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  1. Content type: Methodology article

    Clonal microbial populations often harbor rare phenotypic variants that are typically hidden within the majority of the remaining cells, but are crucial for the population’s resilience to external perturbation...

    Authors: Rosemary A. Bamford, Ashley Smith, Jeremy Metz, Georgina Glover, Richard W. Titball and Stefano Pagliara

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:121

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoi...

    Authors: Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li and Wei Jia

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:120

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Telomere length heterogeneity has been detected in various cell types, including stem cells and cancer cells. Cell heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), is of particular...

    Authors: Hua Wang, Kunshan Zhang, Yifei Liu, Yudong Fu, Shan Gao, Peng Gong, Haiying Wang, Zhongcheng Zhou, Ming Zeng, Zhenfeng Wu, Yu Sun, Tong Chen, Siguang Li and Lin Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:114

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Climate change causes the breakdown of the symbiotic relationships between reef-building corals and their photosynthetic symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), with thermal anomalies in 2015–2016 triggering the most wid...

    Authors: Stephanie G. Gardner, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Matthew R. Nitschke, Daniel A. Nielsen, Michael Stat, Cherie A. Motti, Peter J. Ralph and Katherina Petrou

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:117

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor. The role of endogenous PPARα in retinal neuronal homeostasis is unknown. Retinal photoreceptors are the hi...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Pearsall, Rui Cheng, Kelu Zhou, Yusuke Takahashi, H. Greg Matlock, Shraddha S. Vadvalkar, Younghwa Shin, Thomas W. Fredrick, Marin L. Gantner, Steven Meng, Zhongjie Fu, Yan Gong, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M. Humphries, Luke I. Szweda, Lois E. H. Smith…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:113

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Smad4 is a critical effector of TGF-β signaling that regulates a variety of cellular functions. However, its role in the brain has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the...

    Authors: Wei L. Hsu, Yun L. Ma, Yen C. Liu and Eminy H. Y. Lee

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:112

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  7. Content type: Research article

    One of evolution’s most important achievements is the development and radiation of multicellular organisms with different types of cells. Complex multicellularity has evolved several times in eukaryotes; yet, ...

    Authors: Benjamin Klein, Daniel Wibberg and Armin Hallmann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:111

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  8. Content type: Review

    The efficient production, folding, and secretion of proteins is critical for cancer cell survival. However, cancer cells thrive under stress conditions that damage proteins, so many cancer cells overexpress mo...

    Authors: Sara Sannino and Jeffrey L. Brodsky

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:109

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  9. Content type: Methodology article

    The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we...

    Authors: Peter A. Larsen, R. Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C. Murali, C. Ryan Campbell, Adam D. Brown, Beth A. Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J. Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C. Durand, Muhammad S. Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M. Muzny…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:110

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  10. Content type: Methodology article

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are fundamental to the growth and survival of cells and serve as excellent targets to develop inhibitors of biological processes such as host-pathogen interactions and cance...

    Authors: Jin Huei Wong, Mohammad Alfatah, Mei Fang Sin, Hong May Sim, Chandra S. Verma, David P. Lane and Prakash Arumugam

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:108

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Many proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) contain structural disulfide bonds formed by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. In fungi and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 ‘generates’ disulf...

    Authors: Valentina Peleh, Flavien Zannini, Sandra Backes, Nicolas Rouhier and Johannes M. Herrmann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:106

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  12. Content type: Research article

    TRIM25 is a novel RNA-binding protein and a member of the Tripartite Motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which plays a pivotal role in the innate immune response. However, there is scarce knowledge ab...

    Authors: Nila Roy Choudhury, Gregory Heikel, Maryia Trubitsyna, Peter Kubik, Jakub Stanislaw Nowak, Shaun Webb, Sander Granneman, Christos Spanos, Juri Rappsilber, Alfredo Castello and Gracjan Michlewski

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:105

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Neural activity in the vertebrate habenula is affected by ambient illumination. The nucleus that links photoreceptor activity with the habenula is not well characterized. Here, we describe the location, inputs...

    Authors: Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Seetha Krishnan, Qian Lin, Caroline Kibat and Suresh Jesuthasan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:104

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  14. Content type: Methodology article

    Optical silencing of activity provides a way to test the necessity of neurons in behaviour. Two light-gated anion channels, GtACR1 and GtACR2, have recently been shown to potently inhibit activity in cultured ...

    Authors: Gadisti Aisha Mohamed, Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Joses Ho, Seetha Krishnan, Farhan Mohammad, Adam Claridge-Chang and Suresh Jesuthasan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:103

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  15. Content type: Forum

    Discoveries spanning several decades have pointed to vital membrane lipid trafficking pathways involving both vesicular and non-vesicular carriers. But the relative contributions for distinct membrane delivery...

    Authors: Christopher J. Stefan, William S. Trimble, Sergio Grinstein, Guillaume Drin, Karin Reinisch, Pietro De Camilli, Sarah Cohen, Alex M. Valm, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Tim P. Levine, David B. Iaea, Frederick R. Maxfield, Clare E. Futter, Emily R. Eden, Delphine Judith, Alexander R. van Vliet…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:102

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  16. Content type: Methodology article

    Internal tagging of proteins by inserting small functional peptides into surface accessible permissive sites has proven to be an indispensable tool for basic and applied science. Permissive sites are typically...

    Authors: Sabine Oesterle, Tania Michelle Roberts, Lukas Andreas Widmer, Harun Mustafa, Sven Panke and Sonja Billerbeck

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:100

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  17. Content type: Review

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored,...

    Authors: Josh L. Morgan and Jeff W. Lichtman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:101

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  18. Content type: Review

    Population geneticists have long sought to understand the contribution of natural selection to molecular evolution. A variety of approaches have been proposed that use population genetics theory to quantify th...

    Authors: Tom R. Booker, Benjamin C. Jackson and Peter D. Keightley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:98

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  19. Content type: Review

    The MultiBac baculovirus/insect cell expression vector system was conceived as a user-friendly, modular tool-kit for producing multiprotein complexes for structural biology applications. MultiBac has allowed t...

    Authors: Martin Pelosse, Hannah Crocker, Barbara Gorda, Paul Lemaire, Jens Rauch and Imre Berger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:99

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  20. Content type: Research article

    In a macro-molecular complex, any minor change may prove detrimental. For a supra-molecular nano-machine like the bacterial flagellum, which consists of several distinct parts with specific characteristics, st...

    Authors: Clive S. Barker, Irina V. Meshcheryakova, Alla S. Kostyukova, Peter L. Freddolino and Fadel A. Samatey

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:97

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Mitochondria are predominantly inherited from the maternal gamete, even in unicellular organisms. Yet an extraordinary array of mechanisms enforce uniparental inheritance, which implies shifting selection pres...

    Authors: Arunas L. Radzvilavicius, Nick Lane and Andrew Pomiankowski

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:94

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  22. Content type: Review

    Signaling pathways direct organogenesis, often through concentration-dependent effects on cells. The hedgehog pathway enables cells to sense and respond to hedgehog ligands, of which the best studied is sonic ...

    Authors: Robert Blassberg and John Jacob

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:95

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  23. Content type: Research article

    California is a world floristic biodiversity hotspot where the terms neo- and paleo-endemism were first applied. Using spatial phylogenetics, it is now possible to evaluate biodiversity from an evolutionary st...

    Authors: Andrew H. Thornhill, Bruce G. Baldwin, William A. Freyman, Sonia Nosratinia, Matthew M. Kling, Naia Morueta-Holme, Thomas P. Madsen, David D. Ackerly and Brent D. Mishler

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:96

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  24. Content type: Question and Answer

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is carried out by proteolytic enzymes called caspases. Executioner caspase activity causes cells to shrink, bleb, and disintegrate into apoptotic bodies and ha...

    Authors: Gongping Sun and Denise J. Montell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:92

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Proper DNA replication is essential for faithful transmission of the genome. However, replication stress has serious impact on the integrity of the cell, leading to stalling or collapse of replication forks, a...

    Authors: Alexandra Sisakova, Veronika Altmannova, Marek Sebesta and Lumir Krejci

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:90

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  26. Content type: Review

    What made us human? Gene expression changes clearly played a significant part in human evolution, but pinpointing the causal regulatory mutations is hard. Comparative genomics enabled the identification of hum...

    Authors: Lucía F. Franchini and Katherine S. Pollard

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:89

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Mate finding and recognition in animals evolves during niche adaptation and involves social signals and habitat cues. Drosophila melanogaster and related species are known to be attracted to fermenting fruit for ...

    Authors: Sebastien Lebreton, Felipe Borrero-Echeverry, Francisco Gonzalez, Marit Solum, Erika A. Wallin, Erik Hedenström, Bill S. Hansson, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Marie Bengtsson, Göran Birgersson, William B. Walker III, Hany K. M. Dweck, Paul G. Becher and Peter Witzgall

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:88

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  28. Content type: Question and Answer

    Mammalian organs comprise a variety of cells that interact with each other and have distinct biological roles. Access to evaluate and perturb intact biological systems at the cellular and molecular levels is e...

    Authors: Alon Greenbaum, Min J. Jang, Collin Challis and Viviana Gradinaru

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:87

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  29. Content type: Research

    Root and tuber crops are a major food source in tropical Africa. Among these crops are several species in the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea collectively known as yam, a staple tuber crop that contributes enorm...

    Authors: Muluneh Tamiru, Satoshi Natsume, Hiroki Takagi, Benjamen White, Hiroki Yaegashi, Motoki Shimizu, Kentaro Yoshida, Aiko Uemura, Kaori Oikawa, Akira Abe, Naoya Urasaki, Hideo Matsumura, Pachakkil Babil, Shinsuke Yamanaka, Ryo Matsumoto, Satoru Muranaka…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:86

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  30. Content type: Review

    Antibiotic natural products are ancient and so is resistance. Consequently, environmental bacteria harbor numerous and varied antibiotic resistance elements. Nevertheless, despite long histories of antibiotic ...

    Authors: Nicholas Waglechner and Gerard D. Wright

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:84

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  31. Content type: Question and Answer

    In this question and answer article we discuss how evolution shapes morphology (the shape and pattern of our bodies) but also how learning about morphology, and specifically how that morphology arises during d...

    Authors: Neal Anthwal and Abigail S. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:83

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  32. Content type: Question and Answer

    Neurons relevant to a particular behavior are often widely dispersed across the brain. To record activity in groups of individual neurons that might be distributed across large distances, neuroscientists and o...

    Authors: Nicholas James Sofroniew

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:82

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clo...

    Authors: Zhibo Cui, Aizi Tong, Yiqiong Huo, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiqi Yang, Xianli Yang and Xiao-Xue Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:80

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Members of the thioester-containing protein (TEP) family contribute to host defence in both insects and mammals. However, their role in the immune response of Drosophila is elusive. In this study, we address the ...

    Authors: Anna Dostálová, Samuel Rommelaere, Mickael Poidevin and Bruno Lemaitre

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:79

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  35. Content type: Review

    For a subset of genes in our genome a change in gene dosage, by duplication or deletion, causes a phenotypic effect. These dosage-sensitive genes may confer an advantage upon copy number change, but more typic...

    Authors: Alan M. Rice and Aoife McLysaght

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:78

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  36. Content type: Question and Answer

    Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2–3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neandert...

    Authors: Kelley Harris and Rasmus Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:73

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, ...

    Authors: D. J. Lightfoot, D. E. Jarvis, T. Ramaraj, R. Lee, E. N. Jellen and P. J. Maughan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:74

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  38. Content type: Research article

    While methods for annotation of genes are increasingly reliable, the exact identification of translation initiation sites remains a challenging problem. Since the N-termini of proteins often contain regulatory...

    Authors: Adam Giess, Veronique Jonckheere, Elvis Ndah, Katarzyna Chyżyńska, Petra Van Damme and Eivind Valen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:76

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