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  1. One of the key genes that regulate human brain size, MCPH1 has evolved under strong Darwinian positive selection during the evolution of primates. During this evolution, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences ...

    Authors: Lei Shi, Ming Li, Qiang Lin, Xuebin Qi and Bing Su
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:62
  2. The intestinal mucus layer plays a key role in the maintenance of host-microbiota homeostasis. To document the crosstalk between the host and microbiota, we used gnotobiotic models to study the influence of tw...

    Authors: Laura Wrzosek, Sylvie Miquel, Marie-Louise Noordine, Stephan Bouet, Marie Joncquel Chevalier-Curt, Véronique Robert, Catherine Philippe, Chantal Bridonneau, Claire Cherbuy, Catherine Robbe-Masselot, Philippe Langella and Muriel Thomas
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:61
  3. Pluripotency is a fundamental property of early mammalian development but it is currently unclear to what extent its cellular mechanisms are conserved in vertebrates or metazoans. POU5F1 and POU2 are the two p...

    Authors: Stephen Frankenberg and Marilyn B Renfree
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:56
  4. Mosquitoes respond to infection by mounting immune responses. The primary regulators of these immune responses are cells called hemocytes, which kill pathogens via phagocytosis and via the production of solubl...

    Authors: Jonas G King and Julián F Hillyer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:55
  5. The vertebrate nervous system is deeply divided into ‘somatic’ and ‘visceral’ subsystems that respond to external and internal stimuli, respectively. Molecular characterization of neurons in different groups o...

    Authors: Paola Bertucci and Detlev Arendt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:54
  6. A key to understanding the evolution of the nervous system on a large phylogenetic scale is the identification of homologous neuronal types. Here, we focus this search on the sensory and motor neurons of bilat...

    Authors: Marc Nomaksteinsky, Stefan Kassabov, Zoubida Chettouh, Henri-Corto Stoeklé, Laure Bonnaud, Gilles Fortin, Eric R Kandel and Jean-François Brunet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:53
  7. The availability of a large expressed sequence tags (EST) resource and recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have made it possible to develop highly multiplexed SNP arrays for multi-objectiv...

    Authors: Emilie Chancerel, Jean-Baptiste Lamy, Isabelle Lesur, Céline Noirot, Christophe Klopp, François Ehrenmann, Christophe Boury, Grégoire Le Provost, Philippe Label, Céline Lalanne, Valérie Léger, Franck Salin, Jean-Marc Gion and Christophe Plomion
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:50
  8. Unlike the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the CNS of echinoderms is capable of fast and efficient regeneration following injury and constitutes one of the most promising model systems that can provide...

    Authors: Vladimir S Mashanov, Olga R Zueva and José E García-Arrarás
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:49
  9. First discovered in Drosophila, the Hedgehog signaling pathway controls a wide range of developmental processes and is implicated in a variety of cancers. The success of a screen for chemical modulators of this p...

    Authors: Tom J Carney and Philip W Ingham
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:37
  10. The huge variation between mitochondrial genomes makes untangling their evolutionary histories difficult. Richardson et al. report on the remarkably unaltered ‘fossil’ genome of the tulip tree, giving us many clu...

    Authors: Ian Small
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:30
  11. The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants vary greatly in size, gene content, gene order, mutation rate and level of RNA editing. However, the narrow phylogenetic breadth of available genomic data has limi...

    Authors: Aaron O Richardson, Danny W Rice, Gregory J Young, Andrew J Alverson and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:29
  12. In theory, the human genome is large enough to keep its roughly 20,000 genes well separated. In practice, genes are clustered; even more puzzling, in many cases both DNA strands of a protein coding gene are tr...

    Authors: Andreas Werner
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:31
  13. The pituitary gland is formed by the juxtaposition of two tissues: neuroectoderm arising from the basal diencephalon, and oral epithelium, which invaginates towards the central nervous system from the roof of ...

    Authors: Roman H Khonsari, Maisa Seppala, Alan Pradel, Hugo Dutel, Gaël Clément, Oleg Lebedev, Sarah Ghafoor, Michaela Rothova, Abigael Tucker, John G Maisey, Chen-Ming Fan, Maiko Kawasaki, Atsushi Ohazama, Paul Tafforeau, Brunella Franco, Jill Helms…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:27

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2013 11:70

  14. Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production (thermogenesis) during cold acclimation in mammals. It is unknown whether the regulat...

    Authors: Alexander G Little, Tatsuya Kunisue, Kurunthachalam Kannan and Frank Seebacher
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:26
  15. Although intron loss in evolution has been described, the mechanism involved is still unclear. Three models have been proposed, the reverse transcriptase (RT) model, genomic deletion model and double-strand-br...

    Authors: Tao Zhu and Deng-Ke Niu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:23
  16. The directional migration and the following development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during gonad formation are key steps for germline development. It has been proposed that the interaction between germ cel...

    Authors: Su-Ren Chen, Qiao-Song Zheng, Yang Zhang, Fei Gao and Yi-Xun Liu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:22
  17. Vertebrate predators use a broad arsenal of behaviors and weaponry for overcoming fractious and potentially dangerous prey. A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical mo...

    Authors: Anthony J Saviola, David Chiszar, Chardelle Busch and Stephen P Mackessy
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:20
  18. The nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-κB) pathway is conserved from fruit flies to humans and is a key mediator of inflammatory signaling. Aberrant regulation of NF-κB is associated with several disorders including au...

    Authors: Anthony O Olarerin-George, Lauren Anton, Yih-Chii Hwang, Michal A Elovitz and John B Hogenesch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:19
  19. Methanobactins (Mbns) are a family of copper-binding natural products involved in copper uptake by methanotrophic bacteria. The few Mbns that have been structurally characterized feature copper coordination by...

    Authors: Grace E Kenney and Amy C Rosenzweig
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:17
  20. A number of studies have established that stochasticity in gene expression may play an important role in many biological phenomena. This therefore calls for further investigations to identify the molecular mec...

    Authors: José Viñuelas, Gaël Kaneko, Antoine Coulon, Elodie Vallin, Valérie Morin, Camila Mejia-Pous, Jean-Jacques Kupiec, Guillaume Beslon and Olivier Gandrillon
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:15
  21. Mutations causing antibiotic resistance are often associated with a cost in the absence of antibiotics. Surprisingly, a new study found that bacteria adapting to increased temperature became resistant to rifam...

    Authors: Martijn F Schenk and J Arjan GM de Visser
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:14
  22. Skeletal muscle undergoes rapid atrophy upon denervation and the underlying mechanisms are complicated. FOXO3a has been implicated as a major mediator of muscle atrophy, but how its subcellular location and ac...

    Authors: Bin Wei, Wen Dui, Dong Liu, Yan Xing, Zengqiang Yuan and Guangju Ji
    Citation: BMC Biology 2013 11:12
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