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  1. The evolution of embryological development has long been characterized by deep conservation. In animal development, the phylotypic stage in mid-embryogenesis is more conserved than either early or late stages ...

    Authors: Jialin Liu, Michael Frochaux, Vincent Gardeux, Bart Deplancke and Marc Robinson-Rechavi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:129

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Understanding the genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here, we examine the relationship between the motor neuron disease spinal m...

    Authors: Melissa B. Walsh, Eva Janzen, Emily Wingrove, Seyyedmohsen Hosseinibarkooie, Natalia Rodriguez Muela, Lance Davidow, Maria Dimitriadi, Erika M. Norabuena, Lee L. Rubin, Brunhilde Wirth and Anne C. Hart

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:127

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Plastid electron transport systems are essential not only for photosynthesis but also for dissipating excess reducing power and sinking excess electrons generated by various redox reactions. Although numerous ...

    Authors: Motoki Kayama, Jun-Feng Chen, Takashi Nakada, Yoshiki Nishimura, Toshiharu Shikanai, Tomonori Azuma, Hideaki Miyashita, Shinichi Takaichi, Yuichiro Kashiyama and Ryoma Kamikawa

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:126

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Loss or disrupted expression of the FMR1 gene causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenetic form of autism in humans. Although disruptions in sensory processing are core traits of FXS and autism, t...

    Authors: Lena Constantin, Rebecca E. Poulsen, Leandro A. Scholz, Itia A. Favre-Bulle, Michael A. Taylor, Biao Sun, Geoffrey J. Goodhill, Gilles C. Vanwalleghem and Ethan K. Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:125

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The increasing age of global populations highlights the urgent need to understand the biological underpinnings of ageing. To this end, inhibition of the insulin/insulin-like signalling (IIS) pathway can extend...

    Authors: Nathaniel S. Woodling, Arjunan Rajasingam, Lucy J. Minkley, Alberto Rizzo and Linda Partridge

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:124

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In a changing environment, a challenge for the brain is to flexibly guide adaptive behavior towards survival. Complex behavior and the underlying neural computations emerge from the structural components of th...

    Authors: Jiaqi Luo, Jessica M. Tan and Jess Nithianantharajah

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:118

    Content type: Research article

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  7. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Claude Rispe, Fabrice Legeai, Paul D. Nabity, Rosa Fernández, Arinder K. Arora, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Celeste R. Banfill, Leticia Bao, Miquel Barberà, Maryem Bouallègue, Anthony Bretaudeau, Jennifer A. Brisson, Federica Calevro, Pierre Capy, Olivier Catrice, Thomas Chertemps…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:123

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Biology 2020 18:90

  8. The initial step of a number of human or plant fungal infections requires active penetration of host tissue. For example, active penetration of intestinal epithelia by Candida albicans is critical for disseminati...

    Authors: Charles Puerner, Nino Kukhaleishvili, Darren Thomson, Sebastien Schaub, Xavier Noblin, Agnese Seminara, Martine Bassilana and Robert A. Arkowitz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:122

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. In cnidarians, antagonistic interactions with predators and prey are mediated by their venom, whose synthesis may be metabolically expensive. The potentially high cost of venom production has been hypothesized...

    Authors: Maria Y. Sachkova, Jason Macrander, Joachim M. Surm, Reuven Aharoni, Shelcie S. Menard-Harvey, Amy Klock, Whitney B. Leach, Adam M. Reitzel and Yehu Moran

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:121

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Vertebrates are characterized by possession of hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Cyclostomes, or modern jawless vertebrates, possess a rudimentary and superficial HBM lateral to the pharynx, whereas the HBM in jaw...

    Authors: Rie Kusakabe, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Masako Tanaka, Mitsutaka Kadota, Osamu Nishimura and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:120

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network maintains balanced protein synthesis, folding, transport, and degradation within a cell. Failure to maintain proteostasis is associated with aging and disease, le...

    Authors: Katherine E. Larrimore, Natalia S. Barattin-Voynova, David W. Reid and Davis T. W. Ng

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:117

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is generally accepted as a sequential process, with genetic mutations determining phenotypic tumor progression. However, matching genetic profiles with histological transiti...

    Authors: Soulafa Mamlouk, Tincy Simon, Laura Tomás, David C. Wedge, Alexander Arnold, Andrea Menne, David Horst, David Capper, Markus Morkel, David Posada, Christine Sers and Hendrik Bläker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:116

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Modification of RNAs, particularly at the terminals, is critical for various essential cell processes; for example, uridylation is implicated in tumorigenesis, proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and immune ...

    Authors: Yun Wang, Chenchun Weng, Xiangyang Chen, Xufei Zhou, Xinya Huang, Yonghong Yan and Chengming Zhu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:115

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing health problem that is projected to cause more deaths than cancer by 2050. Consequently, novel antibiotics are urgently needed. Since more than half of the avai...

    Authors: Benedict Hew, Qiao Wen Tan, William Goh, Jonathan Wei Xiong Ng and Marek Mutwil

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:114

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Studies of mammalian sexual dimorphism have traditionally involved the measurement of selected dimensions of particular skeletal elements and use of single data-analysis procedures. Consequently, such studies ...

    Authors: Norman MacLeod and Liora Kolska Horwitz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:113

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cytidine base editors (CBEs), composed of a cytidine deaminase fused to Cas9 nickase (nCas9), enable efficient C-to-T conversion in various organisms. However, current base editors can induce unwanted bystande...

    Authors: Zhiquan Liu, Siyu Chen, Huanhuan Shan, Yingqi Jia, Mao Chen, Yuning Song, Liangxue Lai and Zhanjun Li

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:111

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To successfully invade new hosts, plant viruses must break host resistance and be competent to move within and between plant cells. As a means, viral proteins known as pathogenicity determinants have evolved t...

    Authors: Ashwin Nair, Kiran Sankar Chatterjee, Vikram Jha, Ranabir Das and P. V. Shivaprasad

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:110

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Endocrine cells of the zebrafish digestive system play an important role in regulating metabolism and include pancreatic endocrine cells (PECs) clustered in the islets of Langerhans and the enteroendocrine cel...

    Authors: Arnaud Lavergne, Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Justine Pirson, Anne-Sophie Reuter, Lydie Flasse, Isabelle Manfroid, Marianne L. Voz and Bernard Peers

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:109

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Recent advances in sequencing have facilitated large-scale analyses of the metagenomic composition of different samples, including the environmental microbiome of air, water, and soil, as well as the microbiom...

    Authors: Judith Neukamm, Saskia Pfrengle, Martyna Molak, Alexander Seitz, Michael Francken, Partick Eppenberger, Charlotte Avanzi, Ella Reiter, Christian Urban, Beatrix Welte, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Barbara Teßmann, Alexander Herbig, Katerina Harvati, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:108

    Content type: Research article

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  20. When stressed, eukaryotic cells produce triacylglycerol (TAG) to store nutrients and mobilize autophagy to combat internal damage. We and others previously reported that in yeast, elimination of TAG synthesizi...

    Authors: Dan Li, Shu-Gao Yang, Cheng-Wen He, Zheng-Tan Zhang, Yongheng Liang, Hui Li, Jing Zhu, Xiong Su, Qingqiu Gong and Zhiping Xie

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:107

    Content type: Research article

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  21. A major challenge in biodiversity science is to understand the factors contributing to the variability of species richness –the number of different species in a community or region - among comparable taxonomic...

    Authors: Klemen Čandek, Urška Pristovšek Čandek and Matjaž Kuntner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:105

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Dengue virus (DENV) is estimated to infect 390 million people annually. However, few host factors that alter disease severity are known. Malnutrition, defined as both over- and undernutrition, is a growing pro...

    Authors: Christina Chuong, Tyler A. Bates, Shamima Akter, Stephen R. Werre, Tanya LeRoith and James Weger-Lucarelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:106

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Effective conservation management of highly mobile species depends upon detailed knowledge of movements of individuals across their range; yet, data are rarely available at appropriate spatiotemporal scales. F...

    Authors: Justin A. Welbergen, Jessica Meade, Hume E. Field, Daniel Edson, Lee McMichael, Luke P. Shoo, Jenny Praszczalek, Craig Smith and John M. Martin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:101

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Hundreds of millions of people get a mosquito-borne disease every year and nearly one million die. Transmission of these infections is primarily tackled through the control of mosquito vectors. The accurate qu...

    Authors: Igor Filipović, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi, Wei-Ping Tien, Muhammad Aliff Bin Abdul Razak, Caleb Lee, Cheong Huat Tan, Gregor J. Devine and Gordana Rašić

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:104

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The development of a safe, effective, reversible, non-hormonal contraceptive method for men has been an ongoing effort for the past few decades. However, despite significant progress on elucidating the functio...

    Authors: Matthew J. Robertson, Katarzyna Kent, Nathan Tharp, Kaori Nozawa, Laura Dean, Michelle Mathew, Sandra L. Grimm, Zhifeng Yu, Christine Légaré, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Masahito Ikawa, Robert Sullivan, Cristian Coarfa, Martin M. Matzuk and Thomas X. Garcia

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:103

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Patients with pelvic malignancies often receive radiosensitising chemotherapy with radiotherapy to improve survival; however, this is at the expense of increased normal tissue toxicity, particularly in elderly...

    Authors: Chee Kin Then, Salome Paillas, Xuedan Wang, Alix Hampson and Anne E. Kiltie

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:102

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. The ability of fungal cells to undergo cell-to-cell communication and anastomosis, the process of vegetative hyphal fusion, allows them to maximize their overall fitness. Previous studies in a number of fungal...

    Authors: Carolina Sardinha Francisco, Maria Manuela Zwyssig and Javier Palma-Guerrero

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:99

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) is home to proteins fulfilling numerous essential cellular processes, particularly in metabolism and mitochondrial function. All IMS proteins are nuclear encoded and...

    Authors: Lena Maria Murschall, Anne Gerhards, Thomas MacVicar, Esra Peker, Lidwina Hasberg, Stephan Wawra, Thomas Langer and Jan Riemer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:96

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Avoiding danger and accessing environmental resources are two fundamental, yet conflicting, survival instincts across species. To maintain a balance between these instincts, animals must efficiently distinguis...

    Authors: Xing Yang, Qingqing Liu, Jinling Zhong, Ru Song, Lin Zhang and Liping Wang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are mutualistic endogenous viruses inoculated by some lineages of parasitoid wasps into their hosts, where they facilitate successful wasp development. PDVs include the ichnoviruses and b...

    Authors: Fabrice Legeai, Bernardo F. Santos, Stéphanie Robin, Anthony Bretaudeau, Rebecca B. Dikow, Claire Lemaitre, Véronique Jouan, Marc Ravallec, Jean-Michel Drezen, Denis Tagu, Frédéric Baudat, Gabor Gyapay, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Bruce A. Webb, Seán G. Brady…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:89

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Although native to North America, the invasion of the aphid-like grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae across the globe altered the course of grape cultivation. For the past 150 years, viticulture relied on ...

    Authors: Claude Rispe, Fabrice Legeai, Paul D. Nabity, Rosa Fernández, Arinder K. Arora, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Celeste R. Banfill, Leticia Bao, Miquel Barberà, Maryem Bouallègue, Anthony Bretaudeau, Jennifer A. Brisson, Federica Calevro, Pierre Capy, Olivier Catrice, Thomas Chertemps…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:90

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2020 18:123

  32. The binding of HIV-1 Envelope glycoproteins (Env) to host receptor CD4 exposes vulnerable conserved epitopes within the co-receptor binding site (CoRBS) which are required for the engagement of either CCR5 or ...

    Authors: William D. Tolbert, Rebekah Sherburn, Neelakshi Gohain, Shilei Ding, Robin Flinko, Chiara Orlandi, Krishanu Ray, Andrés Finzi, George K. Lewis and Marzena Pazgier

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:91

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Understanding the mechanisms and timescales of plant pathogen outbreaks requires a detailed genome-scale analysis of their population history. The fungus Magnaporthe (Syn. Pyricularia) oryzae—the causal agent of ...

    Authors: Sergio M. Latorre, C. Sarai Reyes-Avila, Angus Malmgren, Joe Win, Sophien Kamoun and Hernán A. Burbano

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:88

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. The formation of supernumerary teeth is an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms that control stem/progenitor cell homeostasis needed to generate a renewable source of replacement cells and tis...

    Authors: Jingyi Wu, Ye Tian, Lu Han, Chao Liu, Tianyu Sun, Ling Li, Yanlei Yu, Bikash Lamichhane, Rena N. D’Souza, Sarah E. Millar, Robb Krumlauf, David M. Ornitz, Jian Q. Feng, Ophir Klein, Hu Zhao, Fuming Zhang…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:87

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Unlike most mammals, toothed whale (Odontoceti) skulls lack symmetry in the nasal and facial (nasofacial) region. This asymmetry is hypothesised to relate to echolocation, which may have evolved in the earlies...

    Authors: Ellen J. Coombs, Julien Clavel, Travis Park, Morgan Churchill and Anjali Goswami

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:86

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Efforts to improve animal health, and understand genetic bases for production, may benefit from a comprehensive analysis of animal genomes and epigenomes. Although DNA methylation has been well studied in huma...

    Authors: Yang Zhou, Shuli Liu, Yan Hu, Lingzhao Fang, Yahui Gao, Han Xia, Steven G. Schroeder, Benjamin D. Rosen, Erin E. Connor, Cong-jun Li, Ransom L. Baldwin, John B. Cole, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Liguo Yang, Li Ma and George E. Liu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:85

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Heliconius butterflies are widely distributed across the Neotropics and have evolved a stunning array of wing color patterns that mediate Müllerian mimicry and mating behavior. Their rapid radiation has been stro...

    Authors: Darli Massardo, Nicholas W. VanKuren, Sumitha Nallu, Renato R. Ramos, Pedro G. Ribeiro, Karina L. Silva-Brandão, Marcelo M. Brandão, Marília B. Lion, André V. L. Freitas, Márcio Z. Cardoso and Marcus R. Kronforst

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:84

    Content type: Research article

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  38. mTOR signaling is an essential nutrient and energetic sensing pathway. Here we describe AIMTOR, a sensitive genetically encoded BRET (Bioluminescent Resonance Energy Transfer) biosensor to study mTOR activity ...

    Authors: Nathalie Bouquier, Enora Moutin, Lionel A. Tintignac, Amandine Reverbel, Elodie Jublanc, Michael Sinnreich, Yan Chastagnier, Julien Averous, Pierre Fafournoux, Chiara Verpelli, Tobias Boeckers, Gilles Carnac, Julie Perroy and Vincent Ollendorff

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:81

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Lack of comprehensive functional annotations across a wide range of tissues and cell types severely hinders the biological interpretations of phenotypic variation, adaptive evolution, and domestication in live...

    Authors: Shuli Liu, Ying Yu, Shengli Zhang, John B. Cole, Albert Tenesa, Ting Wang, Tara G. McDaneld, Li Ma, George E. Liu and Lingzhao Fang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:80

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Luminescent reporter proteins are vital tools for visualizing cells and cellular activity. Among the current toolbox of bioluminescent systems, only bacterial luciferase has genetically defined luciferase and ...

    Authors: Michael Conway, Tingting Xu, Andrew Kirkpatrick, Steven Ripp, Gary Sayler and Dan Close

    Citation: BMC Biology 2020 18:79

    Content type: Methodology article

    Published on:

Announcement: COVID-19 and impact on peer review

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.