kim Phuc, Morten H Andreasen, Rosemary S Burton, Céline Vass, Matthew J Epton, Gavin Pape, Guoliang Fu, Kirsty C Condon, Sarah Scaife, Christl A Donnelly, Paul G Coleman, Helen White-Cooper and Luke Alphey
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:11
  5. The Ras-related GTPase, Rheb, regulates the growth of animal cells. Genetic and biochemical tests place Rheb upstream of the target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, and downstream of the tuberous sclerosis c...

    Authors: Dayna J Hall, Savraj S Grewal, Aida Flor A de la Cruz and Bruce A Edgar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:10
  6. Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describ...

    Authors: Joanna K Bentley, Zoe Veneti, Joseph Heraty and Gregory DD Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:9
  7. The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science ...

    Authors: J Martin Collinson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:8
  8. Despite advances in imaging techniques, real-time visualization of the structure and dynamics of tissues and organs inside small living animals has remained elusive. Recently, we have been using synchrotron x-...

    Authors: John J Socha, Mark W Westneat, Jon F Harrison, James S Waters and Wah-Keat Lee
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:6
  9. Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are a species-rich group of primates that have attracted considerable attention from both primatologists and evolutionary biologists. The complex speciation pattern has made the ...

    Authors: Jinchuan Xing, Hui Wang, Yuhua Zhang, David A Ray, Anthony J Tosi, Todd R Disotell and Mark A Batzer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:5
  10. Transcription of large numbers of non-coding RNAs originating from intronic regions of human genes has been recently reported, but mechanisms governing their biosynthesis and biological functions are largely u...

    Authors: Rodrigo Louro, Helder I Nakaya, Paulo P Amaral, Fernanda Festa, Mari C Sogayar, Aline M da Silva, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida and Eduardo M Reis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:4
  11. The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in ...

    Authors: Claude Lemieux, Christian Otis and Monique Turmel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:2
  12. Embryos of taxonomically different vertebrates are thought to pass through a stage in which they resemble one another morphologically. This "vertebrate phylotypic stage" may represent the basic vertebrate body...

    Authors: Naoki Irie and Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:1
  13. TBLASTN is a mode of operation for BLAST that aligns protein sequences to a nucleotide database translated in all six frames. We present the first description of the modern implementation of TBLASTN, focusing ...

    Authors: E Michael Gertz, Yi-Kuo Yu, Richa Agarwala, Alejandro A Schäffer and Stephen F Altschul
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:41
  14. Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusk...

    Authors: Daniel J Jackson, Carmel McDougall, Kathryn Green, Fiona Simpson, Gert Wörheide and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:40
  15. Present protein interaction network data sets include only interactions among subsets of the proteins in an organism. Previously this has been ignored, but in principle any global network analysis that only lo...

    Authors: Eric de Silva, Thomas Thorne, Piers Ingram, Ino Agrafioti, Jonathan Swire, Carsten Wiuf and Michael PH Stumpf
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:39
  16. Several lines of evidence suggest that codon usage in the Drosophila saltans and D. willistoni lineages has shifted towards a less frequent use of GC-ending codons. Introns in these lineages show a parallel shift...

    Authors: Nadia D Singh, Peter F Arndt and Dmitri A Petrov
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:37
  17. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known as a powerful regulator of white blood cell proliferation and differentiation in mammals. We, and others, have shown that G-CSF is effective in treating c...

    Authors: Armin Schneider, Rainer Wysocki, Claudia Pitzer, Carola Krüger, Rico Laage, Stefan Schwab, Alfred Bach and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:36
  18. Fertilization restores the diploid state and begins the process by which the single-cell oocyte is converted into a polarized, multicellular organism. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, two of the earliest ...

    Authors: Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus and James W Dennis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:35
  19. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA...

    Authors: Bert Ely, Jamie Lee Wilson, Fatimah Jackson and Bruce A Jackson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:34

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:13

  20. Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorph...

    Authors: Katrin Juling, Hermann Schwarzenbacher, John L Williams and Ruedi Fries
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:33
  21. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite ext...

    Authors: Danny W Rice and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:31
  22. Mean phosphorous:nitrogen (P:N) ratios and relationships of P:N ratios with the growth rate of organisms indicate a surprising similarity among and within microbial species, plants, and insect herbivores. To r...

    Authors: Tatiana V Karpinets, Duncan J Greenwood, Carl E Sams and John T Ammons
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:30
  23. Protein translocation to the proper cellular destination may be guided by various classes of sorting signals recognizable in the primary sequence. Detection in some genomes, but not others, may reveal sorting ...

    Authors: Daniel H Haft, Ian T Paulsen, Naomi Ward and Jeremy D Selengut
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:29
  24. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) offer a renewable source of a wide range of cell types for use in research and cell-based therapies to treat disease. Inspection of protein markers provides important informat...

    Authors: Richard Josephson, Gregory Sykes, Ying Liu, Carol Ording, Weining Xu, Xianmin Zeng, Soojung Shin, Jeanne Loring, Anirban Maitra, Mahendra S Rao and Jonathan M Auerbach
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:28
  25. Congenital aniridia caused by heterozygousity at the PAX6 locus is associated with ocular surface disease including keratopathy. It is not clear whether the keratopathy is a direct result of reduced PAX6 gene dos...

    Authors: Lucy J Leiper, Petr Walczysko, Romana Kucerova, Jingxing Ou, Lynne J Shanley, Diane Lawson, John V Forrester, Colin D McCaig, Min Zhao and J Martin Collinson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:27
  26. The Caenorhabditis elegans male exhibits a stereotypic behavioral pattern when attempting to mate. This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule inse...

    Authors: Gary Schindelman, Allyson J Whittaker, Jian Yuan Thum, Shahla Gharib and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:26
  27. A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 h...

    Authors: Peter Sörös, Nikolaus Michael, Melanie Tollkötter and Bettina Pfleiderer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:25
  28. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current m...

    Authors: Michelle S Teng, Martijn PJ Dekkers, Bee Ling Ng, Suzanne Rademakers, Gert Jansen, Andrew G Fraser and John McCafferty
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:22
  29. Efficient host exploitation by parasites is frequently likely to depend on cooperative behaviour. Under these conditions, mixed-strain infections are predicted to show lower virulence (host mortality) than are...

    Authors: Freya Harrison, Lucy E Browning, Michiel Vos and Angus Buckling
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:21
  30. DBA/2J (D2) mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve...

    Authors: Michael G Anderson, Richard T Libby, Mao Mao, Ioan M Cosma, Larry A Wilson, Richard S Smith and Simon WM John
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:20
  31. The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from o...

    Authors: C Adam Middleton, Upendra Nongthomba, Katherine Parry, Sean T Sweeney, John C Sparrow and Christopher JH Elliott
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:17
  32. Evolution of the deuterostome lineage was accompanied by an increase in systematic complexity especially with regard to highly specialized tissues and organs. Based on the observation of an increased number of...

    Authors: Dirk Steinke, Simone Hoegg, Henner Brinkmann and Axel Meyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:16
  33. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30%) and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex a...

    Authors: Roney S Coimbra, Veronique Voisin, Antoine B de Saizieu, Raija LP Lindberg, Matthias Wittwer, David Leppert and Stephen L Leib
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:15
  34. The RB1 gene was the first tumor suppressor gene cloned from humans by studying genetic lesions in families with retinoblastoma. Children who inherit one defective copy of the RB1 gene have an increased susceptib...

    Authors: Stacy L Donovan, Brett Schweers, Rodrigo Martins, Dianna Johnson and Michael A Dyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:14
  35. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a key regulator of the immune system and an important factor in the development of allergic hypersensitivity. Together with interleukin 13 (IL-13), IL-4 plays an important role in exace...

    Authors: Michael Kraich, Markus Klein, Edwin Patiño, Henning Harrer, Joachim Nickel, Walter Sebald and Thomas D Mueller
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:13
  36. The view that gene flow between related animal species is rare and evolutionarily unimportant largely antedates sensitive molecular techniques. Here we use DNA sequencing to investigate a pair of morphological...

    Authors: Vanessa Bull, Margarita Beltrán, Chris D Jiggins, W Owen McMillan, Eldredge Bermingham and James Mallet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:11
  37. Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and...

    Authors: Hannah Rajasingh, Leiv Øyehaug, Dag Inge Våge and Stig W Omholt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:10
  38. Polycomb-group genes (PcG) encode proteins that maintain homeotic (Hox) gene repression throughout development. Conversely, trithorax-group (trxG) genes encode positive factors required for maintenance of long t...

    Authors: Juliette Salvaing, Martine Decoville, Emmanuèle Mouchel-Vielh, Marianne Bussière, Anne Daulny, Lidiya Boldyreva, Igor Zhimulev, Daniel Locker and Frédérique Peronnet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:9
  39. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, r...

    Authors: Susana Peciña, Jay Schulkin and Kent C Berridge
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:8
  40. Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors wh...

    Authors: Tod R Clapp, Kathryn F Medler, Sami Damak, Robert F Margolskee and Sue C Kinnamon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:7
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