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  1. The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at wh...

    Authors: Chunxiang Li, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, Chengzhi Xie, Dawei Cai, Wenying Li, Victor H Mair, Zhi Xu, Quanchao Zhang, Idelisi Abuduresule, Li Jin, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:15
  2. Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutations increase longevity and much evidence suggests that they do so at least partly via changes in metabolism. However, up until now there has been no systematic investigation of h...

    Authors: Silke Fuchs, Jacob G Bundy, Sarah K Davies, Jonathan M Viney, Jonathan S Swire and Armand M Leroi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:14
  3. Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or de...

    Authors: Christopher D Dardick, Ann M Callahan, Remo Chiozzotto, Robert J Schaffer, M Claudia Piagnani and Ralph Scorza
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:13
  4. Endothelial cell-cell junctions maintain endothelial integrity and regulate vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis. Cell-cell junctions are usually depicted with a linear morphology along the boundaries betwee...

    Authors: Jaime Millán, Robert J Cain, Natalia Reglero-Real, Carolina Bigarella, Beatriz Marcos-Ramiro, Laura Fernández-Martín, Isabel Correas and Anne J Ridley
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:11
  5. Surveys of ontogenetic development of hearing and sound production in fish are scarce, and the ontogenetic development of acoustic communication has been investigated in only two fish species so far. Studies o...

    Authors: Walter Lechner, Lidia Eva Wysocki and Friedrich Ladich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:10
  6. Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some linea...

    Authors: Stephen H Montgomery, Isabella Capellini, Robert A Barton and Nicholas I Mundy
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:9
  7. While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of b...

    Authors: Thomas A Stewart and R Craig Albertson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:8
  8. Previous studies have linked neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE protein to the bone morphogenic protein signaling pathway and its effect on p38 mediated apoptosis of neural progenitor cells via the XIAP-Ta...

    Authors: Nicholas Matluk, Jennifer A Rochira, Aldona Karaczyn, Tamara Adams and Joseph M Verdi
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:7
  9. Folate (vitamin B9) is essential for cellular proliferation as it is involved in the biosynthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and s-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). The link between folate depletion and...

    Authors: Gaia Bistulfi, Erika VanDette, Sei-Ichi Matsui and Dominic J Smiraglia
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:6
  10. Dedifferentiation occurs naturally in mature cell types during epimorphic regeneration in fish and some amphibians. Dedifferentiation also occurs in the induction of pluripotent stem cells when a set of transc...

    Authors: Bea Christen, Vanesa Robles, Marina Raya, Ida Paramonov and Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:5
  11. LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neurona...

    Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Claire Larroux, Daniel R Lu, Kareshma Mohanty, Jarrod Chapman, Bernard M Degnan and Daniel S Rokhsar
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:4
  12. Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups o...

    Authors: Thomas J Givnish
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:3
  13. The transcription/export complex is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man and is required for coupled transcription elongation and nuclear export of mRNAs. FMIP(Fms interacting protein) is a member of the...

    Authors: Annalisa Mancini, Susanne C Niemann-Seyde, Rüdiger Pankow, Omar El Bounkari, Sabine Klebba-Färber, Alexandra Koch, Ewa Jaworska, Elaine Spooncer, Achim D Gruber, Anthony D Whetton and Teruko Tamura
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:1
  14. Obesity is a chronic low inflammatory state. In the obesity condition the white adipose tissue (WAT) is massively infiltrated with monocytes/macrophages, and the nature of the signals recruiting these inflamma...

    Authors: Margherita Maffei, Marcella Funicello, Teresa Vottari, Olimpia Gamucci, Mario Costa, Simonetta Lisi, Alessandro Viegi, Osele Ciampi, Giuseppe Bardi, Paolo Vitti, Aldo Pinchera and Ferruccio Santini
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:87
  15. Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular...

    Authors: Deanna Dryhurst, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Kristie L Rose, José M Eirín-López, Darin McDonald, Begonia Silva-Moreno, Nik Veldhoen, Caren C Helbing, Michael J Hendzel, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Donald F Hunt and Juan Ausió
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:86
  16. The dystrophin glycoprotein complex is disrupted in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other neuromuscular diseases. The principal heterodimeric partner of dystrophin at the heart of the dystrophin glycoprot...

    Authors: Sabrina V Böhm, Panayiotis Constantinou, Sipin Tan, Hong Jin and Roland G Roberts
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:85
  17. Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent d...

    Authors: Matthew Parks, Richard Cronn and Aaron Liston
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:84
  18. Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand t...

    Authors: Nandini Rao, Deepali Jhamb, Derek J Milner, Bingbing Li, Fengyu Song, Mu Wang, S Randal Voss, Mathew Palakal, Michael W King, Behnaz Saranjami, Holly LD Nye, Jo Ann Cameron and David L Stocum
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:83
  19. The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested...

    Authors: Alexandre Antonelli
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:82
  20. Bacteria-triggered signaling events in infected host cells are key elements in shaping the host response to pathogens. Within the eukaryotic cell, signaling complexes are spatially organized. However, the inve...

    Authors: Alexander Buntru, Timo Zimmermann and Christof R Hauck
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:81
  21. Subjective tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of any physical source. It has been shown that tinnitus is associated with hyperactivity of the auditory cortices. Accompanying this hyperactivit...

    Authors: Winfried Schlee, Nadia Mueller, Thomas Hartmann, Julian Keil, Isabel Lorenz and Nathan Weisz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:80
  22. Early microbial colonization of the gut reduces the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent population studies reveal that childhood hygiene is a significant risk factor for devel...

    Authors: Imke E Mulder, Bettina Schmidt, Christopher R Stokes, Marie Lewis, Mick Bailey, Rustam I Aminov, James I Prosser, Bhupinder P Gill, John R Pluske, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Corran C Musk and Denise Kelly
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:79
  23. Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekee...

    Authors: Talima Pearson, Philip Giffard, Stephen Beckstrom-Sternberg, Raymond Auerbach, Heidie Hornstra, Apichai Tuanyok, Erin P Price, Mindy B Glass, Benjamin Leadem, James S Beckstrom-Sternberg, Gerard J Allan, Jeffrey T Foster, David M Wagner, Richard T Okinaka, Siew Hoon Sim, Ofori Pearson…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:78
  24. Basoapical polarity in epithelia is critical for proper tissue function, and control of proliferation and survival. Cell culture models that recapitulate epithelial tissue architecture are invaluable to unrave...

    Authors: Cedric Plachot, Lesley S Chaboub, Hibret A Adissu, Lei Wang, Albert Urazaev, Jennifer Sturgis, Elikplimi K Asem and Sophie A Lelièvre
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:77
  25. The signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs) to the membrane bound Sec ...

    Authors: Miryana Mircheva, Diana Boy, Benjamin Weiche, Friederike Hucke, Peter Graumann and Hans-Georg Koch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:76
  26. Ubiquitin regulates a myriad of important cellular processes through covalent attachment to its substrates. A classic role for ubiquitin is to flag proteins for destruction by the proteasome. Recent studies in...

    Authors: Chang Liu, Dewald van Dyk, Yue Li, Brenda Andrews and Hai Rao
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:75
  27. Given its sequenced genome and efficient systemic RNA interference response, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a model organism well suited for reverse genetics. Even so, there is a pressing need for fo...

    Authors: Jochen Trauner, Johannes Schinko, Marcé D Lorenzen, Teresa D Shippy, Ernst A Wimmer, Richard W Beeman, Martin Klingler, Gregor Bucher and Susan J Brown
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:73
  28. Recent advances in sequencing strategies make possible unprecedented depth and scale of sampling for molecular detection of microbial diversity. Two major paradigm-shifting discoveries include the detection of...

    Authors: Thorsten Stoeck, Anke Behnke, Richard Christen, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Maria J Rodriguez-Mora, Andrei Chistoserdov, William Orsi and Virginia P Edgcomb
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:72
  29. Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically. Some invasive ants take sociality to an extreme, forming geograph...

    Authors: Miriam Brandt, Ellen van Wilgenburg, Robert Sulc, Kenneth J Shea and Neil D Tsutsui
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:71
  30. We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant...

    Authors: Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Heather N Richardson, Katerina Kechris, Richard L Bell, Norbert Hübner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:70
  31. Different iron transport systems evolved in Gram-negative bacteria during evolution. Most of the transport systems depend on outer membrane localized TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), a periplasma-facing To...

    Authors: Oliver Mirus, Sascha Strauss, Kerstin Nicolaisen, Arndt von Haeseler and Enrico Schleiff
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:68
  32. Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA) is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage...

    Authors: Karen AM Kennedy, Tammy Porter, Virja Mehta, Scott D Ryan, Feodor Price, Vian Peshdary, Christina Karamboulas, Josée Savage, Thomas A Drysdale, Shun-Cheng Li, Steffany AL Bennett and Ilona S Skerjanc
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:67
  33. Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G...

    Authors: Karen K Hill, Gary Xie, Brian T Foley, Theresa J Smith, Amy C Munk, David Bruce, Leonard A Smith, Thomas S Brettin and John C Detter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:66
  34. Animals utilize a wide variety of tactics to attract reproductive partners. Behavioral experiments often indicate an important role for visual cues in fish, but their molecular basis remains almost entirely un...

    Authors: Shoji Fukamachi, Masato Kinoshita, Kouichi Aizawa, Shoji Oda, Axel Meyer and Hiroshi Mitani
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:64
  35. The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we inves...

    Authors: Tina Stoelzle, Patrick Schwarb, Andreas Trumpp and Nancy E Hynes
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:63
  36. Metastatic neoplasias are characterized by excessive cell proliferation and disruptions to apico-basal cell polarity and tissue architecture. Understanding how alterations in cell polarity can impact upon tumo...

    Authors: Gregory R Leong, Karen R Goulding, Nancy Amin, Helena E Richardson and Anthony M Brumby
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:62
  37. Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization pro...

    Authors: Alejandro Zúñiga, Christian Hödar, Patricia Hanna, Freddy Ibáñez, Pablo Moreno, Rodrigo Pulgar, Luis Pastenes, Mauricio González and Verónica Cambiazo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:61
  38. Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the pro...

    Authors: Terry W Snell, Tonya L Shearer, Hilary A Smith, Julia Kubanek, Kristin E Gribble and David B Mark Welch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:60
  39. Transforming growth factor (TGF)β superfamily members transduce signals by oligomerizing two classes of serine/threonine kinase receptors, termed type I and type II. In contrast to the large number of ligands ...

    Authors: Kai Heinecke, Axel Seher, Werner Schmitz, Thomas D Mueller, Walter Sebald and Joachim Nickel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:59
  40. The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature an...

    Authors: Christian Seibel, Gabriela Gremel, Roberto do Nascimento Silva, André Schuster, Christian P Kubicek and Monika Schmoll
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:58
  41. The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick...

    Authors: Agustín Estrada-Peña, Victoria Naranjo, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse, Atilio J Mangold, Katherine M Kocan and José de la Fuente
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:57
  42. We have recently shown that δ-opioid receptors (DORs) play an important role in neuroprotection from hypoxic injury via the regulation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and cytochrome c release. S...

    Authors: Yilin Yang, Xiwei Xia, Yi Zhang, Qiang Wang, Lu Li, Guanghua Luo and Ying Xia
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:55
  43. Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised t...

    Authors: Nathan Pike and Rachel Kingcombe
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:54
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