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  1. Content type: Review

    Antibiotic natural products are ancient and so is resistance. Consequently, environmental bacteria harbor numerous and varied antibiotic resistance elements. Nevertheless, despite long histories of antibiotic ...

    Authors: Nicholas Waglechner and Gerard D. Wright

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:84

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  2. Content type: Question and Answer

    In this question and answer article we discuss how evolution shapes morphology (the shape and pattern of our bodies) but also how learning about morphology, and specifically how that morphology arises during d...

    Authors: Neal Anthwal and Abigail S. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:83

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  3. Content type: Question and Answer

    Neurons relevant to a particular behavior are often widely dispersed across the brain. To record activity in groups of individual neurons that might be distributed across large distances, neuroscientists and o...

    Authors: Nicholas James Sofroniew

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:82

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Similar to other eukaryotes, splicing is emerging as an important process affecting development and stress tolerance in plants. Ski-interacting protein (SKIP), a splicing factor, is essential for circadian clo...

    Authors: Zhibo Cui, Aizi Tong, Yiqiong Huo, Zhiqiang Yan, Weiqi Yang, Xianli Yang and Xiao-Xue Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:80

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Members of the thioester-containing protein (TEP) family contribute to host defence in both insects and mammals. However, their role in the immune response of Drosophila is elusive. In this study, we address the ...

    Authors: Anna Dostálová, Samuel Rommelaere, Mickael Poidevin and Bruno Lemaitre

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:79

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  6. Content type: Review

    For a subset of genes in our genome a change in gene dosage, by duplication or deletion, causes a phenotypic effect. These dosage-sensitive genes may confer an advantage upon copy number change, but more typic...

    Authors: Alan M. Rice and Aoife McLysaght

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:78

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  7. Content type: Question and Answer

    Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2–3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neandert...

    Authors: Kelley Harris and Rasmus Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:73

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, ...

    Authors: D. J. Lightfoot, D. E. Jarvis, T. Ramaraj, R. Lee, E. N. Jellen and P. J. Maughan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:74

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  9. Content type: Research article

    While methods for annotation of genes are increasingly reliable, the exact identification of translation initiation sites remains a challenging problem. Since the N-termini of proteins often contain regulatory...

    Authors: Adam Giess, Veronique Jonckheere, Elvis Ndah, Katarzyna Chyżyńska, Petra Van Damme and Eivind Valen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:76

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Polymorphic toxins (PTs) are multi-domain bacterial exotoxins belonging to distinct families that share common features in terms of domain organization. PTs are found in all major bacterial clades, including m...

    Authors: Anne Jamet, Marie Touchon, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, João André Carriço, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif, Mario Ramirez and Eduardo P. C. Rocha

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:75

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Disrupting sleep during development leads to lasting deficits in chordates and arthropods. To address lasting impacts of sleep deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans, we established a nonlethal deprivation protoco...

    Authors: Jarred Sanders, Monika Scholz, Ilaria Merutka and David Biron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:67

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes intracellular parasites causing immense global disease burden, the deadliest of them being the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which invades and replicates within ery...

    Authors: Sujaan Das, Leandro Lemgruber, Chwen L. Tay, Jake Baum and Markus Meissner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:70

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  13. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: S. L. Pearce, D. F. Clarke, P. D. East, S. Elfekih, K. H. J. Gordon, L. S. Jermiin, A. McGaughran, J. G. Oakeshott, A. Papanicolaou, O. P. Perera, R. V. Rane, S. Richards, W. T. Tay, T. K. Walsh, A. Anderson, C. J. Anderson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:69

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    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2017 15:63

  14. Content type: Research article

    Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. a...

    Authors: S. L. Pearce, D. F. Clarke, P. D. East, S. Elfekih, K. H. J. Gordon, L. S. Jermiin, A. McGaughran, J. G. Oakeshott, A. Papanikolaou, O. P. Perera, R. V. Rane, S. Richards, W. T. Tay, T. K. Walsh, A. Anderson, C. J. Anderson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:63

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2017 15:69

  15. Content type: Research article

    The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplic...

    Authors: Evelyn E. Schwager, Prashant P. Sharma, Thomas Clarke, Daniel J. Leite, Torsten Wierschin, Matthias Pechmann, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Lauren Esposito, Jesper Bechsgaard, Trine Bilde, Alexandra D. Buffry, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Cornelius Eibner…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:62

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Biological mineral formation (biomineralization) proceeds in specialized compartments often bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Currently, the role of membranes in biomineralization is hardly understood.

    Authors: Alexander Kotzsch, Philip Gröger, Damian Pawolski, Paul H. H. Bomans, Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk, Michael Schlierf and Nils Kröger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:65

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Transmembrane helices (TMHs) frequently occur amongst protein architectures as means for proteins to attach to or embed into biological membranes. Physical constraints such as the membrane’s hydrophobicity and...

    Authors: James Alexander Baker, Wing-Cheong Wong, Birgit Eisenhaber, Jim Warwicker and Frank Eisenhaber

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:66

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2017 15:72

  18. Content type: Research article

    In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history...

    Authors: Wendy L. Johnston, Aldis Krizus, Arun K. Ramani, Wade Dunham, Ji Young Youn, Andrew G. Fraser, Anne-Claude Gingras and James W. Dennis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:61

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  19. Content type: Review

    There is increasing evidence that all cells sense mechanical forces in order to perform their functions. In animals, mechanotransduction has been studied during the establishment of cell polarity, fate, and di...

    Authors: Olivier Hamant and Elizabeth S. Haswell

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:59

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  20. Content type: Question and Answer

    Individual neurons vary widely in terms of their gene expression, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. While many techniques exist to study single-cell variability along one or two of these dimensi...

    Authors: Cathryn R. Cadwell, Rickard Sandberg, Xiaolong Jiang and Andreas S. Tolias

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:58

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The aggregation of the protein ɑ-synuclein (ɑS) underlies a range of increasingly common neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease. One widely explored therapeutic strategy for these conditions...

    Authors: Marija Iljina, Liu Hong, Mathew H. Horrocks, Marthe H. Ludtmann, Minee L. Choi, Craig D. Hughes, Francesco S. Ruggeri, Tim Guilliams, Alexander K. Buell, Ji-Eun Lee, Sonia Gandhi, Steven F. Lee, Clare E. Bryant, Michele Vendruscolo, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Christopher M. Dobson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:57

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Odor information is processed through multiple receptor-glomerular channels in the first order olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), then reformatted into higher brain centers and eventually perceived by t...

    Authors: Yoichi Seki, Hany K. M. Dweck, Jürgen Rybak, Dieter Wicher, Silke Sachse and Bill S. Hansson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:56

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth. The SL signalling mechanism is homologous to that of karrikins (KARs), smoke-derived compounds that stimulate seed ...

    Authors: Rohan Bythell-Douglas, Carl J. Rothfels, Dennis W. D. Stevenson, Sean W. Graham, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, David C. Nelson and Tom Bennett

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:52

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  24. Content type: Review

    Macrophages are present in all vertebrate tissues, from mid-gestation throughout life, constituting a widely dispersed organ system. They promote homeostasis by responding to internal and external changes with...

    Authors: Siamon Gordon and Annette Plüddemann

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:53

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotrans...

    Authors: Geena Skariah, Joseph Seimetz, Miles Norsworthy, Monica C. Lannom, Phillip J. Kenny, Mohamed Elrakhawy, Craig Forsthoefel, Jenny Drnevich, Auinash Kalsotra and Stephanie Ceman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:54

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  26. Content type: Forum

    Model organisms are widely used in research as accessible and convenient systems to study a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally only a handful of organisms have been widely studied, but moder...

    Authors: James J. Russell, Julie A. Theriot, Pranidhi Sood, Wallace F. Marshall, Laura F. Landweber, Lillian Fritz-Laylin, Jessica K. Polka, Snezhana Oliferenko, Therese Gerbich, Amy Gladfelter, James Umen, Magdalena Bezanilla, Madeline A. Lancaster, Shuonan He, Matthew C. Gibson, Bob Goldstein…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:55

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  27. Content type: Question and Answer

    Expansion microscopy (ExM) is a recently invented technology that uses swellable charged polymers, synthesized densely and with appropriate topology throughout a preserved biological specimen, to physically ma...

    Authors: Ruixuan Gao, Shoh M. Asano and Edward S. Boyden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:50

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  28. Content type: Editorial

    Registered Reports, an article format initiated to help promote transparency and reproducibility in the preclinical and social sciences, are spreading into the biological literature. The format is now offered by

    Authors: Miranda Robertson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:49

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Matriptase is a membrane serine protease essential for epithelial development, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as a central orchestrator of pathogenic pericellular signaling in the context of inflammato...

    Authors: Stine Friis, Daniel Tadeo, Sylvain M. Le-Gall, Henrik Jessen Jürgensen, Katiuchia Uzzun Sales, Eric Camerer and Thomas H. Bugge

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:46

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  30. Content type: Methodology article

    Intravascular leukocyte recruitment in most vertebrate tissues is restricted to postcapillary and collecting venules, whereas capillaries and arterioles usually support little or no leukocyte adhesion. This se...

    Authors: Aude Thiriot, Carolina Perdomo, Guiying Cheng, Igor Novitzky-Basso, Sara McArdle, Jamie K. Kishimoto, Olga Barreiro, Irina Mazo, Robinson Triboulet, Klaus Ley, Antal Rot and Ulrich H. von Andrian

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:45

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  31. Content type: Methodology article

    Recent developments in droplet-based microfluidics allow the transcriptional profiling of thousands of individual cells in a quantitative, highly parallel and cost-effective way. A critical, often limiting ste...

    Authors: Jonathan Alles, Nikos Karaiskos, Samantha D. Praktiknjo, Stefanie Grosswendt, Philipp Wahle, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Salah Ayoub, Luisa Schreyer, Anastasiya Boltengagen, Carmen Birchmeier, Robert Zinzen, Christine Kocks and Nikolaus Rajewsky

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:44

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Endogenous circadian oscillators distributed across the mammalian body are synchronised among themselves and with external time via a variety of signalling molecules, some of which interact with G-protein-coup...

    Authors: Helena J. Bailes, Nina Milosavljevic, Ling-Yu Zhuang, Elliot J. Gerrard, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Takeaki Ozawa and Robert J. Lucas

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:40

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  33. Content type: Commentary

    Improvements in imaging technology and the development of powerful machine learning algorithms are revolutionizing the study of animal behavior in the laboratory. These innovations promise to reveal both globa...

    Authors: Winthrop F. Gillis and Sandeep R. Datta

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:42

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The merging of genomes in inter-specific hybrids can result in novel phenotypes, including increased growth rate and biomass yield, a phenomenon known as heterosis. Heterosis is typically viewed as the opposit...

    Authors: Rebecca H. Herbst, Dana Bar-Zvi, Sharon Reikhav, Ilya Soifer, Michal Breker, Ghil Jona, Eyal Shimoni, Maya Schuldiner, Avraham A. Levy and Naama Barkai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:38

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tro...

    Authors: Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch and Sebastian Schornack

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:39

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  36. Content type: Comment

    Biological systems integrate multiscale processes and networks and are, therefore, viewed as difficult to dissect. However, because of the clear-cut separation between the software code (the information encode...

    Authors: Sophien Kamoun

    Citation: BMC Biology 2017 15:37

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