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  1. Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognition of human subjects in the clinical setting by as yet unknown mechanisms. We developed a mouse model of robust cognitive improvement by EPO to obtain the first clues of ho...

    Authors: Bartosz Adamcio, Derya Sargin, Alicja Stradomska, Lucian Medrihan, Christoph Gertler, Fabian Theis, Mingyue Zhang, Michael Müller, Imam Hassouna, Kathrin Hannke, Swetlana Sperling, Konstantin Radyushkin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Lizzy Schulze, Anja Ronnenberg, Fred Wolf…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:37
  2. The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and mat...

    Authors: Uwe G Maier, Andrew Bozarth, Helena T Funk, Stefan Zauner, Stefan A Rensing, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber, Thomas Börner and Michael Tillich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:36
  3. Gene duplication provides opportunities for lineage diversification and evolution of developmental novelties. Duplicated genes generally either disappear by accumulation of mutations (nonfunctionalization), or...

    Authors: Susan Bassham, Cristian Cañestro and John H Postlethwait
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:35
  4. Vertebrate alpha (α)- and beta (β)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin cluster...

    Authors: Vidushi S Patel, Steven JB Cooper, Janine E Deakin, Bob Fulton, Tina Graves, Wesley C Warren, Richard K Wilson and Jennifer AM Graves
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:34
  5. Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are techn...

    Authors: Alexander Ziegler, Cornelius Faber, Susanne Mueller and Thomas Bartolomaeus
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:33
  6. Periodic patterning of iterative structures is a fundamental process during embryonic organization and development. Studies have shown how gene networks are employed to pattern butterfly eyespots, fly bristles...

    Authors: Gareth J Fraser, Ryan F Bloomquist and J Todd Streelman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:32
  7. We have applied a high-throughput pyrosequencing technology for transcriptome profiling of Caenorhabditis elegans in its first larval stage. Using this approach, we have generated a large amount of data for expre...

    Authors: Heesun Shin, Martin Hirst, Matthew N Bainbridge, Vincent Magrini, Elaine Mardis, Donald G Moerman, Marco A Marra, David L Baillie and Steven JM Jones
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:30
  8. tmRNA acts first as a tRNA and then as an mRNA to rescue stalled ribosomes in eubacteria. Two unanswered questions about tmRNA function remain: how does tmRNA, lacking an anticodon, bypass the decoding machine...

    Authors: Mickey R Miller, David W Healey, Stephen G Robison, Jonathan D Dewey and Allen R Buskirk
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:29
  9. Inherited bacteria have come to be recognised as important components of arthropod biology. In addition to mutualistic symbioses, a range of other inherited bacteria are known to act either as reproductive par...

    Authors: Olivier Duron, Didier Bouchon, Sébastien Boutin, Lawrence Bellamy, Liqin Zhou, Jan Engelstädter and Gregory D Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:27
  10. Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As...

    Authors: Gerd P Bienert, Michael Thorsen, Manuela D Schüssler, Henrik R Nilsson, Annemarie Wagner, Markus J Tamás and Thomas P Jahn
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:26
  11. New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister)...

    Authors: Jacob G Bundy, Jasmin K Sidhu, Faisal Rana, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Jodie F Wren, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan and Peter Kille
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:25
  12. The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whet...

    Authors: Alexei A Sharov, Geppino Falco, Yulan Piao, Suresh Poosala, Kevin G Becker, Alan B Zonderman, Dan L Longo, David Schlessinger and Minoru SH Ko
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:24
  13. Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geogra...

    Authors: Bridget J Piculell, Jason D Hoeksema and John N Thompson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:23
  14. Cichlid fishes have radiated into hundreds of species in the Great Lakes of Africa. Brightly colored males display on leks and vie to be chosen by females as mates. Strong discrimination by females causes diff...

    Authors: Karen L Carleton, Tyrone C Spady, J Todd Streelman, Michael R Kidd, William N McFarland and Ellis R Loew
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:22
  15. Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera) represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, L...

    Authors: Wenhui Nie, Beiyuan Fu, Patricia CM O'Brien, Jinhuan Wang, Weiting Su, Alongkoad Tanomtong, Vitaly Volobouev, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith and Fengtang Yang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:18
  16. Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redun...

    Authors: Lex Flagel, Joshua Udall, Dan Nettleton and Jonathan Wendel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:16
  17. The proneural proteins Mash1 and Ngn2 are key cell autonomous regulators of neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system, yet little is known about the molecular pathways regulated by these transcripti...

    Authors: Julia M Gohlke, Olivier Armant, Frederick M Parham, Marjolein V Smith, Celine Zimmer, Diogo S Castro, Laurent Nguyen, Joel S Parker, Gerard Gradwohl, Christopher J Portier and François Guillemot
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:15
  18. Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyrax...

    Authors: Robert J Asher and Thomas Lehmann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:14
  19. In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP), the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP) variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit ...

    Authors: Hui-wang Ai, Scott G Olenych, Peter Wong, Michael W Davidson and Robert E Campbell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:13
  20. Double-stranded (ds) RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general ...

    Authors: Stefan Rothenburg, Nikolaus Deigendesch, Madhusudan Dey, Thomas E Dever and Loubna Tazi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:12
  21. The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim ...

    Authors: Line V Ugelvig, Falko P Drijfhout, Daniel JC Kronauer, Jacobus J Boomsma, Jes S Pedersen and Sylvia Cremer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:11

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2018 16:128

  22. Adaptive radiation, the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity from a common ancestor, is a central concept in evolutionary biology and characterizes the evolutionary histories of many groups of orga...

    Authors: Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Kerry A Deere, Graham J Slater, Colleen Begg, Keith Begg, Lon Grassman, Mauro Lucherini, Geraldine Veron and Robert K Wayne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:10
  23. In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, ...

    Authors: Iris Nesher, Sima Barhoom and Amir Sharon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:9
  24. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), otherwise known as the prion diseases, occur following the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to an alternatively folded isoform (PrPSc). ...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Mourad Tayebi and Alun Williams
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:8
  25. The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave h...

    Authors: Carlos Villacorta, Damià Jaume, Pedro Oromí and Carlos Juan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:7
  26. Determining an absolute timescale for avian evolutionary history has proven contentious. The two sources of information available, paleontological data and inference from extant molecular genetic sequences (co...

    Authors: Joseph W Brown, Joshua S Rest, Jaime García-Moreno, Michael D Sorenson and David P Mindell
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:6
  27. The heat shock protein Hsp70 promotes inducible thermotolerance in nearly every organism examined to date. Hsp70 interacts with a network of other stress-response proteins, and dissecting the relative roles of...

    Authors: Brian R Bettencourt, Catherine C Hogan, Mario Nimali and Brian W Drohan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:5
  28. To study the organization and interaction with the fusion domain (or fusion peptide, FP) of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of influenza virus envelope glycoprotein for its role in membrane fusion which is also...

    Authors: Ding-Kwo Chang, Shu-Fang Cheng, Eric Aseen B Kantchev, Chi-Hui Lin and Yu-Tsan Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:2
  29. O-fucosyltransferase1 (OFUT1) is a conserved ER protein essential for Notch signaling. OFUT1 glycosylates EGF domains, which can then be further modified by the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase Fringe. OFUT1 also...

    Authors: Tetsuya Okajima, BVVG Reddy, Tsukasa Matsuda and Kenneth D Irvine
    Citation: BMC Biology 2008 6:1
  30. A central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispe...

    Authors: David M Brown, Rick A Brenneman, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John P Pollinger, Borja Milá, Nicholas J Georgiadis, Edward E Louis Jr, Gregory F Grether, David K Jacobs and Robert K Wayne
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:57
  31. Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and ...

    Authors: Dalial Freitak, Christopher W Wheat, David G Heckel and Heiko Vogel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:56
  32. The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded l...

    Authors: Joel R McNeal, Kathiravetpilla Arumugunathan, Jennifer V Kuehl, Jeffrey L Boore and Claude W dePamphilis
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:55
  33. The urine of freshwater fish species investigated so far acts as a vehicle for reproductive pheromones affecting the behaviour and physiology of the opposite sex. However, the role of urinary pheromones in int...

    Authors: Eduardo N Barata, Peter C Hubbard, Olinda G Almeida, António Miranda and Adelino VM Canário
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:54
  34. Cell shape changes during cytokinesis and chemotaxis require regulation of the actin cytoskeletal network. Dynacortin, an actin cross-linking protein, localizes to the cell cortex and contributes to cortical r...

    Authors: Cathryn Kabacoff, Yuan Xiong, Runa Musib, Elizabeth M Reichl, John Kim, Pablo A Iglesias and Douglas N Robinson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:53
  35. In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the pre...

    Authors: Hidehiko Okamoto, Henning Stracke, Bernhard Ross, Ryusuke Kakigi and Christo Pantev
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:52
  36. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species...

    Authors: Walter Salzburger, Ingo Braasch and Axel Meyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:51
  37. Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function ...

    Authors: Heike Feldhaar, Josef Straka, Markus Krischke, Kristina Berthold, Sascha Stoll, Martin J Mueller and Roy Gross
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:48
  38. The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an atte...

    Authors: Peter WH Holland, H Anne F Booth and Elspeth A Bruford
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:47
  39. Direct visualization of data sets in the context of biochemical network drawings is one of the most appealing approaches in the field of data evaluation within systems biology. One important type of informatio...

    Authors: Stephan Noack, Aljoscha Wahl, Ermir Qeli and Wolfgang Wiechert
    Citation: BMC Biology 2007 5:46