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  1. Stable isotope tracing is a powerful technique for following the fate of individual atoms through metabolic pathways. Measuring isotopic enrichment in metabolites provides quantitative insights into the biosyn...

    Authors: Hunter NB Moseley, Andrew N Lane, Alex C Belshoff, Richard M Higashi and Teresa WM Fan
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:37

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2012 10:74

  2. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protein machine that is the final destination for cellular proteins that have been marked for degradation via an ubiquitin (Ub) chain appendage. These ubiquitylated proteins e...

    Authors: Tara A Gomez, Natalie Kolawa, Marvin Gee, Michael J Sweredoski and Raymond J Deshaies
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:33
  3. Gq is a heterotrimeric G protein that plays an important role in numerous physiological processes. To delineate the molecular mechanisms and kinetics of signalling through this protein, its activation should b...

    Authors: Merel JW Adjobo-Hermans, Joachim Goedhart, Laura van Weeren, Saskia Nijmeijer, Erik MM Manders, Stefan Offermanns and Theodorus WJ Gadella Jr
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:32
  4. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) has been shown to be phosphorylated on multiple serine and threonine residues, based on cell type and physiological conditions. Although recent studies have suggested that prote...

    Authors: Geneviève Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier Estève, Nathalie Bibens Laulan, Sriharsa Pradhan and Yves St-Pierre
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:31
  5. The X chromosome has fewer testis-specific genes than autosomes in many species. This bias is commonly attributed to X inactivation in spermatogenesis but a recent paper in BMC Biology provides evidence against X...

    Authors: Xuemei Lu and Chung-I Wu
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:30
  6. Paucity of male-biased genes on the Drosophila X chromosome is a well-established phenomenon, thought to be specifically linked to the role of these genes in reproduction and/or their expression in the meiotic ma...

    Authors: Lyudmila M Mikhaylova and Dmitry I Nurminsky
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:29
  7. In the early stage of eukaryotic DNA replication, the template DNA is unwound by the MCM helicase, which is activated by forming a complex with the Cdc45 and GINS proteins. The eukaryotic GINS forms a heterote...

    Authors: Takuji Oyama, Sonoko Ishino, Seiji Fujino, Hiromi Ogino, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Kouta Mayanagi, Mihoko Saito, Naoko Nagasawa, Yoshizumi Ishino and Kosuke Morikawa
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:28
  8. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are expressed in the developing brain and their transcription is upregulated in adult neurons and glia upon injury or neurodegeneration. We have shown neuroprotecti...

    Authors: Derya Sargin, Ahmed El-Kordi, Amit Agarwal, Michael Müller, Sonja M Wojcik, Imam Hassouna, Swetlana Sperling, Klaus-Armin Nave and Hannelore Ehrenreich
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:27
  9. Hox genes modify serial homology patterns in many organisms, exemplified in vertebrates by modification of the axial skeleton and in arthropods by diversification of the body segments. Butterfly wing eyespots ...

    Authors: James Castelli-Gair Hombría
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:26
  10. Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to c...

    Authors: Ales Pecinka, Wei Fang, Marc Rehmsmeier, Avraham A Levy and Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:24

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2012 10:33

  11. Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecu...

    Authors: Philippa C Griffin, Charles Robin and Ary A Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:19
  12. Many cancer cells develop resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, necessitating combination with chemotherapy, and normal cells manifest side effects du...

    Authors: Hongyun Tang, Yong Qin, Jianyong Li and Xingguo Gong
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:18
  13. The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs) is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There i...

    Authors: Caterina Mencarelli, Silvia Ciolfi, Daniela Caroti, Pietro Lupetti and Romano Dallai
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:17
  14. Haploinsufficient (HI) genes are those for which a reduction in copy number in a diploid from two to one results in significantly reduced fitness. Haploinsufficiency is increasingly implicated in human disease...

    Authors: Michaela de Clare, Pınar Pir and Stephen G Oliver
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:15
  15. Evc is essential for Indian Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in the cartilage growth plate. The gene encoding Evc2 is in close proximity in divergent orientation to Evc and mutations in both human genes lead to the chond...

    Authors: Helen J Blair, Stuart Tompson, Yu-Ning Liu, Jennifer Campbell, Katie MacArthur, Chris P Ponting, Victor L Ruiz-Perez and Judith A Goodship
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:14
  16. Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps mig...

    Authors: David Duneau, Pepijn Luijckx, Frida Ben-Ami, Christian Laforsch and Dieter Ebert
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:11
  17. Sequence analysis of the Daphnia pulex genome holds some surprises that could not have been anticipated from what was learned so far from other arthropod genomes. It establishes Daphnia as an eco-genetical model ...

    Authors: Diethard Tautz
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:8
  18. The interferon-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins/p47 GTPases) are a distinctive family of GTPases that function as powerful cell-autonomous resistance factors. The IRG protein, Irga6 (IIGP1), pa...

    Authors: Nikolaus Pawlowski, Aliaksandr Khaminets, Julia P Hunn, Natasa Papic, Andreas Schmidt, Revathy C Uthaiah, Rita Lange, Gabriela Vopper, Sascha Martens, Eva Wolf and Jonathan C Howard
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:7
  19. Protein interactions control the regulatory networks underlying developmental processes. The understanding of developmental complexity will, therefore, require the characterization of protein interactions with...

    Authors: Bruno Hudry, Séverine Viala, Yacine Graba and Samir Merabet
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:5
  20. The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic...

    Authors: Òscar Palacios, Ayelen Pagani, Sílvia Pérez-Rafael, Margit Egg, Martina Höckner, Anita Brandstätter, Mercè Capdevila, Sílvia Atrian and Reinhard Dallinger
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:4
  21. The phylum to which humans belong, Chordata, takes its name from one of the major shared derived features of the group, the notochord. All chordates have a notochord, at least during embryogenesis, and there i...

    Authors: David EK Ferrier
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:3
  22. Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicate...

    Authors: Min-Sheng Peng, Malliya Gounder Palanichamy, Yong-Gang Yao, Bikash Mitra, Yao-Ting Cheng, Mian Zhao, Jia Liu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hui Pan, Wen-Zhi Wang, A-Mei Zhang, Wen Zhang, Dong Wang, Yang Zou, Yang Yang, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri…
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:2
  23. Thalamocortical projections convey visual, somatosensory and auditory information to the cerebral cortex. A recent report in Neural Development shows how a forward genetic screen has enabled the identification of...

    Authors: Ludmilla Lokmane and Sonia Garel
    Citation: BMC Biology 2011 9:1
  24. Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in s...

    Authors: Morten Schiøtt, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Peter Roepstorff and Jacobus J Boomsma
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:156
  25. Determining the position and order of contigs and scaffolds from a genome assembly within an organism's genome remains a technical challenge in a majority of sequencing projects. In order to exploit contempora...

    Authors: Jean-Marc Celton, Alan Christoffels, Daniel J Sargent, Xiangming Xu and D Jasper G Rees
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:155
  26. The uptake of particles by actin-powered invagination of the plasma membrane is common to protozoa and to phagocytes involved in the immune response of higher organisms. The question addressed here is how a ph...

    Authors: Margaret Clarke, Ulrike Engel, Jennifer Giorgione, Annette Müller-Taubenberger, Jana Prassler, Douwe Veltman and Günther Gerisch
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:154
  27. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1 is downregulated in a majority of human cancers due to ectopic proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The expression of p27 is subject to multiple mec...

    Authors: Elizabeth Rico-Bautista, Chih-Cheng Yang, Lifang Lu, Gregory P Roth and Dieter A Wolf
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:153
  28. Gut homeostasis is central to whole organism health, and its disruption is associated with a broad range of pathologies. Following damage, complex physiological events are required in the gut to maintain prope...

    Authors: Nicolas Buchon, Nichole A Broderick, Takayuki Kuraishi and Bruno Lemaitre
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:152
  29. Studies on innate immunity have benefited from the introduction of zebrafish as a model system. Transgenic fish expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocyte populations allow direct, quantitative visualization...

    Authors: Claudia A d'Alençon, Oscar A Peña, Christine Wittmann, Viviana E Gallardo, Rebecca A Jones, Felix Loosli, Urban Liebel, Clemens Grabher and Miguel L Allende
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:151
  30. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plant...

    Authors: Jeffrey P Mower, Saša Stefanović, Weilong Hao, Julie S Gummow, Kanika Jain, Dana Ahmed and Jeffrey D Palmer
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:150
  31. Parasitic plants and their hosts have proven remarkably adept at exchanging fragments of mitochondrial DNA. Two recent studies provide important mechanistic insights into the pattern, process and consequences ...

    Authors: John M Archibald and Thomas A Richards
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:147
  32. Discovery that the transcriptional output of the human genome is far more complex than predicted by the current set of protein-coding annotations and that most RNAs produced do not appear to encode proteins ha...

    Authors: Philipp Kapranov, Georges St Laurent, Tal Raz, Fatih Ozsolak, C Patrick Reynolds, Poul HB Sorensen, Gregory Reaman, Patrice Milos, Robert J Arceci, John F Thompson and Timothy J Triche
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:149

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2011 9:86

  33. Whole genome duplication (WGD) is a special case of gene duplication, observed rarely in animals, whereby all genes duplicate simultaneously through polyploidisation. Two rounds of WGD (2R-WGD) occurred at the...

    Authors: Lukasz Huminiecki and Carl Henrik Heldin
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:146
  34. Conservation of orthologous regulatory gene expression domains, especially along the neuroectodermal anterior-posterior axis, in animals as disparate as flies and vertebrates suggests that common patterning me...

    Authors: Kristen A Yankura, Megan L Martik, Charlotte K Jennings and Veronica F Hinman
    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:143
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