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  1. Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically. Some invasive ants take sociality to an extreme, forming geograph...

    Authors: Miriam Brandt, Ellen van Wilgenburg, Robert Sulc, Kenneth J Shea and Neil D Tsutsui
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:71
  2. We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant...

    Authors: Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Heather N Richardson, Katerina Kechris, Richard L Bell, Norbert Hübner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:70
  3. Different iron transport systems evolved in Gram-negative bacteria during evolution. Most of the transport systems depend on outer membrane localized TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), a periplasma-facing To...

    Authors: Oliver Mirus, Sascha Strauss, Kerstin Nicolaisen, Arndt von Haeseler and Enrico Schleiff
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:68
  4. Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA) is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage...

    Authors: Karen AM Kennedy, Tammy Porter, Virja Mehta, Scott D Ryan, Feodor Price, Vian Peshdary, Christina Karamboulas, Josée Savage, Thomas A Drysdale, Shun-Cheng Li, Steffany AL Bennett and Ilona S Skerjanc
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:67
  5. Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G...

    Authors: Karen K Hill, Gary Xie, Brian T Foley, Theresa J Smith, Amy C Munk, David Bruce, Leonard A Smith, Thomas S Brettin and John C Detter
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:66
  6. Animals utilize a wide variety of tactics to attract reproductive partners. Behavioral experiments often indicate an important role for visual cues in fish, but their molecular basis remains almost entirely un...

    Authors: Shoji Fukamachi, Masato Kinoshita, Kouichi Aizawa, Shoji Oda, Axel Meyer and Hiroshi Mitani
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:64
  7. The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we inves...

    Authors: Tina Stoelzle, Patrick Schwarb, Andreas Trumpp and Nancy E Hynes
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:63
  8. Metastatic neoplasias are characterized by excessive cell proliferation and disruptions to apico-basal cell polarity and tissue architecture. Understanding how alterations in cell polarity can impact upon tumo...

    Authors: Gregory R Leong, Karen R Goulding, Nancy Amin, Helena E Richardson and Anthony M Brumby
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:62
  9. Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization pro...

    Authors: Alejandro Zúñiga, Christian Hödar, Patricia Hanna, Freddy Ibáñez, Pablo Moreno, Rodrigo Pulgar, Luis Pastenes, Mauricio González and Verónica Cambiazo
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:61
  10. Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the pro...

    Authors: Terry W Snell, Tonya L Shearer, Hilary A Smith, Julia Kubanek, Kristin E Gribble and David B Mark Welch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:60
  11. Transforming growth factor (TGF)β superfamily members transduce signals by oligomerizing two classes of serine/threonine kinase receptors, termed type I and type II. In contrast to the large number of ligands ...

    Authors: Kai Heinecke, Axel Seher, Werner Schmitz, Thomas D Mueller, Walter Sebald and Joachim Nickel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:59
  12. The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature an...

    Authors: Christian Seibel, Gabriela Gremel, Roberto do Nascimento Silva, André Schuster, Christian P Kubicek and Monika Schmoll
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:58
  13. The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick...

    Authors: Agustín Estrada-Peña, Victoria Naranjo, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse, Atilio J Mangold, Katherine M Kocan and José de la Fuente
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:57
  14. We have recently shown that δ-opioid receptors (DORs) play an important role in neuroprotection from hypoxic injury via the regulation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and cytochrome c release. S...

    Authors: Yilin Yang, Xiwei Xia, Yi Zhang, Qiang Wang, Lu Li, Guanghua Luo and Ying Xia
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:55
  15. Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised t...

    Authors: Nathan Pike and Rachel Kingcombe
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:54
  16. Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites...

    Authors: Mélanie Roy, Santi Watthana, Anna Stier, Franck Richard, Suyanee Vessabutr and Marc-André Selosse
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:51
  17. Membrane proteins form key nodes in mediating the cell's interaction with the surroundings, which is one of the main reasons why the majority of drug targets are membrane proteins.

    Authors: Markus Sällman Almén, Karl JV Nordström, Robert Fredriksson and Helgi B Schiöth
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:50
  18. N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the w...

    Authors: Vincent Corbel, Maria Stankiewicz, Cédric Pennetier, Didier Fournier, Jure Stojan, Emmanuelle Girard, Mitko Dimitrov, Jordi Molgó, Jean-Marc Hougard and Bruno Lapied
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:47

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2012 10:86

  19. In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, r...

    Authors: Makoto Mizunami, Sae Unoki, Yasuhiro Mori, Daisuke Hirashima, Ai Hatano and Yukihisa Matsumoto
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:46
  20. TATA-box-binding protein 2 (TBP2/TRF3) is a vertebrate-specific paralog of TBP that shares with TBP a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain and the ability to bind the TATA box. TBP2 is highly expressed in ...

    Authors: Waseem Akhtar and Gert Jan C Veenstra
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:45
  21. Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. How...

    Authors: Deenadayalan Bakthavatsalam, Jonathan M Choe, Nana E Hanson and Richard H Gomer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:44
  22. The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisat...

    Authors: Jerome HL Hui, Florian Raible, Natalia Korchagina, Nicolas Dray, Sylvie Samain, Ghislaine Magdelenat, Claire Jubin, Béatrice Segurens, Guillaume Balavoine, Detlev Arendt and David EK Ferrier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:43
  23. Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selec...

    Authors: Carlo G Artieri, Wilfried Haerty and Rama S Singh
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:42
  24. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chrom...

    Authors: Beatrice Bodega, Gabriella Di Capua Ramirez, Florian Grasser, Stefania Cheli, Silvia Brunelli, Marina Mora, Raffaella Meneveri, Anna Marozzi, Stefan Mueller, Elena Battaglioli and Enrico Ginelli
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:41
  25. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic element capable of autonomous transposition via an RNA intermediate. Their large size and proliferative ability make them important con...

    Authors: Mark C Ungerer, Suzanne C Strakosh and Kaitlin M Stimpson
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:40
  26. A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008,...

    Authors: Nicholas D Holland and Michael T Ghiselin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:39
  27. Adipose tissues serve not only as a store for energy in the form of lipid, but also as endocrine tissues that regulates metabolic activities of the organism by secreting various kinds of hormones. Peroxisome p...

    Authors: Katsunori Fujiki, Fumi Kano, Kunio Shiota and Masayuki Murata
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:38
  28. Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for ...

    Authors: Brian M Wiegmann, Michelle D Trautwein, Jung-Wook Kim, Brian K Cassel, Matthew A Bertone, Shaun L Winterton and David K Yeates
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:34
  29. To survive and reproduce, animals must be able to modify their motor behavior in response to changes in the environment. We studied a complex behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans, male mating behavior, which provid...

    Authors: Allyson J Whittaker and Paul W Sternberg
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:33
  30. Dispersal plays a key role in shaping biological and ecological processes such as the distribution of spatially-structured populations or the pace and scale of invasion. Here we have studied the relationship b...

    Authors: Sara L Goodacre, Oliver Y Martin, Dries Bonte, Linda Hutchings, Chris Woolley, Kamal Ibrahim, CF George Thomas and Godfrey M Hewitt
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:32
  31. Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE) induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study,...

    Authors: Cesar V Borlongan, Teruo Hayashi, Peter R Oeltgen, Tsung-Ping Su and Yun Wang
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:31
  32. Synaptic plasticity associated with an important wave of gene transcription and protein synthesis underlies long-term memory processes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in a variety of neuronal functions an...

    Authors: Emmanuel Perisse, Valérie Raymond-Delpech, Isabelle Néant, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Catherine Leclerc, Marc Moreau and Jean-Christophe Sandoz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:30
  33. Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evoluti...

    Authors: Alexis C Edwards, Liesbeth Zwarts, Akihiko Yamamoto, Patrick Callaerts and Trudy FC Mackay
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:29
  34. Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones...

    Authors: Scott F Cummins, Dirk Erpenbeck, Zhihua Zou, Charles Claudianos, Leonid L Moroz, Gregg T Nagle and Bernard M Degnan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:28
  35. Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest c...

    Authors: Francesca Orso, Richard Jäger, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Hubert Schorle, Piero Sismondi, Michele De Bortoli and Daniela Taverna
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:25
  36. We previously showed that mice lacking the high mobility group A1 gene (Hmga1-knockout mice) developed a type 2-like diabetic phenotype, in which cell-surface insulin receptors were dramatically reduced (below 10...

    Authors: Eusebio Chiefari, Francesco Paonessa, Stefania Iiritano, Ilaria Le Pera, Dario Palmieri, Giuseppe Brunetti, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Alfredo Fusco and Antonio Brunetti
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:24
  37. Nonsense-mediated decay is a mechanism that degrades mRNAs with a premature termination codon. That some exons have premature termination codons at fixation is paradoxical: why make a transcript if it is only ...

    Authors: Zhenguo Zhang, Dedong Xin, Ping Wang, Li Zhou, Landian Hu, Xiangyin Kong and Laurence D Hurst
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:23
  38. Antimicrobial peptides are found in all kingdoms of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, antimicrobial peptides were established as key elements of innate immunity. Most antimicrobial peptide...

    Authors: Sebastian Leptihn, Jia Yi Har, Jianzhu Chen, Bow Ho, Thorsten Wohland and Jeak Ling Ding
    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:22